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216
On the Round Towers of Ireland.

[Oct. I, their blades around the signal of battle! ness of the walls, and about eight feet in - They know no sheaths but the body' the diameter of the cavity. They deof the foe.

crease insensibly up to the top, where The whirlwind of war is hushed. A they measure about six feet in the inlion among roses is Meurig in peace; terior. They have each a single door, mild as the sun-beam in spring ; in the at the height of from eight to sixteen or circling of the festal hour, when the twenty feet from the ground. They are womb of the harp* quickens at his touch universally built of stone, though not -or when he conquers in the little bat- always of the common stone of the countlet of the chequered board.

try where they stand. The materials of Son of Urien! 1 thy place is here. In that at Cashel were evidently brought the strife of the conflict Owen and Urier from a considerable distance, and are were inseparable. Twin lions! they even better than those of the adjoining fought side by side; and at the feast cathedral. Within side they are pershall they be divided ?

fectly empty, and devoid of ornament; Beset with foes, the barbed steel once but there are some holes in the stonesearched Heurig's breast-Owen spread work of the walls, into which beams aphis shield before his wounded friend : the pear to have been inserted for the forGwyddeliaus saw his ravense and fled; mation of stories at proper distances; he pursued, and the Cynhen ran red and there are beside small loop-boles with blood. Urien! thy fame is with for the admission of light. Near the the bard – but Urien can never die top there are usually four of these holes, whilst Owen lives!

corresponding generally with the four

cardinal points. These singular strucON THE ROUND TOWERS IN IRELAND. tures are always found either immediateMR. EDITOR,

ly near to churches, or upon scites where THE round towers in Ireland, to which religious buildings formerly stood. the attention of your readers has been Some have supposed that these round called in a short but ingenious paper, towers were intended for places of secu(page 105,) have occasioned a variety of rity: but they are too contracted to conjectures. They are, as their naine serve this purpose, unless against a implies, perfectly circular, both within single enemy, and it is plain that the and without: and are carried up in the persons pent up in so narrow a cell must same form to the height of from fifty to soon be starved into a surrender.one hundred and fifty feet, terminating Others have fancied that they were at the top in a tapering sugar loaf cover. erected for beacons ; but most of them ing, which is concave in the inside and are in low situations, and in some inconvex on the outside. In general they stances two and more of them are found are about fourteen feet in the diameter very near together, which circumstances at the base, comprehending the thick- completely destroy this notion. An

other opinion, adopted by the fanciful * The Cambrian heroes, like those of Vallancey, is, that the round towers Homer, solaced themselves with music during their intervals of rest from martial thaginians, as pyratheia or fire-altars,

were erected by the Phænicians or Carlabour.

+ From bach, little and cammawn, bat- But if this were the case they would de, sprang backgammon; and the game thraic altars uniformly were in the East.

have been left open at the top, as the Mihere alluded to was chess, a favourite amusement even among the peasantry of Ce- Another hypothesis is, that they were

intended for watch-houses, in which : Urien was a prince of the Northern guards were to reside, in order to sound Britons, who came into Wales to aid the an alarm on the approach of an enemy, sons of Cunedda in expelling the Gwyd- which idea would have had some shade delians: he had a part of the present Car- of probability had the towers been placed marthenshire given him, and is said to have

near ancient castles instead of churches. built Caercynhen castle. Ś On his shield were depicted three

Some writers have supposed that they ravens, which is the coat armorial of Lord

were designed serve as steeples or Dynevor, and some other families descended belfries, to which notion there is this obfrom him. It is to these ravens the bard jection, that they are too small for the

Taliesin, in the 6th century, beautifully swing of a bell of any size. The last alludes

idea, and that by far the most probable " Ac ar ei vron wen vran ddu.” of all. is that started by Dean Richardson And on his silver breast-plate a raven. and Harris, and defended by Milner,

maes.

1818.1

Methodism Vindicated.

217

that these towers Were-built as habita- METHODISM VINDICATRD.
tions for a set of anchorets, called In- MR. EDITOR,
chusi or Cellani. --

THE principles of your magazine are T'he last mentioned antiquary con- so contrary to those of anarchy and jectures that these recluses were imita- atheism, which are so frequently adtors of Simeon the Stylite, so called be- vocated by other periodical publications, cause he passed twenty years of his life that the N. M. Mag. could not but be on the top of a pillar, forty cubits high successful. and three feet in diameter. This At an early period you expressed your example of austere discipline was follow- determination not to suffer your pages to ed by others in the East who were also be oceupied with thcological controversy. termed Stylites; but though the same This determination was very judicious, practice was attempted in Germany it but I have been sorry to see it departed was considered as too rigorous for the from lately.—You have excluded topics climate, and suppressed. Dr. Milner, how- directly of a controversial nature, yet ever, thinks, and with great plausibility, many of your late numbers contain that the early Irish ascetics had recourse much which would be excluded if your to this improvement of the Stylite mode rule was strictly adhered to. of seclusion, and thus by living within the The letter in your Number for column instead of the outside of it, they August, signed John Oakley, is of this avoided the ostentation which the west- description, and requires some notice, ern bishops objected to, and by having not only because the insertion of it is a covering over their heads, they were in effect a departure from your rule, but

protected from the greatest severity of also, because it contains much incorrect the weather; as it was indispensibly ne- assertion, though a stronger phrase might acessary they should be in this northern be used. climate. On examining the door ways I have no wish to introduce discussion of the towers we find them universally of the description just adverted to, but raised from the ground to the distance must beg to offer you a few observations in some cases of twenty feet; which upon John Oakley's letter; his arguproves that they were not made for easy ments (if they may be so denominated) are access, or the ordinary conveniences of too loose and desultory to be precisely "life. It required a ladder to get into the followed ; I will therefore only state my tower, which the recluse of course drew observations upon the topics which he up after him when he entered, and which has discussed. would be equally necessary for him to. The manners and customs of former ascend or descend from one story to an- times have always been a favourite suhother. He would occupy whichever ject of study and research with me, and story suited the weather, his health, or for many years past I have been so his devotion ; but he would undoubtedly situated as to have much opportunity Teceive the priest, who came to commu- for observing tire moral state of the nicate him, or the charitable person who lower classes of this country. brought him provisions, or the pious I am disposed to adınit that there is Christian who sought his advice, in the really more juvenile delinquency, and tower apartment next the door. apparently more crime (generally speak

Upon the whole, there can be no ing) in this country, than there was a doubt that these curious and singular century ago ; but think it may admit of monuments of Irish antiquity were built explanation. for the habitation of anchorets within a The population is doubled : century or two after the conversion of changed from an agricultural to a manuthe island. They are admirably well facturing nation; the size of our large adapted and situated for the purposes of cities and towns, which are the chief these recluses, and they bear as near a seats of vice and crime, and parresemblance as circumstances would per- ticularly of juvenile delinquency, is in mit to the studies of the Syrian hermits. many instances doubled, in some in. It is impossible to shew what other pur- creased fourfold, or even tenfold; and pose they were calculated for, and it is our present policy, particularly in the equally impossible to discover the ves- metropolis, appears to be encourag tiges of any other Clusoriæ in the neigh- to vice, and especially to juvenile delinbourbon certainly did heretofore exist sufficient to appal any reflecting mind,

of the great churches; which, quency; for though facts on the subject,

, near many of them." W. JAMES. opinions concerning the inliabitants and

• Milner's Inquiry into certain vulgar antiquities of Ireland, p. 134, 110. NEw MONTHLY MAQ.No. 57.

Vol. X. 2 F

we are

218 Mr. Loudon's Reply to D-t on Curvilinear Hot-houses. [Oct 1, have been before the public for nearly I dislike the cant and illiberality, three years, yet no measures appear to which many of these sectarians shew, have been taken to destroy the haunts as much as your correspondent can do; and schools of early profligacy ; it is but these faults are not exclusively connot necessary to observe that it is in- fined to religious sectarians; they are to effectual to remove the crop of weeds, be found in a proportionate extentamong while the hot bed from whence they the orthodox, the philosophers, and spring is suffered to exist.

even the infidels of the present day. These causes appear to me fully I should be glad to see the whole of suflicient to account for the increase of this country, worshipping strictly after criminal prosecutions; we have also to the manner of their forefathers, and not remember that our police is now more a dissenter existing from John O'Groat's active than formerly, and although it house to the Land's end; but the state is not formed with a view to prevention, in which things are, forbids any eryet a criine when committed, is sooner pectation of such union of sentiment, and more certainly visited with punish- even if the Clergy were all attentive to 'ment than formerly. Juvenile delin- their duties; this is notoriously not the quency excepted, I am inclined to think case, and therefore it must be admitted that though more offenders are now that the Methodists have been and are tried, yet fewer offences, comparatively useful in diffusing instruction over a with the population, are now committed large proportion of the kingdom, where than formerly.

from various circumstances the constiThe periodical records of the present tuted ecclesiastical authorities did noday certainly shew that much less open thing -often worse thau pothing. profligacy and debauchery is committed Your correspondent treats very lightly now than fifty years since; and although the numerous philanthropic and religious much immorality exists, yet I am per- institutions of the day : but that vice suaded this statement is correct. The and immorality still exist, cannot be opinions of many who have been ac- admitted by any reasonable mind, to be curate observers, and who are advanced

an argument against their usefulness ; in life, are consonant to what is here facts are stubborn things, and they stated; an old man is generally laudator plainly prove, that these institutions temporis acti.

have been useful, and are increasingly John Oakley's letter is entitled “the 80 ; generally speaking they are as yet moral deficiency of Methodism.” In his in their infancy. arguments upon this topic, I also de The concluding paragraph of John cidedly differ from bim; I am no Oakley's letter, is of itself sufficient to sectarian, and have scarcely ever been shew his ignorance of the facts of which in dissenting places of worship, but I he writes. I mean his comparison have had much intercourse wish dis- between the original propagation of senters, and what are called Methodists, Christianity, and the effects produced by and have had much opportunity for the progress of Methodism; they cannot observation respecting them.

be compared together. The whole of Methodism is not deficient in morality. the circumstances attending each are too If your readers will refer to a late num- peculiar to themselves, to admit comber of the Quarterly Review, they will parison ; but as far as any analogy can see this subject very ably and impartially be traced, and as far as it is right to do treated. That many of the individuals so, I will assert that J. O. is mistaken, called Methodists are immoral, may that the spread of Methodism has been readily be granted; but this circumstance the greatest. by no means proves that their immorality I could say much more on this subject is the consequenceof Methodism; I may if vour limits admitted. The arguments venture decidedly to say, that it is not, but of your correspondent are offered in too that the same individuals would have been general a form to require more precise equally immoral, and far more profligate, refutation, and I will conclude by saying, had they not professed themselves to be that I have not made any assertion Methodists. Every person who has had which I could not state facts to prove, if opportunity for extended observation, necessary so to do. must admit that Methodism represses

August 24, 1818.

S. G. iminorality, and does not encourage it; it is not to a few places that I might refer MR. LOUDON'S REPLY TO D-T'S STRICin proof of this, but to the whole king TURES ON CURVILINEAR HOT-HOUSES. dom, and particularly to the darkest and most ignorant parts of it.

I perfectly agree with D-t, in your last

MR. EDITOR.

1818) Mr. Loudon's Reply to D on Curvilinear Hot-houses: 219 number, p. 8, that my letter on curvilinear me in one of those immense * “ glass hot houses, (Vol. IX. p. 313,) is a legiti- cages," spreading wide their bases, which mate subject of criticism. It is indeed he just hints at in terrorem at the both for the interest of the public, and end of his letter, and in which I might the inventors of new schemes, that they hop from bar to bar under the “direct shoald undergo rigid examination, and influence of the sun" by day, and the free remark, which, whether fair or "chilling effect of the night air" by unfair, whetherfrom illiberal or generous night, to all eternity; cursing all the motives, can hardly fail of doing good; while the merits of my own invention, either by eliciting new ideas, bringing and wishing the sash bar “decomposed merit into notice, or preventing both the and decayed," and the “glass broken." inventors and the public from being Under all these circumstances, however deceived, by mere novelty and specious much I may feel obliged to D-t for ness.

having made strictures of any sort, I am I freely acknowledge that I consider sorry I cannot thank him either for the sash-bar mentioned in that letter, affording me any specific information as a most important article for the im- on the subject ingeneral - for disproving provement of hot-houses, whether of any part of my letter, or pointing ont common or curvilinear forms; and as I any error, defect, or insufficiency in the have elsewhere hinted, I am convinced erections here. I am convinced, thereit will effect a new æra in the con- fore, that D-t has merely come forward struction of these buildings.* I have in a general way to humble and abase found every person without exception, me for my own good, and that of the pubwho is conversant with the subject, and lic; and for which, of course, I am about has examined the specimens of roofs as thankful to him as a starving vagrant which have erected here, nearly as would be to the Lord Mayor for sending sanguine as myself. Among these I him to board and lodge in the counter. may reckon the first gardeners and I shall now develope to the reader the engineers in and around London. Other character of the strictures of D-t, in circumstances, and especially some prac- which, in my opinion, he has shewn a tical proofs of approbation, both in singular degree of temerity, by venturing England and France,t may have buoyed so far into a subject in which he evidently up my imagination in its favour to such knows so little, and an equal share of bad a height as to prevent me from looking taste, whilst under the guise of remarkdown into its detects; and thus the ing on my letter, and skreened behind strictures of bye standers,like D-t, may the panoply of D-t, he risks assertions be of salutary consequence, by hurling evidently or seemingly intended for me down from the (too: light and airy other purposes than those of science tbrone in which that gentleman is good or taste. The following is an instance. enough to place me,- too happy, if in the “ It is singular,” says D-t, “that tumble I fall on my feet, without being Mr. Loudon should have quoted any entangled in that “vast extent of flimsy thing so directly opposed to the scheme lines" which D--t has spread out for me, of spherical hot-houses, as the judicious like a spider's web, or enveloped in that observations of Mr. Knight, whose mode newly invented "glass patch of improving hot-houses is certainly work ;" not“ that decoration of the face much more likely to be of use than the with small spots of black silk,” which curvilinear ones. Addison mentions, but a thing which, Now the weight of Mr. Knight's opilike a humane man-trap, is, I have no nion among the patrons and purchasers doubt, intended to catch me alive ; and if, of hot-houses is known to every person gentle reader, I should in this way fall in Britain ; and who is there that on into the hands of D-t, what will be reading the above quotation from D-t done with me? Surely he would confine would not at once conclude that curvili

“Remarks on the construction of hot near or spherical hot-houses were houses,"* 410. 10 plates, 1817, p. 35. See “directly opposed to the opinions of that also « Sketches of curvilinear hot-houses, gentleman? Have you seen any of with a description of the various purposes in Loudon's hot-houses? 0 Yes, 'Mr. horticultural and general architecture, to Knight says they are very bad. Oden which a solid iron sash-bar lately invented them, then I will have nothing to do is applicable,” 4to. four plates, 2s. Harding, with them; I will have the old shape. 1818.

The case however is directly the + Unfortunately for me Horti adonides are not admitted in that country, otherwise reverse of what D-t would wish the I should have had three notable examples to

reader to believe; I could prove this in refer to in and near Paris.

private by letters which I have had

snare

ܪ

2:20 Mr. Loudon's Reply to D-t on Curvilinear Hot-houses. [Oct. 1, from Mr. Knight, and I here prove it iron bar will last longer than either a publicly by a quotation from the pub- hollow bar of copper, or one composed lished writings of that gentleman, in of two pieces of metal, either iron, or those very publications from which D-t iron and tin. The reasons are obvious, would condemn my designs.

and shall be omitted. The next question · On making a few trials,” says Mr. is, whether a solid iron bar will outlast Knight, “ to ascertain the varieties 'a wooden bar, and this I leave to be of forms which might be given to solved by any reader.* forcing houses, by taking different seg The erpense of curvilinear houses," ments of a sphere, 1 soon became says D-t, “ will be nearly double that perfectly satisfied, that forcing houses of houses of the common form, and of of excellent forms, for almost every the best kind." This is a bold assertion, purpose, and of any convenient ex and as false as bold. What sort of tent, might be constructed without de- houses D-t considers as of the best viating from the spherical form; and kind," I am not aware; but I beI am now perfectly confident that such lieve it will be generally allowed that houses will be erected, and kept in till I put up the specimens here, the repair at less expense, will possess the copper house at Messrs. Loddige's, most important advantage of admitting Hackney, and the copper honse at Mr. greatly more light, and will be found Allan's nursery, King's-road, admitted much more durable than such as are more light than any other sort whatever, constructed according to any of the and their forms are “common." Now, forms which have been hitherto recom so far from curvilinear hot-houses costing mended."-- Hort. Trans. v. iii. p. 350. more than such houses, I can assure

Now, Mr. Editor, I can imagine one the reader they cost less; and as a proof I correspondent attacking another on state that the price of copper houses is or a speculative point, and giving partial used to be, (for I have erected more than statements, in order to elicit further par- one of them formerly) from 7 to 8s. ticulars, &c.; hut how any reasonable per- per foot of roof; and the price of curson can justify himself in inaking the broad vilinear houses of similar dimensions assertions so contrary to fact, which does not exceed 6s. per foot of roof.t D-t has done, and in a matter too where the party condemned is interested in the * This assertion of D-t cannot be conway of trade, or profession, and the party tradicted from fact, because metallic bars are condemming has not even his name before but of recent (say 12 years) introduction the public , I cannot conceive. If D--ts and France they have been used, not gene

into hot-houses in England. In Holland taste is as bad in visual matters as it rally, but occasionally for sixty years; but appears to be in morals, I certainly the hot-houses in these countries are comshall not be ambitious of his approbation, paratively few. Adanson, in his “ Familles either in hot-house architecture, or any des Plantes," published in Paris, 1763, rething else.

commends iron bars and Bohemian glass, as It might prore tiresome to your admitting most light, and he mentions iron readers were i to enter equally at length as oecasionally used in Holland. There are into the rest of D-rt's paper, which

now, or were in 1815, two large doors in consists almost entirely of assertions

a conservatory in the Jardin des Plantes unsupported either by argument or fact; in Paris, filled in with iron bar, which Mr. or gross misrepresentations of my letter knowledge, and he has no doubt they will

Thuin says have been there fifty years to his I shall give a specimen ortwo as concisely last a century longer. Mr. Thuin is well as possible, and then conclude.

known to be one of the first, if not the very “Wrought iron," says D-t, “will first gardener in Europe; he has seen the soon decompose, notwithstanding paint- bar, and my schemes for curvilinear hoting or tinning, and will soon get out of houses; of both of which he highly aprepair and break the glass." The first proves. question is, what space of time is re + In regard to pines, let it be recollected presented by the word soon? D-t that the roof of a curvilinear house, with

mean soon in comparison with curved ends, will inclose more base in prothe materials at present used for glass which the ends never can be brought into

portion than a common shed-like house, in roofs. These are tin and iron bars, hollow copper bars, compound iron bars, darkened three parts of every day. See a

use, or if they are, the house is completely (that is, an iron hoop inserted in a groove paper of Sir G. S. Mackenzie's, on an formed in a moulding of iron) and wood. economical hot-house in “ Caled. Hort. Now, as to durability, I think no one Trans." with the remarks on the same in will be hardy enough to deny that æ solid succeeding papers, &c.

must

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