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peared and produced their copper Kettles, they were by degrees invited to trade with us for Beaver skins; the summer after the blazing star (which moved from East to West) even a little before the English removed from Holland to Plimouth in New England, there befell a very great mortality among the Indians, the greatest that had ever hapned in the memory of man, or been taken notice of by tradition, laying desolate the East, and by the Northern parts the County of Pockankie, Agissawam; the Aborginny men consisting of Wippanaps, Tarantines, and the Sagamoreships, or petty kingdoms of the Massachusetts, the Nianticks, Narrowganssilts, and Pecods, their Powows or Doctors were amazed to see their wigwards or streets lie full of dead bodies, and neither Squantam their good nor Abbamock their bad God could help them, which very much facilitated the landing of the English not long after in Plimouth plantation; who coming but with a handful of men found little or no resistance, being onely sent to keep possession for the brethren who arrived eight daies after, when the natives appearing with their bows and arrows, let fly their long shafts among them; but one Captain Miles Standish with his fowling peice shot the stoutest Sachem among the Indians, on the right arm, as he was reaching an arrow from his quiver, whereupon they all fled away with great speed through the woods and thickets." p. 26.

The Comet, its motion from East to West, the first apparition of a ship, the pestilence that swept off the natives, previous to the landing of the first adventurers, will all fur. nish picturesque materials for the poet.

Those persons, who take an interest in the subject of our climate, may be amused at the author's ideas on this subject. “The country being scituate in the midst of the temperate zone, in the space between the Artick circle, and the Tropic of Cancer, one would think it should enjoy the sarne temperature of ayr, as France and some part of Italy, but we find the contrary, for that part which borders upon the

sea, is of coulder ayr, partly by reason of the nearnesse of the sea, the mounting of whose waves breaks the reflexion of the sunbeams, partly by reason of the abundance of vapours, which on mounting upward abate the ardour of them: but the more inland parts of the Country are indifferently warme, and it hath been found by certain experience that those countries which look toward the rising of the sun,

are colder than those which lie toward the West or sunsetting, and those which have the evening windes on them are warmer than those which have the morning windes, which being so, it follows that the temperature of the ayr in those regions is most proper and peculiar to the bodies of those of our nation, who being accustomed to a climate somewhat temperate, are neither able to endure extremity of cold, nor immoderate heat.” p. 45.

The strange and delectable history of the discoverie and

conquest of the Provinces of Peru in the South Sea. And of the notable things which there are found : and also of the bloudie ciuill varres vvhich there happened for gouernment. Written in foure bookes by Augustine Sarate, auditor for the Emperour his Maiestie in the same prouinces and firme land. And also of the ritche mines of Potosi. Translated out of the Spanish tongue, by T. Nicholas. Imprinted at London by Richard Jhones, dwelling ouer against the Fawlcon, by Holburne bridge 1581. Black letter, 4to.


This is a history with rather minute details of the first discovery and conquest of Peru and the adjoining Psorin

The insatiable avarice of the Spaniards inspired them with such a spirit of daring enterprise, and such inflexible fortitude in suffering, that a mere handful of men were sufficient to overrun those beautiful countries, which were swarming with population. The unfortunate Indians, though they were accustomed to war with each other, opposed their myriads in vain to the weapons, the skill, and the courage of their invaders. The achievements of the three Pizarros, Almagro, de Castro, Benalcasar, Alvarado, &c. &c. seem almost incredible. The weakness of the natives fortified the presumption and confidence of these captains, to such a degree, that although they had only a few companies of men under their command, and were surrounded by innumerable crowds of hostile Indians, they paid but slight deference io the mother country, and soon fell into violent quarrels with each other, in the course of which the wretched Peruvians were revenged for their sufferings, by the Spaniards theinselves. Most of the original invaders, both officers and soldiers, perished in fighting with each other.

The following extracts will give an idea of the style.


The first relates some of the customs of the Peruvians, and a remarkable piece of policy in the sovereign. The next says something of the Amazons; and gives the origin of rats in South America. The last is a comparison of Pizarro and Almagro.

“ These Indians dwell not in houses, but their abidy ng is under trees, and shadowes inade for the purpose. Their women were garments made of cotton woll, like unto gownes which come downe to their feete. The men were shirtes dos ne to the knees, and certain mantels upon the same, and although their attire is after one sorte, they differ in the attire of their heads, accordynge to the use of euery countrey: some use their haire bounde up with laces of woll, šome with one lace, and other with many laces of sundry colours, so there is none but hath some deuice in his bed, and in euery province of a seuerall kinde.”

“ All the Indians of the playnes are deuided into three sortes, the one are called Yngas, another sorte are called Tallanes, and the thirde Mochicas : in euery prouince they differ in speeche, notwithstandinge the noblemen, called Caseikes, besides their natural speech doo all generally understande the language of the cittie of Cusco, because the kinge of Peru, called Guaynacaua, father of kinge Atabalipa, thought it a base thinge that his subiectes, especially noble men, should talk with him by interpreters, whereupon he commaunded that all the Caseikes of his country and dominions, and their brethren and kinsmen should sende their children to serue and attende on the kinge in his court, under the colour to learn the courtly speeche : but cheefely the kinge's intente was to assure his countrey with the principall men of his kingdoine, in hauinge their children in pledge. But bee as it will, by this meanes it came to passe, that all the nobilitie of his lande, understoode and could speake the language used in court, as in Flaunders the Gentilmen and others speake the Frenche tongue: so that in conclusion, any Spanyarde that attained to the Cusco speeche, mought wel passe through the dominions of Peru, as well in the playnes as in the mountaynes, to understand and to be understood among the cheefest." Chap. 6, B. 1.

“ The Indians of Chili goe apparelled like unto the Indians of Peru, both men and women are of a good iesture and feede ordinarily of such meates as those of Peru. Be

yond Chili 38 degrees from the line, are two greate men of power, which maintaine alwayes war, the one against the other, and eche of them is of power to bringe into the feelde 200,000 men of war: the one was named Leuchengorma, which is lord of an island, which standeih two leagues from the firme land, dedicated to his idols, in which Island standeth a great temple, whereunto appertained 2000 preestes.”

“ The Indians of this Leuchengorma, informed the Spanyardes, that 50 leagues beyond that place, between two riyers, was a great prouince all inhabited with weinen, which consente not to haue any sorte of men among them, except a certaine time convenient for generation, and then if any happen to bee with childe, and bringe forth men children, they are after certain yeares sent to their fathers, and the daughters which they likewise beare, remaineth with them: these wemen also are in subiection to Leuchengorma. The Queene of these wemen is called Guayboy milla, which in their language, is as much as to say Heaueu of Golde, because the reporte was that great quantitie of Gold grow. eth there, and thereof they make exceedinge ritch cloth, and of all their commodities they pay tribute to Lenchengorma. And although often times the Spanyardes haue had notice of this countrey, yet they neuer tooke the discovery in hande, because Don Diego would not abide to inhabit in the coast : and also sithence that time, Pedro de Valdiuia was sent to inhabit the countrey, who would not bring his desire of furniture to passe, conuenient for the voiage, although he hath inhabited three degrees beyond the Equinoctial southward, and also perfect knowledge of habitation was knowen to bee vnto 40 degrees alonge that coast, especiallye one shippe, which Don Gabriell de Carouiall, Bishop of Placentia, sent in discouery, which had passed through the Strayght of Magalanes, who from the said straite came sayling along that coast northward, untill he arriued at the port of the cittie of the kinges, and before the coming of this shippe there was no memory of Rats found in all Peru, so that it seemed that the first broode of Rats came out of that ship and sithence that time, al the citties of Peru are replenished with aboundance; it is thought that among chests and fardels of marchandize they were carried from place to place: whereupon the Indians do name them Ócocba, which is to say, a vermine comen out of the sea.' Chap 2, B. 3.

“ Chap. 9. Of the customes and qualities of the Marquesse, Don Francisco Pisarro, and the discouerer, Don Diego de Almagro.”

“ Sithens this historie and discouery of the Prouince of Peru, hath origen from the two valiant Captaines, of whom hyther unto we have spoken. Who are the Marquesse Don Francisco Pisarro and Don Diego de Almagro : It is meete and conuenient to write theyr customes and qualities, comparing them together, as Plutarchus vseth, when he writeih of two Capiaines, which are in any respect comparable one to the other: and touching the lynage of these our Captaines, at the beginning of this bistorie, is written as much as could be knowen. But in the residue they were both valiaunt persons of great courage, they were also great sufferers of paynes and trauails, and verie vertuous, they were freends to doo plesure to al men, at theyr owne cost. They were much lyke of inclynation, especially in the state of lyuing, for neyther of them was married, although the youngest of them bothe at the tyme of theyr death, was about three score and five yeeres of age.

6. They were both inclined to affayres of warres, although Don Diego de Almagro, when occasion of warres wanted, applied himselfe to thinges of gaynes: they were neere of one age, when they tooke the conquest of Peru in hande, in which discogerie and conquest, they tooke the paynes which hath bene declared, although the Marquesse dyd suffer greater trauaile, and passed greater peryls than Don Diego. For whylst the one was occupied in the greatest part of the disconerie, the other abode in Panama, prouiding necessaries and furniture for him, as lykewise hath bene declared. They were both noble minded and alwayes they pretended and conceyued haughty thinges, they were gentle and amyable to their soldiours, they were equall in lyberallitie : although in shewe Don Diego had the aduantage, because he loued that his gift should be published and blow ne abroade : into which condition the Marquesse was contrarie, for he would not permit that his lyberal gifts hould be spoken of : but rather procured to have them kept in secrete, hauing more respect to prouide for the necessitie of such as wanted them, than to obtain a vainglorious report.

“It once happened that a poore soldiour, had his cheefe ritches in a horse, which dyed of an unknown disease, of which mishap the Marquesse hauing understanding, and Vol. II.


No. 6.

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