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1818.] On Educution, in Reply to Philacribos.
of North Wales, from ă" voyage which - Periv ap Cadivor, a Bard of 1160, in the troubles in his own country induced his ode to Howel, son of Owen Gwy- him to attempt, and from which he snenedd, says,
cessfully returned, as some of the Bards * Fy nghaton a grynr håg erchlais y viân," inform us, to prevail on his former
asso: The hideous raven scream that wrúng my ciates to follow his example, and ex. soul.
change the Cambrian cliffs for the ferGay has the same idea, though with- tility of Mexico.
THE HIRLAS-THE WASSAIL CUP. out the possibility of plagiarism:
The mead horns of ancient Cambrian “ That raven on yon left-hand oak,
hospitality were called the Hirlus.-A “ (Curse on his ill-betiding croak,)
beautiful specimen of the ancient Hirlas, 6 Bodes me no good."
was preserved at the late Lord PenSLATE QUARRIES.
rhyn's seat in Carnarvonshire. Lloyd, in his “ Ode to Evan the
Fill with mead the Hirlas high, Thatcher," Murwnad Evan Dowr, says, Nor let a bowl this day be dry; " It appears probable from this line,
The hall resounds, the triumph rings, “ And if some day, of happier date,
And every bard the conflict sings. * Contrives a roof, it must be slate,"
See notes on Beaumaris Bay. that Evan Gethin* had
seen prophetic words of Merddyn Wyllt, The following stanza certainly pos
Merlinus Sylvaticus) which occur in sesses no small share of that mode of exa dialogue ascribed to him and Taliesin, pression called the impassioned ! about 570. « Pan dorrbe y deri
Moes gusan by chaw dibechod, digriy “ I'ng oror y 'Rhyn;
Mal degryn o wirod, “ A throi 'i cerrig yn vara.
Medrusaidd medrw osod, “ Yn agos i'v Wyddva.”
Er muyn Duw ar ry min dod !
TRANSLATION. The two first lines were fully accom
Give me the playful, harmless kiss, plished in the denudation of the country That little boon, mellifluous bliss; by Edw. I. and the fulfilling of the two Thou well canst lay it on my lip, last, seems to have been reserved for The drop, for God's sake let me sip! Lord Penrhyn, who, by opening and
ANCIENT INSTRUMENT OF MUSIC. working the slate quarries, and the
The Welsh shepherd, in some disspirit which his exemplary and success
tricts, still retains his pib-gorn, or pastoful exertions have excited, bids fair to ral pipe. His dress was formerly reconvert, in the language of Merddyn, “ the rocks of Eryri into bread;" and markable ; a crook, covered with chaEvan Gethin would, doubtless, now be nic cap made of rushes, and a loose
racters intelligible only to himself, a coful ability of Evan Dowr, so much and jacket. These, with Ria ro, or cry, so extensively improved upon; and it were necessary to the completion of the
character of the Cambrian shepherd. was, perhaps, far beyond even the pro
ANCIENT NAME OP BRITAIN. phetic powers of Merddyn, to foresee,
In the ancient and curious documents that after an inverval of 14 centuries, called Trioedd ynys Brydain, Triades the rocks of his country would, by an of the Isle of Britain — this Island is union of ability and perseverance in that named Clas Merddyn, the Green Isle, public spirited and lamented nobleman, after the arrival of Hy Gadarn, or be converted into an elegant and durable Hesus the Potent, the first settler Y covering, not for the dwelling of medio del ynys, the Honey Island; but aftererity only, but for the palaces of princes; wards Prydain, of which Britain is the and this also in Transatlantic regions, echo, the fair or beautiful Isle. In the
world of which Europeans, for many British Tales called Mabinogi, the poeages after that of Merddyn, and for tical denomination of Ynys y Cedeiri some years after those of Evan Gethin, Isle of the mighty- is given it. had no idea, unless indeed we except
CABR. the impression made in Wales by the return of Madog ap Owen Gwynedd,
ON EDUCATION, IN REPLY TO PHILAin the reign of his Brother David, prince
Jeuan Gethan op Jeuan Lleiwion, a MR. EDITOR, poet of the 13th century.
I hasten to comply with the -request
On Education, in Reply to Philacribos. [Oct. !, of your correspondent,* Philacribos, as of arithmetic, and therefore the system is the greater part of his objections arise to be considered levelling, in as far as itrefrom placing a wrong construction on duces the instruction at schools, to those the passage he has selected to make re arts. Now, however respectable or ca
pable a village schoolmaster may be, he In the first place the whole passage can have no chance to contend with a refers to learning, or knowledge, and school which gives instruction gratis not to religious opinions, to which there consequently the children of the respectis not the most distant reference. Hence able part of the inhabitants must either there was not any impropriety in class- be sent at a considerable expense to adising the systems together, as there does tant school, or be content with the same not appear to be many shades of differ- education which is given to the meanest. ence between the methods of teaching, All appear desirous of extending the whether the school be national or dis- benefits of the arts of reading and writsenting ;~and as to the inventor of the ing to every individual, but few have new system, though I would wish the considered the propriety of such a meareal inventor to have the merit, yet it sure, especially when conducted in the does not appear necessary to enter upon hasty and irregular manner at present the inquiry at present, and all I shall adopted ; as it appears very questionable, say at present on it is, that Philacribos, whether it will debase or improve the is too much of a partizan, sutier me to morals of the rising generation--at any subscribe to his opinion without further rate it will increase the number of newsinquiry.
papers, ballad singers, and circulating i wish, however, that Philacribos libraries, and will enable the girls to would understand distinctly, that I con- read novels, and ballads, and to write sider the national schools preferable to love letters; the young men to dabble the others, in many respects, and that in religious controversy and politics, to as far as religious instruction goes they read the weekly philippics of a Cobbet, are decidedly preferable.
or Hunt, &c. and to imbibe the delusive Now, having restricted the question principles of pretended reformers, to say to knowledge and moral habits, I will nothing of the inducement to join others endeavour to give my reasons for the of similar opinions at the tap-room.assertions I have advanced. Educa- Such are the most common applications tion is generally admitted to be one of the of the arts of reading and writing among most powerful instruments that can be the lower classes. employed in improving the condition Another, and not the least defect of and morals of men; of leading them to the system, is that of giving instruction know and practise the duties of religion; gratis. To place it at a reasonable rate, and ultimately of increasing the happi- or within the reach of those parents ness of mankind. This, however, must who choose to exert themselves to prodepend much on the manner in which cure their children instruction would be it is conducted--but it is evident that it a most charitable action, but to give it ought not only to lead to the objects gratis is no charity at all
. Instead of above stated, but also to be adapted to being made the reward of industry only, each individual's station in society; and the idle meet with equal encouragement, the plan of education which is not regu- and one of the greatest incitements to lated by these considerations is essen- carefulness and frugality is removed. tially defective.
I do not consider it a charity to give The term education, must bowever food, raiment, or education, except the be taken in a more limited sense when former in case of age, sickness, or immeit is applied to that given at schools, as diate want; and the latter to orphans. it is the example of their parents, the As in other cases it always has the effect principles instilled at home, that form of destroying industry, by removing the characters of children; the best every spur to exertion, and it totally parents teaching their children habits of annihilates an independent pride that honesty, sobriety, and industry, the ought to be encouraged, and paves the worst making their's adepts in every spe- way to begging and pauperism... cies of vice and irregularity; the Ifchildren were dependent on their påvarious shades between constituting the repts for education, those under the conbulk of society. The new system will stant influence of bad example would be apply only to the common arts of read- shut out from its advantages, and conseing and writing, and a slight knowledge quently the school would be in some mean
sure free from the danger of corruption ; * New Monthly Magazine, vol. X. p. 24. besides to give education to evil dis
213 posed children, is only to enable them to bad ones, but on the whole they seem do more harm in their riper years. It equal to any other class of men in the is also to be remembered that one evil same rank of life. disposed boy will do more injury in a And as to the introduction of the school than ten good ones will do good, new system into small schools, Philabecause vice always supports itself by cribos might as well advise the village the ridicule of every thing that is good, blacksmith to adopt the division of laand the powerful effect of ridicule on the bour, which is found to facilitate so human mind is too well known to need much the progress of work in an extenillustrations.
sive manufactory. It may, and I beThat parents should be desirous of lieve does answer very well, where chilhaving their children educated, is very dren are taught in a wholesale way (if reasonable ; so it is that they should I may be allowed the expression, but it have them supplied with food, and de- is in a great measure inapplicable to a fended from the effect of the weather; small school. - but would it be prudent to find food and The common schools might be very raiment for every half starred child, be- much improved, by teaching in them cause its parents had not the power to such knowledge as would fit children for furnish it with sufficiency? Are not im- the station in life which they are intendprudent marriages sufficiently numerous ed to fill; but mere reading and writing at present, without removing one of the are of little use without some additional greatest bars against them? viz. that of knowledge. A knowledge of the nature being obliged to provide for their chil- and mode of keeping accounts is useful dren. -What is to check an overgrown to almost all ; that of practical geometry population, if the fruits of every impru- and mensuration is necessary to the cardent marriage be to be supported and penter, bricklaver, mason'; the rudieducated by public charities? While the ments of mechanics to the mill-wright parish supports the children, and the and machine maker; chemistry, to the national school educates them, need we dyer, bleacher, &c.; and it would tend Wonder at the increase of paupers and materially to the improvement of these pauperism?
arts, if men could be grounded in their Whatever may be the apparent good first principles; and this may be done in respect to the unfortunate children, without making a mill-wright a matheit will, I am afraid, be attended with matician, or a dver a chemical philosomost serious consequences to society in pher. How much might landed progeneral. By some 1 may be considered prietors improve the manners, and the unjust in saying that the children should arts and trades in the villages, on their suffer for the imprudence of the parent, estates, by giving encouragement to the but it will be only by those inconsi- progress of this kind of knowledge! In derate people who “spare the rod and the metropolis the diffusion of this kind spoil the child.” Whether we consult of knowledge is already considerable. the principles of human laws, or the In proportion as men increase in usehigher authority of religion, we find that ful knowledge they respect themselves, the sins of the parents are to be visited and are respected by others, and examupon the children; and whoever considers ple will encourage the lower classes to that virtuous parents are more solicit- imitate them. ous about the welfare and safety of their I wish much to see the knowledge children than their own, will be sensible that has been accumulated by men of that these laws were to prevent crimes, science diffused for the general good of by an appeal to affections superior even society, and that it should be rendered to self-love, and consequently the most as easy of access as possible to the inlikely to produce the best effects; for dustrious and the prudent, and that the parent that would sacrifice his own with as little appearance of gratuitous children to his passions, what would he instruction as possible. I would wish not be guilty of? Modern reformers to see the farmer capable of consulting may call this injustice; but who are they, the works of a Davy, and a mechanic or what have they done, that we those of a Gregory or a Hutton, &c. should depart from the maxims of anti- and that general knowledge should be quity, and the commands of Religion, to encouraged, instead of the foible of a gratify their pretended humanity? day, which is evidently followed by
The indiscriminate censure which Phi- dissenters, for the purpose of propagatlacribos has passed upon schoolmasters, ing their own modes of worship. “As if I shall not reply to-there may be some the love of novelty, which leads men
Calumny in the Old Monthly Magazine. (Oct. 1, to listen to the ravings of ignorance, and on the side of infidelity, that he conto adopt new forms of worship that differ ducted the controversy as though he not essentially from the old, and that had a personal quarrel with religion; leads women to forget their duties as and there are some men of such a ma. mothers, was not sufficient for their lignant spirit, that when an occasion purpose.
offers to shew their spite, neither reIt may be said, if you teach a child spect for truth, nor the cread of shame to read, you give him access to all kinds can restrain them within the bounds of of knowledge, as the world is full of common prudence. Of this a notable inbooks ; but though we have abundance stance occurs in the last Number of the of books, how few are there that can be Old Monthly Magazine, where the moof use to the great mass of mankind ?mentary violence of an electioneering mob for it is not reading, but a man's own is thus related : “ One of the most rejudgment that makes him wise. A markable incidents was the resentment sound judgment is not readily formed, of the Dublin populace against the EQUIhence hasty and imperfect modes of edu- VOCATING GRATTAN, for his inflammacation may make children prate like tory Speech in 1815, exciting the comparrots, about things they do not under- bined despots to disregard the indepenstand, and by encouraging them to break dence of France. He narrowly escaped through the restraints which custom and being torn in pieces, and was saved only reverence for their superiors had im- ' by the generous eloquence of Mr. Charles posed on their parents ; and leaving them Phillips !'' without any sound principles to regu The language of this abominable palate their conduct.
ragraph shews as plainly as words can Another defect of the new system is, express meaning, that had the rage of the that it always gives the palın to boys of populace proceeded to the last extrea peculiar talent, leaving those who, mity, the unfeeling author would have though they have not the same, yet may recorded the catastrophe with the same have talents of a superior kind, in the phlegm, or rather satisfaction, as he did back ground. A ready or kind of artificial the assassination of the virtuous Percememory will be placed before sound val. In that case, he pitied the inurjudgment - and slow mental powers, derer, and congratulated the country on however great they may be, will meet the fall of the minister. In the present with little to epcourage them; and a he sets up a sort of justificatory plea for boy taught by the new system will,in con the Irish rabble, vents the foulest casequence of its peculiarities, always have lumny upon the aged patriot, and with more apparent than real information.
equal regard to decency, bestows a ridiThere is yet another defect which I culous and indeserved compliment upon have to notice, and that is the introduc- an orator, for interposing his eloquence, tion of the Bible as a common school not spontaneously but at the request book; this I consider to be very impro- of others, in an effort to quell the madper, as there are many parts of the Bible dened passions of an infuriated popuunfit for children to read. Besides, lace. the very nature of the book renders The truth, however, is, that the mob it-unsuitable for a school-book- I need did not attack their ancient favorite out not quote the authority of a Tillotson of resentment for any speech made by or a Watts on this subject, as it must him against the object of the recreant be evident to any one who gives him- knight's idolatry. This is a mere fabriself a moment to reflect on the matter. cation, the coinage of a brain continually Surely a summary of the principles of throwing up the spumous filth of a foul Christianity could be drawn up for the imagination, and directing the stink use of schools, which would render it pot of its malice at every name that quite unnecessary to use the Bible where stands high in the public estimation, for any other book would do. But, if the talents and integrity. The fit of spleen, Bible be improper in the hands of chil- excited for a moment amidst the uproar dren, it is still more so in those of people of an election when misrule stood for of weak judgment, and of little education. the order of the day, arose from mere London, Aug. 17th, 1818. D-t. local circumstances, in which foreign
politics had not the smallest .concern. MONTHLY How far Mr. Charles Phillips merited
the encomium which he has received for NR. BDYTOR,
his generosity,” in speaking a word IT was said of a celebrated writer to allay the tumult of the misguided
IN THE OLD
1818. On the Institution of King Arthur's Round Table. 215 multitude, I shall not stoop to enquire; forms us, is “ the best pastoral (poem ! bat it is evident enough that had his in the language !" But this" Lecturer name-sake been placed in the same situa- ranks “ Homer, the Bible, Danté, and tion he would have acted in a very dif- Ossian," as “four of the principal works ferent manner.
of poetry in the world," and as “ Bwrdd It is disagreeable to take in the com. Arthur” may be termed, in his affected mon sewer of ribaldry and disloyalty; way, somewhat Ossian-ic, he may perbut having pointed out the detestable haps look upon it with a favourable malignity of this wholesale calumniator, eye. towards one of my countrymen, I can By the way, let me “ propound" à not forbear extracting another specimen hint or two : could you induce Messrs. of his virulence, that they who have any Hunt and Hazlitt to make a tour of this spark of feeling for the honour of their part of the country; Hunt may sing and native land may be ashamed of coun- Hazlitt recite--and the thing would take, tepancing a magazine of mischief, in as they would infinitely please us Camá which patriotism and morality are insult- brians with their cockneyisms and“ drab. ed, and characters of the first eminence coloured” poetry. Pray suggest this. 3 openly aspersed. In the description of Again. I wish you could “ stir up! the late exhibition at Somerset House, another Jedediah Cleishbottom in this this venomous slanderer, thus notices quarter, as well qualified for his task as the portrait of the illustrious Welling. the original. We abound in border tra ton. “ Sir Thomas Lawrence has eight dition; and although we have no Moss pictures, and some of them are unques troopers,we could accommodate him with tionably the best in the Collection; that as great a variety of martial incident as of Lady Gower is a master piece ; that the “ Tales of My Landlord" afford. I of the Convention Breaker is deserv- assure you we have some good stories, of edly admired as a painting ;--but it is high historic interest; and I should redeeply regretted by every moralist, that joice to see them embodied in a brace of so much talent should have been misem- duodecimos. ployed on so unworthy a subject !"
CAMBRO-BRITANNICON. There was a period, when the writer Caerlleon, August 8. of so scurrilous a paragraph would have met with the judgment of the law; Spread be my board, round as the but at present such is the freedom of hoop* of the firmanent, and as ample as the press, that any lying scoundrel may my heart, that there may be no first or lampoon his betters with impunity, and last, for odious is distinction where merit set public authority at defiance by his im- ' is equal. pudence.
Who is he with his spear yet dripping Aug. 8, 1818.
HIBERNICUS. with gore? It is Meurig,t the Eagle of
Dyved, the terror of the Saxons: he BWRDD ARTHUR,
gave a banquet to the wolves at Cedyn OR THE INSTITUTION
Kiraeth. Woe be to him who meets ARTHUR'S ROUND TABLE.
him in his wrath. (A Fragment from the original British.)
I have beard his shout!-'twas tho NR. EDITOR,
sound of death! His guards of CerTHE following translation contains so naes § exulted. Like lightning flashed many poetic beauties, that I am strongly induced to offer it you, in the hope of
# The word, in the original, signifies also its being thought worthy a place in your the horizon: a sublime figure for the Round Magazine. It is from one of the earliest Table. Welsh bards, and although anonymous, * Meurig was a Regulus of Dyved, the is, I believe, the production in a Saxon present county of Pembroke, and said to be dress of W. LLWYD, anthor of “ Beuu one of the four who bore golden swords bemaris Bay "I am doubtful of its receiving fore Arthur at his coronation feast: several the "approbation of Mr. Hazlitt, or his of the gentry in this district trace their
descent from him. Worthy co-adjutor in jingling jacobinical rhyme, Mr. Leigh Hunt: but of this I
I The mountain of longing, or desire, ära pretty certain, that it has a strong sometimes in Latin, implies grief: a great
literally; but here Hiraeth, as desiderium claims to the new classification of number of hillocks (traditionally said to be e poétič symptoms," as “ Walton's Coin- the graves of the slain) cover the surface. plete Angler," which, in page 194, of In this part of Pembrokeshire was said Mr. Hazlitt's lectures, he sagaciously in- to be Arthur's palace of Llan hyfer.