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neglected. It may be doubted if an English boy at that age knows the difference of the Divan from a College of Dervises ; but I am very sure a Spaniard does not. How little Mahmout, surrounded, as he had been, entirely by his Turkish tutors, had learned that there was such a thing as a Parliament it were useless to conjecture, unless we suppose that his instructors did not confine his studies to the Koran.
In all the mosques there are schools established, which are very regularly attended; and the poor are taught without the church of Turkey being put into peril. I believe the system is not yet printed (though there is such a thing as a Turkish press, and books printed on the late military institution of the Nizam Gedidd); nor have I heard whether the Mufti and the Mollas have subscribed, or the Caimacam and the Tefterdar taken the alarm, for fear the ingenuous youth of the turban should be taught not to “pray to God their way.” The Greeks also-a kind of Eastern Irish papists - have a college of their own at Maynooth-no, at Haivali; where the heterodox receive much the same kind of countenance from the Ottoman as the Catholic college from the English legislature. Who shall then affirm that the Turks are ignorant bigots, when they thus evince the exact proportion of Christian charity which is tolerated in the most prosperous and orthodox of all possible kingdoms? But, though they allow all this, they will not suffer the Greeks to participate in their privileges: no, let them fight their battles, and pay their haratch (taxes), be drubbed in this world, and damned in the next. And shall we then emancipate our Irish Helots? Mahomet forbid ! We should then be bad Mussulmans, and worse Christians; at present we unite the best of both-jesuitical faith, and something not much inferior to Turkish toleration.
AMONGST an enslaved people, obliged to have recourse to foreign presses even for their books of religion, it is less to be wondered at that we find so few publications on general subjects than that we find any at all. The whole number of the Greeks, scattered up and down the Turkish empire and elsewhere, may amount, at most, to three millions; and yet, for so scanty a number, it is impossible to discover any nation with so great a proportion of books and their authors, as the Greeks of the present century. “ Ay,” but say the generous advocates of oppression, who, while they assert the ignorance of the Greeks, wish to prevent them from dispelling it, “ay, but these are mostly, if not all, ecclesiastical tracts, and consequently good for nothing." Well, and pray what else can they write about? It is pleasant enough to hear a Frank, particularly an Englishman, who may abuse the go. vernment of his own country; or a Frenchman, who may abuse every government except his own, and who may range at will over every philosophical, religious, scientific, sceptical, or moral subject, sneering at the Greek legends. A Greek must not write on politics, and cannot touch on science for want of instruction; if he doubts, he is excommunicated and damned; therefore his countrymen are not poisoned with modern philosophy; and as to morals, thanks to the Turks! there are no such things. What then is left him, if he has a turn for scribbling? Religion, and holy biography: and it is natural enough that those who have so little in this life should look to the next. It is no great wonder then that in a catalogue now before me of fifty-five Greek writers, many of whom were lately living, not above fifteen should have touched on any thing but religion. The catalogue alluded to is contained in the twenty-sixth chapter of the fourth volume of Meletius's Ecclesiastical History, From this I subjoin an extract of those who have written on general subjects; which will be followed by some specimens of the Romaic.
LIST OF ROMAIC AUTHORS*.
Neophitus, Diakonos (the deacon) of the Morea, has published an extensive grammar, and also some political regula. tions, which last were left unfinished at his death.
Prokopius, of Moscopolis (a town in Epirus), has written and published a catalogue of the learned Greeks.
Seraphin, of Periclea, is the author of many works in the Turkish language, but Greek character; for the Christians of Caramania who do not speak Romaic, but read the character.
Kustathius Psalidas, of Bucharest, a physician, made the tour of England for the purpose of study (zágon palhoews): but though his name is enumerated, it is not stated that he has written any thing.
Kallinikus Torgeraus, Patriarch of Constantinople: many poems of his are extant, and also prose tracts, and a catalogue of patriarchs since the last taking of Constantinople.
Anastasius Macedon, of Naxos, member of the royal academy of Warsaw. A church biographer.
Demetrius Pamperes, a Moscopolite, has written many works, particularly “A Commentary on Hesiod's Shield of Hercules,” and two hundred tales (of what is not specified), and has published his correspondence with the celebrated George of Trebizond, his cotemporary.
Meletius, a celebrated geographer; and author of the book from whence these notices are taken.
Dorotheus, of Mitylene, an Aristotelian philosopher: his Hellenic works are in great repute, and he is esteemed by the moderns (I quote the words of Meletius) petà còn Θουκυδίδης και Ξενοφώντα άριστος Ελλήνων. I add further, on the authority of a well-informed Greek, that he was so famous amongst his countrymen, that they were ac. customed to say, if Thucydides and Xenophon were wanting, he was capable of repairing the loss.
* It is to be observed that the names given are not in Onological order, but consist of some selected at a venture from ainongst those who flourished from the taking of Constantinople to the time of Meletius.
Marinus Count Tharboures, of Cephalonia, professor of chemistry in the academy of Padua, and member of that academy, and those of Stockholm and Upsal. He has published, at Venice, an account of some marine animal, and a treatise on the properties of iron.
Marcus, brother to the former, famous in mechanics. He removed to St. Petersburg the immense rock on which the statue of Peter the Great was fixed in 1769. See the dissertation which he published in Paris, 1777.
George Constantine has published a four-tongued lexicon.
There exist several other dictionaries in Latin and Romaic, French, &c. besides grammars, in every modern language, except English.
Amongst the living authors the following are most celebrated *:
Athanasius Parios has written a treatise on rhetoric in Hellenic.
Christodoulos, an Acarnanian, has published, in Vienna, some physical treatises in Hellenic.
Panagiotes Kodrikas, an Athenian, the Romaic translator of Fontenelle's “ Plurality of Worlds” (a favourite work amongst the Greeks), is stated to be a teacher of the Hellenic and Arabic languages in Paris; in both of which he is an adept.
Athanasius, the Parian, author of a treatise on rhetoric.
Vicenzo Damodos, of Cephalonia, has written “sis tò Medobógécegov, " on logic and physics.
John Kamarases, a Byzantine, has translated into French Ocellus on the Universe. He is said to be an excellent Hellepist, and Latin scholar.
Gregorio Demetrius published, in Vienna, a geographical work: he has also translated several Italian authors, and printed his versions at Venice.
Of Coray and Psalida some account has been already given.
* These names are not taken from any publication.