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Fortifications.

[FEBRUARY, 1794.

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them against Algiers. He adverted to the nume- vindicate such pusillanimous measures.
rous dangers to which they were exposed by sea, pected that they were at bottom friends to Mo
at such an immense distance from their own narchy, and wished to bring it back again. He
country. It had been said by a gentleman (Mr. then proceeded to demonstrate that America
DEXTER] who, whenever he happened to be in the would lose infinitely more by the rise of insur-
wrong, had a very happy talent at making him- ance, than she would save by setting aside this
self appear to be in the right, that the inconveni- armament. He closed by once more asking, whe-
ence of seas and tempests would be no greater to ther the United States could not perform that with
the Americans than to the Algerines. But the six ships which he Queen of Portugal had per-
member had overlooked this great difference: that formed with three?
the latter, if any accident befel them which re- The Committee now rose without coming to
quired a friendly port, were not far from home; any decision.
whereas, the former had to sail 3,000 miles. A
gentleman (Mr. S. SMITH] had mentioned several

Tuesday, February 11.
harbors of France, Spain, and Portugal, to which
the American frigates might retire, if they wanted Whole House, on the bill for extending the time

The House resolved itself into a Committee of the repairs. He was not sure that they would be for transmitting the oaths of absent

owners of vesPortugal. As to France, from the measures that sels, and for the relief of Thomas Jenkins and we seem lately to pursue, it is very uncertain Sons; and, after some time spent therein, the whether she would much longer give the Ameri- Chairman reported that the Committee had had can flag a friendly reception. Gibraltar had like the said bill under consideration, and made an wise been held out as a place where the intended amendment thereto; which was twice read, and fleet might be sure of a hospitable retreat. But agreed to by the House. this, likewise, he thought very doubtful. He

Ordered, That the said bill, with the amendsidered navies altogether as very foolish things. ment, be engrossed, and read the third time toAn immense quantity of property was spread on the water for no purpose whatever

, which might presented a bill for the remission of the duties

Mr. VENABLE, from the committee appointed, have been employed by land to the best The old Government of France had been ruined arising on the tonnage of sundry French vessels in a great measure by the expenses of its navy. ed States ; which was read twice and committed.

which have taken refuge in the ports of the UnitEngland groaned under a great part of her immense load of taxes from the same cause. He

Mr. TRUMBULL, from the committee to whom was persuaded that four frigates would not even

were referred the memorials of the people called form an additional motive to make the Regency Island, in the year 1793; of the delegates from

the

Quakers, at their yearly meeting, held in Rhode of Algiers conclude a peace. He was afraid the several Societies for promoting the Abolition of Algerines would laugh at them.

Mr. S. Smith said it was a singular example of Slavery, in convention assembled at Philadelphia, integrity, in the present age, and would be the on the first day of January last;

and of the Proviwonder of posterity, that "Captain O'Brien and dence Society for abolishing the Slave Trade, made Captain Stephens never had accepted of any

of- a report; which was read, and ordered to be comfers from the Algerines. We have now been told mitted to a Committee of the Whole House on that eleven ships are taken. Some of these are

Monday next. not commanded by natives of America, and it

FORTIFICATIONS. cannot be surprising if renegadoes are found A report was read from the committee appointamong them. "Portugal, with only three ships, ed to inquire into the state of the fortifications of had blocked up the corsairs : what, then, was to the ports and harbors of the United States. hinder America from accomplishing the same end It was moved and agreed to read the report a with six ships ? Where Portugal has one ship on second time. The committee had not been able the ocean, America has ten. She is, therefore, to complete their investigation; but, in the meanten times as able as Portugal to beat the Alge- time, they recommended that the sum of rines;

and yet we are told that she cannot do it. dollars should be assigned for the security of the He had one objection to the fleet: he wished that harbor of Norfolk. the two 20-gun ships had been made to carry 36 Mr. Dayton objected to the adopting this moguns, as he fancied, from the shortness of their keels, tion without due consideration. that they would not be able to keep up with the Mr. Tracy moved that the subject should be 44-gun vessels

. He said that the Algerines had referred to a Committee of the Whole House; no place of shelter till they got home, as they which was agreed to, and the House again rewere not admitted into the harbors of any other solved itself into a Committee of the Whole on nation. He asked, who would join this country, the state of the Union. when we declared that we could do nothing? It Mr. Tracy had wished for more information. was disgraceful to Republicans to be in such He supposed that the Committee would report situation. He was sure that this defenceless state nothing but authentic facts; yet gentlemen had was contrary to the maxims of the Republics of objected to the report, as not well grounded. He all former ages. He was sorry, when he heard thought the committee right in the measure which gentlemen who called themselves Republicans, they pointed out. If we are not able to defend

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FEBRUARY, 1794.]
Fortifications.

[H. OF R. ourselves, we must give up the trade; and if the committee, add at least the ordinary excess in the interposition of Britain was a proper reason for execution, in the proportion which experience in not pushing the Algerine business, the same argu- such cases suggests. Add, also, the insurance on ment was sufficient for giving up the Western the fleet itself, which is a fair and very important frontiers, because the Indians were said to be as- item in the expense. sisted by the British. In the same way are we to

On the other side of the account, separate the give up the sea, because Britain may possibly West India trade, which is out of the Algerine assist the Algerines, as well as the Indians? Are risk, from the rest of the trade; and the trade to we not to defend ourselves ? Are we not to guard Spain, Portugal, and the more Southern parts, against the one as well as the other? Are we to which is subject to a greater, from the trade to recal our militia from the frontiers ? It is said the Northern parts of Europe, which is subject to that there is no danger on the sea-coast from the a much less, if to any risk. Algerines, and therefore we have no occasion for The return of exports for 1791, isships of war. But if we lay down our muskets, To the West Indies

6,566,489 are we in no danger from the Indians? A mem- To Spain and Portugal, &c.

2,454,397 ber has just now stated, that an English ship of To North of Europe

8,550,665 war had behaved at Norfolk with the greatest insolence. This shows how improper it is to be

$17,571,551 exposed. If we cannot defend our commerce, give it up. Why should people try to walk who can- No return of imports being at hand for the same not stand ?' Tne objectors against the armament year, take the preceding year, for which the are penny-wise and pound-foolish. He thought it amount of some branches is known, a sorry compliment to the good sense of the Unit- and call it

$20,000,000 ed States of the Congress, and the Legislature, to From the West Indies

4,000,000 say, that if we build six ships this year, we must From Spain and Portugal

930,873 never stop till we build one or two hundred. From more Southern places

1,000,000 Mr. T. complained of the perpetual allusions, in From North of Europe

15,000,000 the business of the House, to the banking and fund- Exports and imports to and from the ing systems. Gentlemen should have his very West Indies

10,566,489 humble thanks, if they would argue the question On this, the extra insurance, on account of the on its own grounds. He had for some time doubted Algerine risk, if there be any, ought to be calwhether it might not be for the advantage of Go- culated, as also on the value of the tonnage emvernment to tell people, at once, to defend them- ployed. selves, as they could expect no protection from this Exports to and from Spain and Portucountry. Upon the whole, Mr. T. was of opinion, gal

- $3,454,397 that this country was so circumstanced as to re- Deduct what will continue to go in quire the people to arm themselves; unless gen- neutral vessels. tlemen would propose some other or better remedy Deduct from balance the proportion of for repelling the injuries we sustain.

winter freights when Algerines are Mr. FitzsiMONS defended the report of the com- not out. mittee. They had gone upon good ground in pro- Calculate on the final balance only the extra posing a naval armament, and he mentioned facts insurance. to prove that they had noi gone by their own opin- Exports and imports to and from North ions. He observed that the force of Algiers was of Europe

$23,545,703 not increased since the independence of the Unit- Deduct the large proportion that will ed States, and that therefore their present opera- continue to go in neutral vessels. tions could not be viewed as more particularly Deduct from the balance the proporaimed at America than formerly. They do not tion of winter freights. want our provisions or our ships; plunder alone Calculate on the final balance only the extra is their object; general plunder.

insurance. Mr. DISON said, attempts had been made to Tonnage to and from Spain and Portureduce the present question to a pecuniary crite

- 48,698 tons. rion. This might be thought conclusive, if it could Deduct for winter voyages. be done with due accuracy. The calculations Calculate on the balance only the extra insurwhich had been made could never be satisfactory. ance on the value of the vessels. To make them so, there ought to be a full state-Tonnage to and from North of Eument of the amount the armament would cost, and rope

97,820 tons. the expense it would save in its effect on insur- Deduct for winter voyages. ance. These statements must necessarily be made Calculate on the balance only the extra insurup so much of conjecture, that they could not lead ance. to a very definite result. It might be of some use, From the sum of these extra insurances, deduct however, in preventing error, to understand the the proportion that will remain, notwithstanding true principles and grounds on which they ought the equipment of the fleet, and which will conseto be formed, and which were conceived to be the quently not be saved by the expense of it. following:

Mr. M. replied to several of the arguments of To the expense of the fleet, as estimated by the ) the gentlemen who were in favor of the resolu

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H. OF R.1

Proceedings.

[FEBRUARY, 1794. tions. He went into some minute details respect-ment, be recommitted to Mr. VENABLE, Mr. TALing trade and commerce; and, particularly, re- BOT, and Mr. Lyman. marked, that there was not any security for Por- The House again resolved itself into a Committugal's renewing the truce with Algiers after the tee of the Whole House on the report of the compresent term should expire.

mittee appointed to report whether any, and what Mr. GOODHUE.-The gentleman (Mr. Madison] | alterations or amendments are, in their opinion, last up, from Virginia, as well as most others on necessary to the act " to establish the Post Office his side of the question, have rested their chief ar- and Post Roads of the United States ;" and, after gument against the equipment proposed in the some time spent therein, the Committee rose and resolution before us, on the probability that Spain reported progress. and Portugal will, after the present war in Europe is over, find themselves under the necessity of restraining the depredations of the Algerine corsairs

THURSDAY, February 13. on our trade, from the want they will always be A petition of Thomas Walley, William Tudor, in for the productions of this country for their William Payne, and John M'Lean, of Boston, in subsistence. That they will be in want of the pro- the State of Massachusetts, was presented to the ductions of this country, and that they cannot well House, and read, praying that an additional duty do without them, is granted; but can we doubt it may be imposed on the importation of window would be good policy in Great Britain to continue glass, or such encouragement given to the manuthe Algerines in peace with Spain and Portugal, facture of the said article within the United States, and in hostility with us, in order that their ships, as to the wisdom of Congress shall seem meet, instead of ours, might be the carriers of those of

Ordered, That the said petition be referred to our articles to Spain and Portugal which are so Mr. Watts, Mr. Coir, and Mr. HINDMAN, to much wanted ? This would be increasing the whom were referred the several memorials and British carrying trade at our expense indeed. petitions of the manufacturers of paint, in the Spain and Portugal would not care what ships towns of Baltimore and Alexandria; of the dealbrought these articles, so that they had a supply. ers in oil and painters' colors; of Thomas PearIt is in vain, Mr. Chairman, that we pretend to be sall, and Elijah Pell; of Thomas Perkins and friends to the trade and navigation of this coun- Company; and of Samuel Swann ; that they do try, while we refuse to protect it. The merchants examine the matter thereof, and report the same, know it is within our ability to protect it against with their opinion thereupon, to the House; and the Algerine corsairs, and unless we attempt it

, that Mr. DEXTER, Mr. Giles, Mr. Dayton, and they will justly think themselves neglected. And Mr. Page, be added to the said committee. what will their language be ?—that you have spent The House again resolved itself into a Commitmore than a million of dollars annually, for seve-tee of the Whole House on the report of the comral years, in the protection of our frontiers, and mittee appointed to report whether any, and what now, when commerce, the source of all our reve- alterations or amendments are, in their opinion, nue, is attacked, you deny it any kind of protec- necessary to the act " to establish the Post Office tion. Surely this is so unjust and impolitic, that and Post Roads within the United States;" and, it cannot be expected they will put up with it. after some time spent therein, the Committee rose

Mr. Harrison was against the report ; and Mr. and reported progress.
MURRAY protracted the debate some minutes long- Mr. Heath, from the committee to whom

was er, by speaking against Mr. Madison. At length referred the report of the Secretary of the Treathe question was called for, when there arose in sury on the memorial of Winthrop Sargent, made favor of the report 47, against it 45.

a report; which was read, and ordered to lie on Mr. New brought in a report from the commit- the table. tee on the situation of the people from St. Domin- The order of the day for the House to resolve go. The House then adjourned.

itself into a Committee of the Whole House on the report of the Standing Committee of Elections,

in the case of the petition of Henry Latimer, comWEDNESDAY, February 12.

plaining of an undue election and return of John

Patton, the member returned to serve in this An engrossed bill for extending the time for House for the State of Delaware, being called for, transmitting the oaths of absent owners of vessels, Resolved, That the Committee of the whole and for the relief of Thomas Jenkins and Sons, House be discharged from proceeding thereon, and was read the third time and passed.

that the hearing on the trial of the said contested The House resolved itself into a Committee of election be now proceeded on in the House. the Whole House on the bill for the remission of Ordered, That the petitioner, on his prayer, be the duties arising on the tonnage of sundry French admitted to the bar of the House, to be heard in vessels, which have taken refuge in the ports of support of the allegations of his petition. the United States; and after some time spent The House then proceeded to the hearing on therein, the Chairman reported that the Commit- the trial of the said contested election ; and the tee had had the said bill under consideration, and depositions and other exhibits being partly read, made an amendment thereto; which was twice as, also, the observations in writing of the sitting read, and agreed to by the House.

member thereupon, an adjournment was called Ordered, That the said bill, with the amend- I for; whereupon,

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FEBRUARY, 1794.)

Contested Election.

[H. OF R

Ordered, That all] further proceedings on the taining this doubt, I can have none respecting the said hearing be adjourned until to-morrow. question now before us, viz : “Is the petitioner en

titled to a seat ?!—for I cannnot construe the ConFRIDAY, February 14.

stitution of the United States, or the law of DelaA petition of M'Clallen, MacGregor, and Com- ware, so rigidly, as to think that we should call pany, of Albany, in the State of New York, was ty; by which construction alone the House has

illegal the sixty-eight votes given in Sussex Counpresented to the House and read, praying that an declared Mr. Parton not entitled to a seat--on additional duty may be imposed on the importa- which alone the petitioner, Mr. LATIMER, can tion of glass, or such encouragement given to the found his claim. Had there been any violation of manufacture of the said article within the United the law, of such a nature as tended to introduce States, as to the wisdom of Congress shall seem corrupt' elections, or to diminish the right of free meet. Ordered, That the said petition be referred to to disgrace and render null any such conduct in

suffrages, I should, with pleasure, give my voice Mr. WATTS, Mr. Cort, Mr. HINDMAN, Mr. Dex- future. But here is merely an act of freemen, perTER, Mr. Giles, Mr. Dayton, and Mr. Page; that fectly compatible with their immutable, inalienthey do examine the matter thereof, and report able privileges ; not inconsistent with the law of the same, with their opinion thereupon, to the their State, but merely falling short of a provision House.

in a law, calculated, it is said, to secure to them DELAWARE CONTESTED ELECTION.

the full benefit of that inestimable privilege. I The House resumed the hearing on the trial of cannot, therefore, think, sir, that on such slight the contested election in the case of the petition of grounds, we ought to reject a member, elected HENRY LATIMER, complaining of an undue elec- by the freemen of Delaware, and duly returned ; tion and return of John Patton, the member re- but should go on, and admit to a seat in this House turned to serve in this House for the State of a person not returned, and if returned, not having Delaware; and the depositions and other exhibits a majority of votes. In the case of the Georgia in the said case being fully read, the parties re-election, I voted for the reception of the petitioner, tired from the bar.

because he incontestibly proved (to my satisfacThe House then proceeded to a decision on the tion at least) that he had a majority of legal votes, said contested election; and, after debate thereon, and that the sitting member had been returned by

Amotion was made and seconded that the means of corruption, which the State endeavored House do agree to the following resolution: to chastise and stigmatize. The Executive of that " Resolved, That John Patton is not entitled to a

State showed an anxiety to support the claim of seat in this House;"

the petitioner. In the present case, there is no

corruption proved or insinuated; no interference which was resolved in the affirmative. Another motion being then made and seconded, was founded on such construction as I have put

of the State ; and a legal return, which, I suppose, that the House do agree to the following resolu- on the Constitution of the United States and the tion:

law of Delaware. The House, in the case of the “ Resolved, That HENRY LATINER is entitled to a Georgia election, differed from my opinion, and seat in this House, as the Representative of the State established (as some gentlemen called it) a preceof Delaware :"

dent, which would keep the House clear from Mr. Page said:-) confess I doubt whether the suspicions of partiality, and which I wish now to sixty-eight freemen of Sussex ought to be de- be observed. I acknowledge, excluding a member prived of the votes which they gave, merely be- may be attended with inconvenience, but a double cause they did not vote for two persons instead of inconvenience may arise by depriving the citizens one; for I think the law, which must have been of a Representative-the man of their choice intended to secure their rights as electors, could and, at the same time, forcing on them one for not deprive them of their suffrage. The Consti- whom a majority did not vote. For these reasons tution of the United States, it is true, gives the State I shall vote against the resolutions. Legislatures a right to regulate the time, place, and

The question was then resolved in the affirmamanner of holding elections; but I cannot prevail on myself to think that the words, the manner of tive--yeas 57, nays 31, as follows: holding elections," ought to be construed to extend YEAs.—Fisher Ames, James Armstrong, John Beatto the words of the election law of the State of ty, Shearjashub Bourne, Benjamin Bourne, Lambert Delaware, so as to render the conduct

of the sixty- Coffin, Joshua Coit, Isaac Coles, Jonathan Dayton,

Cadwalader, Thomas Claiborne, David Cobb, Peleg eight freemen of Sussex a violation of that law: Henry Dearborn, George Dent, Samuel Dexter, Thomas or, if it be a violation thereof, that the violation is Fitzsimons, Dwight Foster, Ezekiel Gilbert, Nicholas of such a nature as to deprive them of a right Gilman, Henry Glenn, Benjamin Goodhue, James Gorwhich no law can abrogate; a right which should don, Andrew Gregg, Samuel Griffin, William Barry be held as sacred, and which it cannot become Grove, Thomas Hartley, William Hindman, Samuel this House to diminish in the smallest degree. Holten, John Hunter, William Irvine, John Wilkes Thinking thus, sir, I doubted of the propriety of Kittera, Amasa Learned, Richard Bland Lee, Nathaniel the vote which the House has given on the first Macon, James Madison, Francis Malbone, William question before it, viz: " that the sitting member Vans Murray, Francis Preston, Thomas Scott, Theois not entitled to a seat in this House." Enter-dore Sedgwick, John S. Sherburne, Jeremiah Smith, H. OF R.]

Post Office Bill.

[FEBRUARY, 1794.

Samuel Smith, William Smith, Thomas Sprigg, Zepha- large towns, must convey more complete informa-
niah Swift, Silas Talbot, George Thatcher, Uriah Tracy, tion than selections from them by country printers
Thomas Tredwell, Jonathan Trumbull, John E. Van in weekly papers; and that the editors of them
Allen, Philip Van Cortlandt, Peter Van Gaasbeck, Peleg not only possess more ample means of informa-
Wadsworth, Richard Winn, and Joseph Winston.
Nars.-Theodorus Bailey, Abraham Baldwin, Tho- tion was opposed, from a wish to encourage coun-

tion, but are generally better informed. The momas Blount, Thomas P. Carnes, Gabriel Christie, William J. Dawson, William Findley, William B. Giles,

try presses, whose papers, it was said, did

not lose James Gillespie, Christopher Greenup, Carter B. Harri- on a comparison with the wretched productions of son, John Heath, James Hillhouse, Matthew Locke,

the Metropolis. The Committee rose, without William Lyman, Joseph McDowell, Álexander Mebane, taking a question, and the House adjourned. William Montgomery, Andrew Moore, Anthony New, John Nicholas, Nathaniel Niles, John Page, Josiah Parker, Andrew Pickens, John Smilie, Abraham Vena

TUESDAY, February 18. ble, Francis Walker, Artemas Ward, Benjamin Wil

A message from the Senate informed the House liams, and Paine Wingate.

that the Senate have passed a bill, entitled “An Whereupon, the said HENRY LATIMER took his act in alteration of the act establishing a Mint, and seat in the House, as the member for the State of regulating the coins of the United States;" to Delaware; the oath to support the Constitution of which they desire the concurrence of this House. the United States being first administered to him Mr. Harrison, from the committee appointed, by Mr. SPEAKER, according to law.

presented a bill' for the relief of Lucy Clark;

which was read twice and committed. Monday, February 17.

Mr. VENABLE, from the committee to whom

was re-committed the bill for the remission of the The House resolved itself into a Committee of duties arising on the tonnage of sundry French the Whole House on the report of the committee vessels which have taken refuge in the ports of to whom were referred the memorials of the peo- the United States, reported an amendatory bill; ple called Quakers, at their yearly meeting, held which was received, and read the first time, and in Rhode Island, in the year 1793 ; of the delegates on motion, was read the second time, and ordered from the several Societies for promoting the Abo- to be engrossed, and read third time to-morrow. lition of Slavery, in convention assembled at Phi

The Post Office law was under discussion this ladelphia, on the first day of January last; and of day in Committee of the Whole. An amendment the Providence Society for abolishing the Slave proposing the reduction of the postage on newsTrade; and, after some time spent therein, the Chairman reported that the Committee had had der an hundred miles, to half a cent, and those

papers, viz: on those carried to any distance unthe said report under consideration, and come to carried more than an hundred to oné cent each, a resolution thereupon ; which was twice read, occasioned considerable debate; and was finally and agreed to by the House, as follows: Resolved, That a committee be appointed to

negatived, 44 to 40. A motion for further restrictprepare and bring in a bill or bills to prohibit the ling

the privilege of franking was also negatived.

The Committee rose and reported progress. fitting out of any ship or vessel in any port of the United States, either by citizens of the United States or foreigners, for the purpose of procuring

WEDNESDAY, February 19. from any kingdom or country the inhabitants of such kingdom or country, to be transported to any

An engrossed bill for the remission of the duties foreign parts or places of the world, to be sold or arising, on the tonnage of sundry French vessels disposed of as slaves.

which have taken refuge in the ports of the United Ordered, That Mr. TRUMBULL, Mr. Ward, Mr. States was read the third time and passed. Giles, Mr. Talbot, and Mr. Grove, be a com

The bill sent from the Senate, entitled “An act mittee pursuant to the said resolution.

in alteration of the act establishing a Mint, and Ordered, That the report of the committee to regulating the coins of the United States," was whom was referred the memorial of Arthur St. read twice and committed. Clair, which was made on the first day of March

A memorial of John Frederick Amelung, James last, be committed to a Committee of the Whole Labes, and Thomas Johnson, of Frederick county, House on Thursday next.

in the State of Maryland, was presented to the

House and read, praying that an additional duty POST OFFICE BILL.

may be imposed on the importation of window The Post Office business was then taken up, in and other glass, or such encouragement given to Committee of the Whole. A vast number of new the manufacture of the said article within the post roads were ordered, without opposition. The United States, as to the wisdom of Congress shall Committee then came to the consideration of that seem meet. part of the report which relates to newspapers, and Ordered, That the said memorial be referred to it was moved, that the postage of them should be Mr. Watts, Mr. Cort, Mr. Hinduan, Mr. Dex. reduced to half a cent to distances not exceeding TER, Mr. Giles, Mr. Dayton, and Mr. Page; that one hundred miles, and one cent for any greater they do examine the matter thereof, and report distance. This was advocated on the ground, that the same, with their opinion thereupon, to the newspapers from the Seat of Government, and the House.

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