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coming downe into his Tennis Court, thinking to find the poor soldiour there, he brought in his bosom a wedge of golde, of ten pound weight to giue unto hin with his owne hands : and not finding hin there at that instant, he chaunced to make a match at play, and without putting off his coate, he played his match, because he would not that any should see the wedge o gold which was in his bosom. The play continued the


of three houres, and then came the soldiour for whome the golde was brought, the which he delyuered unto him secretly, saying: that he had rather haue giuen him three times as much, then to suffer the paynes, which he had taken in his long tarrying: with many other lyke exainples, which might at length be spoken of.”

“ So that alwayes the Marquesse almes and giftes were distributed by his owne handes, and with as much secresie as might be, yea, and alwayes procured the receyuers to keepe silence: and for this consideration, Don Diego was held to be more liberall, for although he gaue largely, yet he had a forme how it should seene much more than it was: notwithstanding, touching this vertue of magnificence, they may justly be called equall. The Marquesse also was wont to say, that considering the company of aduenture and fellowship made betweene them, that neither of the could give any thing wherein the other had not his part and therefore as lyberall was he, which permitted the other to give: and for comprobation this shall seme-That where they were bothe the richest men, both in rent and treasure, and as lyberally might dispend the same, as any Prince in the world, not hauing a kingely crowne: yet they came bothe to death with great pouertie : that at ibis day there is not any remembrance of any thing proper, which was theyrs; sauing, that of all theyr goods and lands, they had not wherewithal to burie them : as the lyke is writien of Cato. and Silla and of many other Romane Captaynes, which were buried of almes.'

“ These two valiant Captaines, were affectioned to doo for theyr seruants and souldiours, bothe to enritch them, and to deliver them from peryls. But the Marquesse dyd rather in that respect exceed; for once it happened, passing the River called Barzanca, that the great Currant carried away one of his Indians of seruice, which by mishap was fallen therein; and when the Marquesse sawe the peryl of his seruaunt, he forthwith stripped himselfe, and leapt into the Riuer, hauing good skill of swimming, and pluckt him out by the haire of his head: putting himself in great daunger, through the extreame force of the Currant, in such sort that the valiantest man in all his host, durst not take the lyke enterprize in hande: whereupon some of his Captaines dyd reprehend his ouer much boldnesse, vnto whome he aunswered, Ye know not what thing it is to loue a seruant well."

Although the Marquesse gouerned long time, and more quietly: yet Don Diego was more ambitious, and desirous of rule and dignitie. Bothe of them concerued antiquitie, in thyre ordinarie apparell, euen from their youth upwardes, especially the Marquesse, who euer used to wear ordinarily a Coate of black cloth, with long quarters, and short wasted, his shoes of a white Deere skin, and a white felt hat, and his Sworde and Dagger of ancient facion. And when through the importunate request of his seruants, vpon any solemne holy day, he happened to weare a Gowne furred with Martins, which the Lord Marquesse Cortes had sent to him from New Spaine: as soone as he came from Church, he would throw it from him, and vsed to haue a towell about his necke. In the tyme of Peace, he vsed much to play at Tennis, or at Bowles, and therefore cheeflie he vsed the Towell about his necke, to wype the sweate from his face."

“Bothe these Captaynes were most patient in paynestaking, and also in any extremitie of hunger : But particularly the Marquesse shewed the same in the exercise of the sayde pastimes, for there were very fewe young men that could endure with him. He was also more inclyned to any kinds of pastime than Don Diego, so that many tymes he would play at the Bowles all the whole day, and passed not with whom he played, although it were eyther Marriner or Myller, nor yet would permitte any to take up his Bowle for him, nor to use towarde him any vsuall ceremonies of duety, accustomed to his Estate and dignitie. It was some waighty matter that should cause him to leaue from play, especially when he was a looser. But if at any tyme he had advertisement of rebellion, or insurrection of Indians, then forthwith his Armor was at hand, and Launce in readinesse, he vsed in such extremities, to ryde poste alone through the Cittie, towarde the place where the altercation was, without tarying for more company.”


“These Captaynes were so ready, and of such haughty courage in the Indian warre, that eyther of them would not let to giue the encounter, although the enemies were in number 100,000. They were of good understanding and judgment in any thing that was to be prouided for the warres or for gouernment: especially being bothe men vnlearned, for they could neyther write, reade, or yet firme, which was a thing of great defect in such noble Personages, dealing in such waighty affayres. Yet neuerthelesse, in all other thinges of vertuous inclynations, they shewed themselves to be noble men, onely the former want excepted, wherein the auncient wyse men, dyd hold such want for an argument of basenesse of lynage.

“ The Marquesse was a man that had great confidence in his seruants and freendes ; All the dispatches which he made as well in gouernment, and reprebencion of Indians, he vsed to make two markes, betweene the which, Antonio Picardo, his Secretary, fyrmed the name of Francisco Pi

But these men may excuse themselues as Ouidius excused Romulus, saying: that he was an euyll astronomer, but rather bad more knowledge in Armies then in Letters."

“Bothe these Captaynes were so affable and playne, among theyr people, that they vsed oftentimes to goe from house to house in the Cittie, to visit thyr neygbours alone, and tooke such fare as they founde, and were alwayes willing to come to any honest neyghbour, that would inuite eyther of them. They were equally abstynent, and moderate in theyr feeding and dyet, as also in refraining of sensualitie, and especially from abusing of any Spanish women: for they deemed that they could not deale therein, without preiudice of theyre neyghbours, whose wiues or daugbters, those women were : they neyther ouermuch inclyned to the Indian women.”

The Marquesse had the company of an Indian Gentlewoman, who was sister to Atabalipa, by whome he had a sonue, named Don Gonsalo, who deceased at fourteene yeeres of age : and a daughter named Donna Francisca. By another Indian woman of Cusco he had another sonne called Don Francisco.

Don Diego de Almagro, had that sonne of whom we have spoken, who slewe the Marquesse, which sonne he had by an Indian woman of Panama. They bothe receyued honour at the Emperour's hands, for as hath beene declared, to Don Francisco Pisarro, he gaue the tyttle or addition of Marquesse, and made him Governour of Newe Castile, and also ordayned hiin Knight of the order of Saint James."

“ To Don Diego de Almagro, he gaue the gouernment of Newe Toledo, and the tyttle of cheefe Discouerer. Particularly the Marquesse was greatly affectioned, and helde in greate feare and reuerence the name of his Maiestie: insomuch that he abstayned from dooing of many thinges that he had power to doo, declaring that he would not that his Maiestie should say, how he ascended in ihe land: and oftentymes when he was present at the melting of the Sylver and Golde, he would ryse from his chayre, to take up the graynes of Sylver and Golde, which fell from the clypping saying: that with his mouth when handes fayled, he woulde gather together the kinge's portion."

“ These two Gentlemen, were equall euen in theyre kindes of death, for the Marquesse brotier, put Don Diego to death, and Don Diego his sonne slewe the Marquesse. The Marquesse was desirous to benefit the Countrey, by tyllage and other commodities."

“ He built a fayre house in the Cittie of the Kinges : 'he also built for the benefite of the Cittie, two rowes of mylles, along the River's side, in which buylding he occupied bimselfe at all tymes of leysure, giuing his councell and opinion to all to the Maister workmen : He tooke great paynes in setting forwarde the workes of the Cathedrall Church of the Cittie of the Kinges, and other lyke monuments."

This book is curious as a specimen of early typography and for the block engravings, with which it is ornamented; but these peculiarities it is not necessary here to describe.



If the following minutes, relating to the Russian and American setilements on the North-West Coast of America, and which were hastily written down from the verbal communications of a friend, who visited those settlements, will gratify the curiosity of your readers, they are at your service.

C. D, To the Editor

At the settlement of Norfolk Sound in latitude 57° north, there are about 600 Russians. The first settlement was made by Berrenoff, in 1792, then a merchant, who fought some battles with the natives who had entrenched themselves in a fort made of trees, and impenetrable by either musket or cannon shot; the natives fired through small loop holes, made in their semicircular entrenchment, while the Russian vessels kept up a long continued fire from their troops and ships, with little or no effect.

Berrenoff then had recourse to shells, and succeeded eventually in throwing a few over the breast work, which fell among and destroyed several of the natives, and drove them from the fort, of which the Russians took possession, and the natives subunitted. For these and other services in making the establishment, the Russian Emperour created him a Count of the Empire and Governour of the Settlement. He employs the Russians and the Natives under his control in fishing for the Sea Otters, and catching the few seal which he sends to the China market, or sells to the American vessels at the settlement, in exchange for snpplies for his troops and people. His armed force is composed of Russians and Kodiac Indians, drilled and disciplined in the Russian manner. There are no white women, and only four or five half bloods; but the wives of the subaltern officers and soldiers, and the mistresses of the governour and

other commissioned officers, are the copper coloured native women. Such is the quantity of peltry collected, that it is not unusual for the Count to give twenty thousand dollars to a single ship for the freight of furs to China. Another source of considerable revenue is derived from supplying American vessels with canoes and Kodiac Indians uuder Russian officers, who go on the coast of California and kill otters. Each canoe is manned with three Indians, and a vessel of 200 or 250 tons takes with her fifty canoes and Indians and Russians, who are on board the ship until she arrives in the water frequented by the otters. Their manner of killing them is when the wind is calm and the sea smooth the canoes leave the ship, which is never done when the sea is rough or when there is much wind. In this case there is no hunting: the otters in calm weather frequently sleep with their heads out of the water, at other times they sport in schools, springing nearly out of the

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