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sures are therefore seldom adopted from previous wisdom, but forced by the occasion.

The governor of Pennsylvania, in sending it down to the assembly, expressed his approbation of the plan “as appearing to him to be drawn up with great clearness and strength of judgment, and therefore recommended it as well worthy their closest and most serious attention.” The house, however, by the management of a certain member, took it up when I happened to be absent, (which I thought not very fair,) and reprobated it without paying any attention to it at all, to my no small mortification.

In my journey to Boston this year, I met at New York with our new governor, Mr. Morris, just arrived there from England, with whoin I had been before intiinately acquainted. He brought a commission to supersede Mr. Hamilton, who, tired with the disputes his proprietary instructions subjected him to, had resigned. Mr. Morris asked me if I thought he must expect as uncomfortable an administration. I said, “No, you may on the contrary have a very comfortable one, if you will only take care not to enter into any dispute with the assembly:" “ my dear friend," said he pleasantly, how can you advise my avoiding disputes? You know I love disputing, it is one of my greatest pleasures; however, to shew the regard I have for your counsel, I promise you I will, if possible, avoid them.” He had some reason for loving to dispute, being eloquent, an acute sophister, and therefore generally successful in argumentative conversation. He had been brought up to it from a boy, his father, as I have heard, accustoming his children to dispute with one another for his diversion, while sitting at table after dinner; but I think the practice was not wise, for in the course of my observation, those disputing, contradicting, and confuting people, are generally unfortunate in their affairs. They get victory sometimes, but they never get good will, which would be of more use to them. We parted, he going to Philadelphia, and I to Boston. In returning I met at New York with the votes of the assembly of Pennsylvania, by which it appeared, that notwithstanding his promise to me, he and the house were already in high contention; and it was a continual battle between them, as long as he retained the government. I had my share of it, for as soon as I got back to my seat in the assembly, I was put on every committee for answering his speeches and messages, and by the committees always desired to make the draughts. Our answers as well as his messages, were often tart, and sometimes indecently abusive: and as he knew I wrote for the assembly, one might have imagined that when we met we could hardly avoid cutting throats. But he was so good-natured a man, that no personal difference between him and me, was occasioned by the contest, and we often dined together. One afternoon, in the height of this public quarrel, we met in the street; « Franklin," said be, - you must go home with me and spend the evening, I am to have some company that you will like;" and taking me by the arm led me to his house. In gay conversation over our wine, after supper, he told us jokingly that he much admired the idea of Sancho Panza, who, when it was proposed to give bim a government, requested it might be a government of blacks; as then, if he could not agree with his people, he might sell them. One of his friends, who sat next me, said, “ Franklin, why do you continue to side with those damned Quakers ? had you not better sell them? the proprictor would give you a good price." « The governor," said I, “ has not yet blacked them enough." -He indeed had labored hard to blacken the assembly in all his messages, but they wiped off his coloring as fast as he laid it on, and placed it in return thick upon bis own face; so that finding he was likely to be negrofied himself, he, as well as Mr. Hamilton, grew tired of the contest, and quitted the government.

These public quarrels were all at bottom owing to the proprietaries, our hereditary governors; who when any expense was to be incurred for the defence of their province, with incredible meanness, instructed their deputies to pass no act for levying the necessary taxes, unless their vast estates were


in the same act expressly exonerated; and they had even taken the bonds of these deputies to observe such instructions. The asseinblies for three years held out against this injustice, though constrained to bend at last. At length captain Denny, who was governor Morris's successor, ventured to disobey those instructions; how that was brought about I shall shew hereafter.

But I am got forward too fast with my story: there are still some transactions to be mentioned, that happened during the administration of governor Morris.

War being in a manner commenced with France, the government of Massachusetts Bay projected an attack upon Crown Point, and sent Mr. Quincy to Pennsylvania, and Mr. Pownal, (afterwards governor Pownal,) to New York to solicit assistance. As I was in the assembly, knew its temper, and was Mr. Quincy's countryman, he applied to me for my influence and assistance: I dictated bis address to them, which was well received. They voted an aid of ten thousand pounds, to be laid out in provisions. But the governor refusing his assent to their bill (which included this with other sums granted for the use of the crown) unless a clause were inserted, exempting the proprietary estate from bearing any part of the tax that would be necessary; the assembly though very desirous of making their grant to New England effectual, were at a loss how to accomplish it. Mr. Quincy labored hard with the governor to obtain his assent, but he was obstinate. I then suggested a method of doing the business without the governor, by orders on the trustees of the loan office, which by law the assembly had the right of drawing. There was indeed little or no money at the time in the office, and therefore I proposed that the orders should be payable in a year, and to bear an interest of five per cent.: with these orders I supposed the provisions might easily be purcbased. The assembly with very little hesitation adopted the proposal; the orders were immediately printed, and I was one of the cornmittee directed to sign and dispose of them. The fund for paying them, was the interest of all the paper currency then extant in the province upon loan, together with the revenue arising from the excise, which being known to be more than sufficient, they obtained credit, and were not only taken in payment for the provisions, but many monied peopled who had cash lying by them, vested it in those orders, which they found advantageous, as they bore interest while upon hand, and might on any occasion be used as money. So that they were eagerly all bought up, and in a few weeks none of them were to be seen. Thus this important affair was by my means completed. Mr. Quincy returned thanks to the assembly in a handsome memorial, went home highly pleased with the success of his embassy, and ever after bore for me the most cordial and affectionate friendship.

The British government, not chusing to permit the union of the colonies, as proposed at Albany, and to trust that union with their defence, lest they should thereby grow too military, and feel their own strength; (suspicion and jealousies at this time being entertained of them;) sent over general Braddock with two regiments of regular English troops for that purpose. He landed at Alexandria in Virginia, and thence marched to Frederick-town in Maryland, where he halted for carriages. Our assembly apprehending from some information, that he had received violent prejudices against them as averse to the service, wished me to wait upon him, not as from them, but as post-master-general, under the guise of proposing to settle with him the inode of conducting with most celerity and certainty, the dispatches between him and the governors of the several provinces, with whom he must necessarily have continual correspondence; and of which they proposed to pay the expense. My son accompanied me on this journey. We found the general at Frederick-town, waiting impatiently for the return of those whom he had sent through the back parts of Maryland and Virginia to collect wagons. I staid with him several days, dined with him daily, and had full opportunities of removing his prejudices, by the information of what the assembly had before his arrival actually done, and were still willing to do, to facilitate his operations. When I was about to depart, the returns of wagons to be obtained were brought in, by which it appeared, that they amounted only to twenty-five, and not all of those were in serviceable condition. The general and all the officers were surprised, declared the expedition was then at an end, being impossible; and exclaimed aganist the ministers for ignorantly sending them into a country destitute of the means of conveying their stores, baggage, &c. not less than one hundred and fisty wagons being necessary. I happened to say, I thought it was a pity they had not been landed in Pennsylvania, as in that country almost every farmer had his wagon. The general eagerly laid hold of my words, and said, “ Then you, sir, who are a man of interest there, can probably procure them for us; and I beg you will undertake it.” I asked what terms were to be offered the owners of the wagons; and I was desired to put on paper the terms that appeared to me necessary. This I did, and they were agreed to; and a commission and instructions accordingly prepared immediately. What those terms were will appear in the advertisement I published soon as I arrived at Lancaster; which being, from the great and sudden effect it produced, a piece of some curiosity, I shall insert it at length, as follows:


Lancaster, April 26th, 1753. “Whereas, one hundred and fifty wagons, with four borses to each wagon, and fifteen hundred saddle or packhorses are -wanted for the service of his majesty's forces, now about to rendezvous at Wills's creek; and his excellency general Braddock having been pleased to empower me to contract for the bire of the same; I hereby give notice, that I shall attend for that purpose at Lancaster from this day to next Wednesday evening; and at York from next Thursday morning, till Friday evening; where I shall be ready to agree for wagons and teams, or single horses, on the following terms: viz. 1. That there shall be paid for each wagon with four good horses and a driver, fifteen shillings per diem.

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