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of these days go back to see him; happy to be once more all together! but futurities are uncertain. Teach him however in the mean time to direct his worship more properly, for the deity of "Hercules" is now quite out of fashion.

The present you mention as sent by me was rather that of a merchant at Bourdeaux, for he would never give me any account of it; and neither Temple nor I know any thing of the particulars.

When I began to read your account of the high prices of goods--"a pair of gloves seven dollars, a yard of common gause twenty-four dollars, and that it now required a fortune to maintain a family in a very plain way," I expected you would conclude with telling me, that every body as well as yourself was grown frugal and industrious; and I could scarce believe my eyes in reading forward, that "there never was so much dressing and pleasure going on;" and that you yourself wanted "black pins and feathers from France;" to appear, I suppose, in the mode! This leads me to imagine, that perhaps it is not so much that the goods are grown dear, as that the money is grown cheap, as every thing else will do when excessively plenty; and that people are still as easy nearly in their circumstances as when a pair of gloves might be had for half a crown. The war indeed may in some degree raise the prices of goods, and the high taxes which are necessary to support the war may make our frugality necessary; and as I am always preaching that doctrine, I cannot in conscience or in decency encourage the contrary, by my example, in furnishing my children with foolish modes and luxuries. I therefore send all the articles you desire that are useful and necessary, and omit the rest; for as you say you should "have great pride

in wearing any thing I send, and showing it as your father's taste," I must avoid giving you an opportunity of doing that with either lace or feathers. If you wear your cambric ruffles as I do, and take care not to mend the holes, they will come in time to be lace; and feathers, my dear girl, may be had in America from every cock's tail.

If you happen again to see General Washington, assure him of my very great and sincere respect, and tell him that all the old generals here amuse themselves in studying the accounts of his operations, and approve highly of his conduct.

Present my affectionate regards to all friends that inquire after me, particularly Mr. Duffield and family, and write oftener, my dear child, to your loving father, B. FRANKLIN.

TO MR. BRIDGEN, LONDON.

DEAR SIR, Passy, October, 2, 1779. I received your favor of the 17th past, and the two samples of copper are since come to hand. The metal seems to be very good, and the price reasonable, but I have not yet received the orders necessary to justify my making the purchase proposed. There has indeed been an intention to strike copper coin that may not only be useful as small change, but serve other purposes. Instead of repeating continually upon every halfpenny the dull story that every body knows (and what it would have been no loss to mankind if nobody had ever known), that George III. is king of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, &c. &c. to put on one side some important proverb of Solomon, some pious moral, prudential or economical precept, the frequent inculcation of which, by seeing it every time one receives a piece of money, might

make an impression upon the mind, especially of young persons, and tend to regulate the conduct; such as on some, The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom: on others, Honesty is the best policy: on others, He that by the plough would thrive, himself must either hold or drive: on others, Keep thy shop, and thy shop will keep thee: on others, A penny saved is a penny got: on others, He that buys what he has no need of, will soon be forced to sell his necessaries: on others, Early to bed, and early to rise, will make a man healthy, wealthy, and wise and so on to a great variety. The other side it was proposed to fill with good designs, drawn and engraved by the best artists in France, of all the different species of barbarity with which the English have carried on the war, in America, expressing every abominable circumstance of their cruelty and inhumanity, that figures can express, to make an impression on the minds of posterity as strong and durable as that on the copper. This resolution has been a long time forborne; but the late burning of defenceless towns in Connecticut, on the flimsy pretence that the people fired from behind their houses, when it is known to have been premeditated and ordered from England, will probably give the finishing provocation, and may occasion occasion a vast demand for your metal.

I thank you for your kind wishes respecting my health. I return them most cordially fourfold into your own bosom. B. FRANKLIN.

DEAR SIR,

Adieu.

TO B. VAUGHAN, ESQ.

Passy, Nov. 9, 1779.

I thank you much for the great care and pains you have taken in regulating and correcting the edition of those papers. Your friendship for me ap

pears in almost every page; and if the preservation of any of them should prove of use to the public, it is to you that the public will owe the obligation. In looking them over, I have noted some faults of impression that hurt the sense, and some other little matters, which you will find all in a sheet under the title of Errata. You can best judge whether it may be worth while to add any of them to the errata already printed, or whether it may not be as well to reserve the whole for correction in another edition, if such should ever be. Enclosed I send a more perfect copy of the chapter.*

If I should ever recover the pieces that were in the hands of my son, and those I left among my papers in America, I think there may be enough to make three more such volumes, of which a great part would be more interesting.

As to the time of publishing, of which you ask my opinion, I am not furnished with any reasons, or ideas of reasons, on which to form any opinion. Naturally I should suppose the bookseller to be from experience the best judge, and I should be for leaving it to him.

I

I did not write the pamphlet you mention. know nothing of it. I suppose it is the same concerning which Dr. Priestley formerly asked me the same question. That for which he took it, was intitled, A Dissertation on Liberty and Necessity, Pleasure and Pain, with these lines in the title-page:

"Whatever is, is right. But purblind man

Sees but a part o' the chain, the nearest link:

A parable against persecution.-See WRITINGS, Part III. MISCELLANIES, Sec. 1.

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London printed MDCCXXV.“

I send you also Mr. Dupont's Table Économique, which I think an excellent thing, as it contains in a clear method all the principles of that new sect, called here les Économists.

Remember me affectionately to all my good family, and believe me, with great esteem, my dear friend, B. FRANKLIN. yours, &c.

TO FRANCIS HOPKINSON,

DEAR FRIEND,

ESQ.

Passy, June 4, 1779.

I received your kind letter of the 22d October last, which gave me great pleasure, as it informed me of your welfare, and of your appointment to the honorable office of treasurer of loans. I think the congress judged rightly in their choice. An exactness in accounts, and scrupulous fidelity in matters of trust, are qualities for which your father was eminent, and which I was persuaded were inherited by his son when I took the liberty of naming him one of the executors of my will, a liberty which I hope you will excuse.

I am sorry for the losses you have suffered by the Goths and Vandals, but hope it will be made up to you by the good Providence of God, and the goodwill of your country, to whom your pen has occasionally been of service. I am glad the enemy have left something of my gimcrackery that is capable of affording you pleasure. you pleasure. You are therefore very welcome to the use of my electrical and pneumatic

* See a full account of this pamphlet in MEMOIRS OF THE LIFE, Part I. p. 33, 4to. ed.; p. 63, 8vo. ed.

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