Imágenes de páginas

Pompey, which was supposed to have been sprinkled with the blood of the original dictator. The nine foot hero was therefore removed to the arena of the amphitheatre, and to facilitate its transport suffered the temporary amputation of its right arm. The republican tragedians had to plead that the arm was a restoration: but their accusers do not believe that the integrity of the statue would have protected it. The love of finding every coincidence has discovered the true Cæsarian ichor in a stain near the right knee; but colder criticism has rejected not only the blood but the por. trait, and assigned the globe of power rather to the first of the emperors than to the last of the republican masters of Rome. Winkelmann * is loth to allow an heroic statue of a Roman citizen, but the Grimani Agrippa, a cotemporary almost, is heroic; and naked Roman figures were only very rare, not absolutely forbidden. 'The face accords much better with the hominem integrum et castum et gravem t," than with any of the busts of Augustus, and is too stern for him who was beautiful, says Suetonius, at all periods of his life. The pretended likeness to Alexander the Great cannot be discerned, but the traits resemble the medal of Pompey $. The objectionable globe may not have been an ill applied flattery to him who found Asia Minor the bound. ary, and left it the centre of the Roman empire. It seems that Winkelmann has made a mistake in thinking that no proof of the identity of this statue, with that which received the bloody sacrifice, can be derived from the spot where it was discovered . Flaminius Vacca says sotto una cantina, and this cantina is known to have been in the Vicolo de' Leutari near the Cancellaria, a position corresponding exactly to that of the Janus before the basilica of Pompey's theatre, to which Augustus transferred the statue after the curia was either burntor taken downl. Part of the Pompeian

Storia delle Arti, &c. lib. ix. cap. 1. pag. 321, 322. tom. ii. † Cicer. Epist. ad Atticum, xi. 6. # Published by Causeus in his Museum Romanum. $ Storia delle Arti, &c. Ibid. li Sueton. in vit. August. cap. 31, and in vit. C. J. Cæsar. cap. 88. Appian says it was burnt down. See a note of Pitiscus to Suetonius, pag. 224.

shade*, the portico, existed in the beginning of the XVth century, and the atrium was still called Satrum. So says Blondus f. At all events, so imposing is the stern majesty of the statue, and so memorable is the story, that the play of the imagination leaves no room for the exercise of the judgment, and the fiction, if a fiction it is, operates on the spectator with an effect not less powerful than truth.

And thou, the thunder-stricken nurse of Rome!

Stanza lxxxviii. line l. Ancient Rome, like modern Sienna, abounded most probably with images of the foster-mother of her founder : but there were two she-wolves of whom history makes particular mention. One of these, of brass in ancient work, was seen by Dionysius f at the temple of Romulus, under the Palatine, and is universally believed to be that mentioned hy the Latin historian, as having been made from the money collected by a fine on usurers, and as standing under the Ruminal figtree g. The other was that which Cicero || has celebrated both in prose and verse, and which the historian Dion also records as having suffered the same accident as is alluded to

*"Tu modo Pompeia lenta spatiare sub umbra.”

Ovid. Ar. Aman. +Roma instaurata, lib. ii. fo. 31. + Χάλκεα ποιήματα παλαιάς εργασίας. Αntig. Rom. lib. l.

$“ Ad ficum Ruminalem simulacra infantium conditorum urbis sub uberibus lupæ posuerunt.” Liv. Hist. lib. x. cap. lxix. This was in the year U.C. 455, or 457.

11 “ Tum statua Nattæ, tum simulacra Deorum, Romulusque et Remus cum altrice bellua vi fulminis ictis conciderunt.” De Divinat. ii. 20. “ Tactus est ille etiam qui hanc urbem condidit Romulus, quem inauratum in Capitolio parvum atque lactantem, uberibus lupinis inhiantem fuisse meministis." 'In Catilin. iii. 8.

“ Hic silvestris erat Romani nominis altrix

Martia, quæ parvos Mavortis semine natos
Uberibus gravidis vitali rore rigebat
Quæ tum cum pueris flammato fulminis ictu
Čoncidit, atque avulsa pedum vestigia liquat."

De Consulatu, lib. ii. (lib. i. de Divinat. cap. ii.)

by the orator*. The question agitated by the antiquaries is, whether the wolf now in the conservators' palace is that of Livy and Dionysius, or that of Cicero, or whether it is neither one nor the other. The earlier writers differ as much as the moderns : Lucius Faunust says, that it is the one alluded to by both, which is impossible, and also by Virgil, which may be. Fulvius Ursinus $ calls it the wolf of Dio- · nysius, and Marlianus & talks of it as the one mentioned by Cicero. To him Rycquius tremblingly assents. Nardini is

'Εν γάρ τα καπητολια ανδριάντες τε πολλοί υπό κεραυνών συνεχωνεύθησαν, και αγάλματα άλλα τε, και διος επί κίονος ιδρυμένον, εικών τε τις λυκάινης συν τε τω Ρώμη και συν τω Ρωμύλη ιδρυμένη έπεση. Dion. Hist. lib. xxxvii. pag. 37. edit. Rob. Steph. 1548. He goes on to mention that the letters of the columns on which the laws were written were liquefied and become ayudpå. All that the Roinans did was to erect a large statue to Jupiter, looking towards the east: no mention is afterwards made of the wolf. This happened in A.U.C.689. The Abate Fea, in noticing this passage of Dion (Storia delle Arti, &c. tom. i. pag. 202. note x.) says, Non ostante, aggiunge Dione, che fosse ben fermata (the wolf), by which it is clear the Abate translated the Xylandro-Leunclavian version, which puts quamvis stabilita for the original idqupeévn, a word that does not mean ben fermata, but only raised, as may be distinctly seen from another passage of the same Dion: 'Hβουλήθη μεν ούν δ'Αγρίππας και τον Αύγουστον ενταύθα idqúous. Hist. lib. lvi. Dion says that Agrippa “wished to raise a statue of Augustus in the Pantheon."

+ " In eadem porticu ænea lupa, cujus uberibus Romulus ac Remus lactantes inhiant, conspicitur: de hac Cicero et Virgilius semper intellexere. Livius hoc signum ab Ædilibus ex pecuniis quibus mulctati essent fæneratores, positum innuit. Antea in Comitiis ad Ficum Ruminalem, quo loco pueri fuerant expositi locatum pro certo est.” Luc. Fauni de Antiq. Urb. Rom. lib. ii. cap. vii. ap. Sallengre, tom. i. p. 217. In his XVIIth chapter he repeats that the statues were there, but not that they were found there. # Ap. Nardini Roma Vetus, lib. v. cap. iv.

. cap. ix. He mentions another wolf and twins in the Vatican. lib. v. cap. xxi.

Il “ Non desunt qui hanc ipsam esse putent, quam adpinximus, quæ è comitio in Basilicam Lateranam, cum nonnullis aliis antiquitatum reliquiis, atque hinc in Capitolium postea relata sit, quamvis Marlianus antiquam Capitolinam esse maluit inclined to suppose it may be one of the many wolves preserved in ancient Rome; but of the two rather bends to the Ciceronian statue*. Montfaucon t mentions it as a point without doubt. of the latter writers the decisive Winkel mann † proclaims it as having been found at the church of Saint Theodore, where, or near where, was the temple of Romulus, and consequently makes it the wolf of Dionysius. His authority is Lucius Faunus, who, however, only says that it was placed, not found, at the Ficus Ruminalis, by the Comitium, by which he does not seem to allude to the church of Saint Theodore. Rycquius was the first to make the mistake, and Winkelmann followed Rycquius.

Flaminius Vacca tells quite a different story, and says he had heard the wolf with the twins was found § near the arch of Septimius Severus. The commentator on Winkelmann is of the same opinion with that learned person, and is in. censed at Nardini for not having remarked that Cicero, in speaking of the wolf struck with lightning in the Capitol, makes use of the past tense. But, with the Abate's leave, Nardini does not positively assert the statue to be that mentioned by Cicero, and, if he had, the assumption would not perhaps have been so exceedingly indiscreet. The Abate himself is obliged to own that there are marks very like the scathing of lightning in the hinder legs of the present wolf; and, to get rid of this, adds, that the wolf seen by Dionysius

à Tullio descriptam, cui ut in re nimis dubia, trepidè adsentimur.” Just. Rýcquii de Capit. Roman. Comm. cap. xxiv. pag. 250. edit. Lugd. Bat. 1696.

p. 174.

* Nardini Roma Vetus, lib. v. cap. iv.

+ "Lupa hodieque in capitolinis prostat ædibus, cum vestigio fulminis quo ictam narrat Cicero.Diarium Italic. tom. i.

Storia delle Arti, &c. lib. iii. cap. iii. & ii. note 10. Winkelmann has made a strange blunder in the note, by saying the Ciceronian wolf was not in the Capitol, and that Dion was wrong in saying so.

$ " Intesi dire, che l'Ercolo di bronzo, che oggi si trova nella sala di Campidoglio, fu trovato nel foro Romano appresso l'arco di Settimio: e vi fu trovata anche la lupa di bronzo che allata Roi e Remo, e stà nella gia de conservatori.” Flam. Vacca, Memorie, num. iii. pag. 1. ap. Montfaucon, Diar. Ital. tom. i.

might have been also struck by lightning, or otherwise injured,

Let us examine the subject by a reference to the words of Cicero. The orator in two places seems to particularize the Romulus and the Remus, especially the first, which his audience remembered to have been in the Capitol, as being struck with lightning. In his verses he records that the twins and wolf both fell, and that the latter left behind the marks of her feet. Cicero does not say that the wolf was consumed : and Dion only mentions that it fell down, without alluding, as the Abate has made him, to the force of the blow, or the firmness with which it had been fixed. The whole strength, therefore, of the Abate's argument hangs upon the past tense; which, however, may be somewhat diminished by remarking that the phrase only shows that the statue was not then standing in its former position. Winkelmann has observed, that the present twins are modern; and it is equally clear that there are marks of gilding on the wolf, which might therefore be supposed to make part of the ancient group. It is known that the sacred images of the Capitol were not destroyed when injured by time or accident, but were put into certain under-ground depositaries called favissæ*. It may be thought possible that the wolf had been so deposited, and had been replaced in some conspicuous situation when the Capitol was rebuilt by Vesa pasian. Rycquius, without mentioning his authority, tells that it was transferred from the Comitium to the Lateran, and thence brought to the Capitol. If it was found near the arch of Severus, it may have been one of the images which Orosiust says was thrown down in the Forum by lightning when Alaric took the city. That it is of very high antiquity the workmanship is a decisive proof; and that circumstance induced Winkelmann to believe it the wolf of Dionysius. The Capitoline wolf, however, may have been of the same early date as that at the temple of Romulus. Lactantius $

* Luc. Faun. ibid.

† See note to stanza LXXX. in Historical Illustrations. .# "Romuli nutrix Lupa honoribus est affecta divinis, et fera rem si animal ipsum fuisset, cujus figuram gerit.” Lactant, de Falsa Religione, lib. 1. cap. 20. pag. 101, edit. varior. 1660 i

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