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H. OF R.]
[JANUARY, 1794. made yesterday upon him in that House. It had chants possessing large capitals and an old and met him out of doors, and had gone into the world. established correspondence in the manufacturing After he had done speaking yesterday, a member countries. An apprentice of the best connexions, had risen, and held forth as a fundamental obser- and most promising abilities, would find it imposvation, that "gentlemen possessing capitals of sible, at the expiration of his indentures, to begin their own were in favor of the propositions; but business for himself upon such oppressive terms of that dealers upon credit were against them.” competition. It would be requisite to send ready When this remark was made, as he had but just money to Europe at the time of commissioning sat down from delivering his negative to the reso- the goods; that is, to pay for them six months belutions, he could not help thinking himself aimed fore they were received. This operation would at as one of those dealers upon credit. [Here the raise the price of them fifteen per cent., which member referred to rose, and solemnly declared would be a real tax. He was astonished to hear that a personal allusion to Mr. Smith had never gentlemen speak with indifference as to the adentered his mind.] Mr. S. went on to observe, vantages of mercantile credit. The State of that the whole assertion was erroneous. The Georgia was rising into prosperity with a prodimerchants of merica are men of libe senti- gious progress. And by what means was this efments-more so, he believed, than merchants of lected? By credit, certainly ; for it never could any other part of the world. They are not to be have been accomplished in any other way. He biassed by the petty motives of interest, in preju- said that we should renounce all national animosidice to the public interest of their country." The ties, and consider all mankind as one great family. gentleman whom he referred to had spoke of an Let us always go where we can sell best
. Mr. Š. alarming British influence in some of the com- closed a speech of uncommon animation, by saymercial cities of America. He had alleged that ing that the resolutions reminded him of the story merchants, by their connexion with Britain, would of the goose which laid golden eggs. Let us cut be under its influence; but there was no such her up, said the boy, and we shall get them all at thing. In this country, merchants studied the once. The ten per cent. of tonnage upon foreign Constitution, and were attached to it. In other vessels had been of great service; but the present countries, they minded only profit. As a reflec- plan was too abrupt. tion had been thrown on merchants who dealt The Committee now rose, reported progress, upon credit, he should take leave to observe that and asked leave to sit again. credit was a very good thing. As to himself, he had, before the war began, acquired, by his indus
Friday, January 17. try, as much property as placed him beyond the
A memorial of Andrew G. Fraunces, of the city necessity of credit
. By the war, he was reduced of New York, was presented to the House and to nothing. After the peace,
he again began as he read, praying to be furnished with an official copy set out at first. By the same industry and the same of the proceedings on the subject of his memorial
, he had once more acquired independence. presented the 19th ultimo, and that the House By the British buccaneers, he had lost as much, will speedily determine on the legality of his since the present war began, as the gentleman to claim for the payment of certain warrants issued whom he rose in reply, would think a tolerable by the late Board of Treasury. fortune for dividing among his sons; yet he could
Ordered, That the said memorial do lie on the still spare time from his business for the service of
table. his country: He said, that at first hearing the resolutions, he had been rather prejudiced in their recommitted the bill for completing and better
Mr. Beatty, from the committee to whom was favor. One of them was indeed a very enticing supporting the Military Establishment of the resolution, and at first view pleased him very United States, reported an amendatory bill; much. [The resolution to which Mr. S. referred which was read twice and committed. is the seventh, and runs in these words:
APPROPRIATION BILL. “Resolved, as the opinion of this Committee, That provision ought to be made for liquidating and ascer- The House went into a Committee of the taining the losses sustained by citizens of the United Whole on the Appropriation Bill, (Mr. TRUMBULL States, from the operation of particular regulations of in the Chair.). The Committee proceeded in the any country, contravening the Law of Nations, and discussion, during which, Mr. Baldwin rose rethat such losses be reimbursed in the first instance, out peatedly, for the purpose of inquiring into the exof the additional duties on the manufactures, produc-cess of various sums appropriated, for contingentions, and vessels of the nations establishing such un-cies and other purposes, above the sums heretofore lawful regulations."]
appropriated. His object was, that a committee He since opposed them, from a conviction that should be appointed to make particular inquiry they were injudicious. This gentleman and others into the reasons of these excesses, and to report. had spoken with complacency of destroying com- A motion was at length made and carried, for the mercial credit. He would again repeat his affirm-rising of the Committee. In the House, Mr. ation that credit was a good thing. To destroy it Baldwin made a motion for the appointment of would establish an aristocracy in commerce, which a special committee, to inquire into the cause of, was as bad as an aristocracy in Government. He and report on the expediency of, these excesses. explained this expression, by subjoining, that the This motion was agreed to, and a committee of dissolution of credit would confine trade to mer-five appointed.
JANUARY, 1794.] Quakers' Memorial— Algerine Affairs-Commerce with G. Britain. [H. OF R.
PETITION OF DANIEL PARKER. not, he should then move that it should be referThe House took into consideration the Report red to a select committee. The petition was of the Secretary of the Treasury on the memorial ordered to lie on the table. of Daniel Parker. The substance of the Report is, that it may be for the interest of the United
ALGERINE AFFAIRS. States to compound the debt due from the memo
The Committee of Ways and Means, appointrialist, and suggests the expediency of vesting a ed pursuant to the resolutions of the House on the power somewhere to make the composition. 'It communications from the PRESIDENT OF THE was moved that a committee should be appointed UNITED States relative to Algiers, brought in a to prepare and report a bill pursuant to the report report, which was twice read, and referred to of the Secretary of the Treasury. Some debate the Committee of the Whole House on the State ensued on this motion. It was opposed on the of the Union. score of precedent, and that it might be better for Ordered, That it be printed for the use of the the United States to lose the debt than to establish members. a precedent which might open a door to every
The report states that the Naval force for the delinquent debtor of the United States. If the protection of the trade of the United States, shall memorialist is an honest man, and has any pro- consist of four ships of forty-four guns each, 18 perty, he will throw himself on the justice and and 9 pounders, and two of 20 guns each. The humanity of his country. The conduct of the aggregate sum wanted for this purpose is estimatpetitioner, in withdrawing from his country, and ed at six hundred thousand dollars; to raise which, his consequent deportment, were reprobated. In one per cent. additional duty is proposed to be laid support of the motion, it was said that the only on imported goods now paying seven and one-half question was, whether the United States would per cent.; five per cent. additional on stone, marinsist on receiving the whole of their demand, and ble, &c.; and on all stone and earthen ware, three get nothing, or compromise their demand, and re-cents additional; on salt, per bushel, six cents adceive something. This, it was said, was not esta- ditional, per ton, on all vessels of the United States blishing a precedent; it was simply following the employed in foreign trade; and twenty-five cents custom established in all similar cases by indivi- additional, per ton, on all other vessels. duals. It was true that public bodies adopt gene
On motion of Mr. FitzsiMONS, an addition was rally a more rigid line of conduct, and perhaps made to the Committee of Ways and Means ; so with propriety in most cases; but, in the present that it now consists of a member from every State, instance, the memorialist is out of the country, who are to make another report respecting the out of the reach of the laws; he is able to pay fortifying the ports and harbors of the United something, but is not willing to be divested of all States. his property, and be still bound to discharge a
Ordered, That Mr. Gilman, Mr. Watts, Mr. balance he never can pay.
ORR, Mr. Patton, Mr. Baldwin, and Mr. Israel Mr. Nicholas proposed the following motion, Smith, be added to the committee appointed to as a substitute for the first motion, that a commit- report to this House the Naval force adequate to tee be appointed to inquire whether D. Parker & the protection of the commerce of the United Co. have any equitable or other claims to a reduc- States against the Algerine corsairs, together with tion of the balances which appear against them an estimate of the expense, and the ways and on the books of the Treasury of the United States, means for defraying the same. and report specially thereon to the House. This
CORRESPONDENCE WITH GREAT BRITAIN. motion, after some further debate, was agreed to, and a committee of three appointed.
Mr. W. Smith remarked, that in the discussion of the resolutions respecting commercial affairs,
much stress had been laid an the suggestion, that Monday, January 20.
Great Britain had not discovered any disposition
to enter into a commercial treaty with the United QUAKERS' MEMORIAL.
States, informed the House that in the corresA memorial was read from the people called pondence between the Executive of the United Quakers. The substance of this memorial is, States and the Minister of Great Britain, as printto request that Congress would pass a law to pro-ed by order of the House, it appears, that there is hibit the citizens of the United States from trans- a chasm occasioned by the omission of a letter porting slaves from the coast of Africa to the from the Secretary of State to that Minister, West India Islands. The petition was read by which letter is referred to in a subsequent letter. the SPEAKER.
Mr. Giles said, that it was very possible the Mr. Giles wished that it might be referred to a letter to which Mr. Smith referred, never had exselect committee.
isted. It was said to have been written on the 5th Mr. Bourne wished that it should lie on the of December, 1791. It was likely enough that table for a day or two. He did not, by this, mean Mr. Hammond might have mistaken a date. to oppose the principle of the memorial; but he un- Mr. Dexter said, that there was an evident derstood that another, of the same tenor, was to be chasm. A letter must have been suppressed. presented to the Senate. He therefore wished Mr. Madison thought that there was a chasm, that it might be deferred till the House could see which should be filled up, but it might do as well whether the Senate should take it up. If they did to defer the matter for a day or two, till inquiry
[JANUARY, 1794. should be made of the Secretary of State, why it A section was then proposed which provides for had been withheld ? Upon informing the Presi- a donation of two hundred acres of land to every DENT,
he would either give it up, or mention the non-commissioned officer, musician, and private of reasons why he should not.
the army, at the end of the service, provided they Mr. Bourne said, that a motion concerning pa- settle on the same. This motion, after several pers to be obtained from the Secretary of State, amendments, was agreed to. had been lying on the table since the beginning [In discussing the clauses of the bill on the Miliof last week. He wished it to be read.
tary Establishment, Mr. WadswORTH said, that Mr. Giles and Mr. Nicholas thought there the American army was dwindling to nothing, could be no use for this letter, but they would not for the want of proper officers. There was no oppose an inquiry for its production.
suitable encouragement in the service, to comThe House then agreed to a resolution pro- pensate for the toils and dangers of a military life. posed by Mr. W. Smith, the purport of which is, Many officers would resign their commissions, if that the PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES be they could only get Government to accept of them. applied to for information on the subject, and re-It would be necessary to make an augmentation quested to lay before the House the omitted letter, of their pay, or do something else to encourage or such parts as he may think proper. It was then them. There was no incitement in this war, upon moved and seconded, that the PRESIDENT be made the principles of honor, because we had been told acquainted with the resolution now adopted, that the war itself was infamous. Some proviwhich was agreed to. It was then proposed, that sion ought to be made for the widows and children a committee of three members should be appoint- of officers. Many of the widows of officers had ed to wait on him for that purpose. The motion been reduced to work with their own hands for was negatived. It was then moved and agreed, bread, while their children had been sent to school that the committee should consist of two mem- by a subscription among their neighbors. bers.
Mr. Clark, in reply, said, that there were many A Message was received from the PRESIDENT soldiers who would gladly resign. If an officer OF THE UNITED States, on the subject of the re- had twenty-seven dollars per month, and a soldier cal of the Minister of the French Republic. This but three or four, is it not proper that the GovernMessage states, that the conduct of the Minister ment should provide as well for the widows and had met with decided disapprobation, and the Go- children of soldiers, as of officers? He was convernment of France promises, that his recal shall fident that the army could find plenty of officers. be expedited without delay.
Mr. CLAIBORNE was of opinion that the widows Mr. Baldwin, from the committee appointed to and children of soldiers were as much flesh and examine the articles in which the present estimate blood as those of officers; and that the State was exceeds the appropriations and actual settlements as much obliged to the soldiers as to the officers. of preceding years, and report the causes, with The latter were better paid than the former, and their opinion of the expediency of such excess, so were more likely to leave something behind made a report; which was read, and ordered to them for the support of their families. He said lie on the table.
that we lived under a Republican Government, The SPEAKER laid before the House a Letter where all ranks of men were equally entitled to from the Secretary of the Treasury, accompany- the protection of the State. ing the copy of a Letter to him from the Commis- Mr. Smilie considered it as highly unjust that sioner of the Revenue, stating the causes which there should be so great a difference between the have delayed the report on the revenue arising pay of an officer and that of a soldier. It was from spirits distilled within the United States, and proper to support rank, but the principle was carfrom stills, required by the order of this House of ried too far. He would only ask what sort of men the second of March last; which were read, and officers were, and what soldiers were ? He knew ordered to lie on the table.
of no distinction. Why, then, should we provide
for the widows and the children of the officers, MILITARY ESTABLISHMENT.
and not for those of the soldiers, when the latter It was then moved, that the House go into a had but four dollars per month ? Committee on the bill for completing and better The fact is, said Mr. Smith, of Maryland, that supporting the Military Establishment of the your best officers have either left the army, or are United States.
daily leaving it. The General finds it necessary The bill was discussed by paragraphs. The to force them to stay. The gentleman from Virsecond section proposes, in substance, that those ginia, (Mr. CLAIBORNE,] had seen service, and who continue in service to the expiration of their was, Mr. S. believed, as a good a Republican as enlistment, shall receive thirty dollars in addition any in that House. He surely must know that to their pay, to be paid to them personally, in pro- the services of men of education could not in any portion to the time they had been in service. This part of the world, be obtained at the same rate as section, after some debate, was struck out. ihose of the inferior classes. Gentlemen might
A motion was made to strike out the last sec-speak of equality, but in practice the thing was imtion which provides that the widows and orphans possible. As to women it was well enough known of officers who die, or are killed in the service, what sort of ladies commonly followed the camp. shall be entitled to three years' half pay. This It would be absurd to place them on a level with motion, after considerable debate, was carried. the widows of officers, or to suppose that they de.
served equally the protection of the State. The out the second section, was, on the question put time would perhaps come when we should repent thereupon, agreed to by the House. The second of having intrusted the army in other hands amendment, to strike out the last section, in the than those which at present kept it together. words following, to wit:
Mr. CLAIBORNE said, that some of the officers who retired from the army were men of pleasure. pay shall be allowed to all commissioned officers who
“ And be it further enacted, That year's half He repeated his remarks upon equality.
shall serve for a term not less than three years, and Mr. Wadsworth said, that we might talk of until the Army shall be discharged :" Republican armies. and Republican principles, as long as we pleased. By the former he understood
Mr. Smith said that he hoped this clause would
not be stricken out. nothing more than an army raised by a Republic.
He had little to say, but what If good officers were not kept, it was certain the
The officers were
he had already remarked. army must go to nothing, for it was as impossible leaving the service very fast; and if something to march an army into the field without officers, end of it. No respect whatever was shown by
was not done for the Army, we shall soon see an as it was for that House to do business without a other
citizens to the American uniform. Speaker or a Chairman. He knew of many
Mr. CLARK said that certain members of the young men who were fond of going into the army House, on every question, were fond of pomposity; as officers. But time and reflection convinced Officers who could not live upon their pay, could them, for which he was very sorry, that it was not live nowhere. The back woods were not the worth while for any gentleman to spend his life in the service. The consequence was, that the place to spend much money. It was well known American army was losing, as fast as possible, its
that there was another cause of complaint which best officers.]
dispersed the officers. The Committee then rose, and reported the bill the clause. He had been informed by several
Mr. Forrest thought it necessary to keep in with amendments.
officers that want of adequate pay was a very
great objection to staying in the Army. Tuesday, January 21.
Mr. WADSWORTH said that he was glad to hear A Message was received from the PRESIDENT gentlemen speak out, and acknowledge that there OF THE UNITED States, communicating state- were other causes of dissatisfaction. None of his ments respecting the duties on distilled spirits; correspondents in the Army had told him so; but also, sundry laws which have been passed by the he believed that there were such other causes. Government Northwest of the Ohio.
As to spending money, it would be spent in the A petition of several of the late officers and pri- back woods as well as in the cities, as the officers vates of the first Pennsylvania regiment, was pre- frequently had to pay four times the common sented to the House and read, praying compensa- price for articles there. He did not believe that tion for military services rendered, and losses and we should long have three effective companies in injuries sustained, in the Army of the United the Army. He had nearly given up his hopes of States during the late war.
that Army, and the rejection of this clause would Ordered, That the said petition, together with just finish it. the petition of Catherine Myler, which lay on the
The question on striking out this clause was table, be referred to the Secretary of War, with taken by, yeas and nays, and stood—yeas 64, nays instruction to examine the same, and report his 24, as follows: opinion thereupon to the House.
YEAS.-Theodorus Bailey, Abraham Baldwin, ThoOrdered, That the memorial of the people mas Blount, Elias Boudinot, Shearjashub Bourne, Bencalled Quakers, at their yearly meeting, held in jamin Bourne, Gabriel Christie, Abraham Clark, Peleg Rhode Island, in the year 1793, which lay on the Coffin, Joshua Coit, William J. Dawson, Jonathan Daytable, be referred to Mr. TRUMBULL, Mr. Ward, ton, George Dent, Samuel Dexter, Thomas Fitzsimons, Mr. Giles, Mr. Talbot, and Mr. Grove; that Dwight Foster, William B. Giles, James Gillespie, they do examine the matter thereof, and report Nicholas Gilman, Benjamin Goodhue, James Gordon, the same, with their opinion thereupon, to the William B. Grove, Carter B. Harrison, John Heath, House.
Daniel Heister, James Hillhouse, Samuel Holten, John inquire into and report a state of facts respecting dison, Francis Malbone, Joseph McDowell, Alexander MỊ. VENABLE, from the committee appointed to Hunter, John Wilkes Kittera, Amasa Learned, Matthew
Locke, William Lyman, Nathaniel Macon, James Masundry French vessels which have taken refuge Mebane, William Montgomery, Andrew Moore, William in the ports of the United States, and their opinion Vans Murray, Joseph Neville, Anthony New, John on the propriety of remitting the foreign tonnage Nicholas, Nathaniel Niles, Josiah Parker, Andrew thereon, made a report; which was read, and or- Pickens, Francis Preston, John Smilie, Jeremiah Smith, dered to lie on the table.
Israel Smith, Zephaniah Swift, Silas Talbot, George
Thatcher, Thomas Tredwell, John E. Van Allen, Philip MILITARY ESTABLISHMENT.
Van Cortlandt, Abraham Venable, Peleg Wadsworth, The House proceeded to consider the amend- Francis Walker, Artemas Ward, Benjamin Williams, ments reported yesterday by the Committee of Paine Wingate, Richard Winn, and Joseph Winston. the Whole House to the bill for completing and Nars.-Fisher Ames, James Armstrong, John Beatbetter supporting the Military Establishment of ty, Lambert Cadwalader, David Cobb, Henry Dearborn, the United States. The first amendment, to strike Úriah Forrest, Ezekiel Gilbert, Henry Glenn, Thomas H. of. R.]
Commerce of the United States.
Hartley, William Hindman, William Irvine, Richard
Wednesday, January 22. Bland Lee, Peter Muhlenberg, Thomas Scott, John S.
An engrossed bill for completing and better supSherburne, Samuel Smith, William Smith, Thomas porting the Military Establishment of the United Sprigg, Uriah Tracy, Jonathan Trumbull
, Peter Van States, was read the third time. Gaasbeck, Jeremiah Wadsworth, and John Watts.
Ordered, That the said bill be recommitted to The other amendment, reported by the Com- Mr. Beatty, Mr. Irvine, Mr. JEREMIAH Wadsmittee of the Whole House, was further amended, WORTH, Mr. DEARBORN, and Mr. Van GAASBECK. and, on the question put thereupon, agreed to by Mr. Giles, from the committee appointed, prethe House.
sented a bill to establish an uniform system of The House then proceeded further to amend bankruptcy throughout the United States; which the said bill; and, on a motion made and seconded was read twice and committed. to add to the end thereof the following section, by A petition of the manufacturers of paint, in the way of amendment, to wit:
towns of Baltimore and Alexandria, was presented “ And be it further enacted, That, if any officer shall to the House and read, praying that the duties die, by reason of wounds or otherwise, while in the ser- imposed on dry paints imported into the United vice of the United States, and shall leave a widow, or, States, may be taken off, and equivalent duties if no widow, shall leave a child or children under age, laid on foreign paints ground in oil. Also, a petisuch widow, or, if no widow, such child or children, tion of the dealers in oil and painters' colors, prayshall be entitled to and receive the half of the monthly, ing that the duties on dry paints may be so repay to which the deceased was entitled, at the time of duced as to afford encouragement for grinding his death, for and during the term of years; and, them within the United States. in case of the death or intermarriage of such widow,
Ordered, That the said petitions do lie on the before the expiration of the said term of
table. half-pay, for the remainder of the term, shall go to the support of the child or children of such deceased officer, from the Secretary of State, enclosing the copy of
The SPEAKER laid before the House a Letter while under the age of sixteen years; and in like manner the allowance to the child or children of such de- a Letter from Mr. Jefferson to Mr. Hammond, ceased, where there is no widow, shall be paid no longer dated December 5, 1791, transmitted pursuant to than while there is a child or children under the age a resolution of this House of the 20th instant; aforesaid : Provided, That no greater sum shall be al- which was read, and ordered to lie on the table. lowed, in any case, to the widow, or to the child or
The SPEAKER laid before the House a Letter children of any officer, than the half-pay of a Lieutenant from the Secretary of War, communicating furColonel:"
ther information from James Seagrove, Agent of It was resolved in the affirmative-yeas 54, Indian Affairs in the Southern Department, relanays 32, as follows:
tive to a peace with the Creek Indians; which YEAs.-Fisher Ames, James Armstrong, Elias Bou-were read, and ordered to lie on the table. dinot, Benjamin Bourne, Lambert Cadwalader, Joshua COMMERCE OF THE UNITED STATES. Coit, Isaac Coles, William J. Dawson, Jonathan Dayton, Henry Dearborn, George Dent, Samuel Dexter, mittee of the Whole House on the Report of the
The House again resolved itself into a ComWilliam Findley, Thomas Fitzsimons, Uriah Forrest, Secretary of State on the privileges and restricEzekiel Gilbert, William B. Giles, James Gillespie, tions on the commerce of United States in foreiga Henry Glenn, James Gordon, Christopher Greenup, Samuel Griffin, Carter B. Harrison, Thomas Hartley,
countries. John Heath, William Hindman, John Hunter, William
Mr. Dayton said, that if he had before been Irvine, Amasa Learned, Richard Bland Lee, William disposed to enter into the extensive field of arguLyman, James Madison, Francis Malbone, William ment which was opened to their view, by a resoluMontgomery, Peter Muhlenberg, William Vans Mur- tion vague and extensive as the one immediately ray, Joseph Neville, John Nicholas, Andrew Pickins, under consideration of the Committee, he should Francis Preston, Robert Rutherford, Thomas Scott, Sa- be deterred from it by the example of gentlemen muel Smith, William Smith, Thomas Sprigg, Zepha- who had gone before him. They seemed to him niah Swift, Silas Talbot, Uriah Tracy, Jonathan Trum- to have wandered without any sure guide, or disbull, John E. Van Allen, Jeremiah Wadsworth, John tinct object; and, like persons who travel in a cirWatts, Richard Winn, and Joseph Winston.
cle, to have sat down after having bewildered or Nays.—Theodorus Bailey, Abraham Baldwin, John fatigued themselves in the attempt, without arrivBeatty, Thomas Blount, Thomas P. Carnes, Gabriel ing at the end of their pursuit. This, Mr. D.conChristie, Thomas Claiborne, Abraham Clark, Peleg ceived was almost unavoidable, from the loose and Coffin, Dwight Foster, Andrew Gregg, Daniel Heister, general wording of the proposition. He was not, James Hillhouse, Samuel Holten, Mathew Locke, Na- he said, so fortunate as to be present when the thaniel Macon, Joseph McDowell, Alexander Mebane, mover of those resolutions had favored the ComAndrew Moore, Nathaniel Niles, Alexander D. Orr, Jo- mittee with his arguments in support of them; he siah Parker, John Smilie
, Israel Smith, Thomas Tred- might, therefore, he presumed, be indulged in inwell
, Philip Van Cortlandt, Abraham Venable, Peleg quiring, what was the real purpose of the one Wadsworth, Francis Walker, Artemas Ward, Benjamin under discussion ; what commercial or political Williams, and Paine Wingate.
doctrine it contained; what principle in legislaOrdered, That the said bill, with the amend- tion it was intended to establish ? He wished to ments, be engrossed, and read the third time to know whether it was regarded as a distinct propo
sition, or considered as necessarily connected with,