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18 18.] On the Cockney School of Prose Writers.- No. 1. 201 but, with honest Sancho, always “wants ther removed from the purpose than he better bread than is made of wheat." To has done. For ourselves, we do profess sum up much criticism in a few words, he to believe, notwithstanding his denunis the shabby petit maitre—the dirty dan- ciations, that poetry bears a very great dy of literature! In his attempts to be affinity to painting. They both conoriginal he is coarse and vulgar; and if sist in an imitation of nature, and the he mounts the high horse of sentimen- nearer they approach to an entire re. tality, it is sure to throw him into the semblance of it, the more perfect and exdirt. The following (one of his very cellent they are. The painter is to the many definitions of poetry) is highly cu eye, what the poet is to the ear. From rious and entertaining :

:-“That which one we derive pleasure by silent elolifts the spirit above the earth, which quence, from the other by vocal imagery. draws the soul out of itself with indescri One depicts with a pen, whilst the other, bable longings, is poetry, in kind, and ge-' with equal elegance, expresses a poetical nerally fit to become so in nume, by being spirit by the pencil. Descriptive poems married to immortal verse. Why have often been spoken of as pictures; really the politics of this pompous cock and as painting is divided into many ney, are less absurd than his criticisms, branches, so poetry will be found to bear He pretends to be an admirer of Hudi a proportionate resemblance to them all. bras, but had he ever perused that inge- The Dutch school for instance, admirable nious production he would have known in its way, may be compared to the burthat“ rhyme is only the rudder of verse." lesque style of poetry, the ends of both But as he seems very dull of comprehen- being to excite laughter. Those who sion, we will present him with a still delineate landscapes, pleasant prospects, further illustration of the subject. Verse and rural scenes, may be likened to the is to poetry, what a peach-coloured coat, pastoral poets; and portrait painters, to buckskins, and patent top boots are to those who write on common place occaMr. Hazlitt—"the outward and visible sions ; the latter tell of joy, grief, passign of an inward and spiritual grace," sion, and disappointment, in their strains ; when there is any, and vice versa. as in the former represent all the emotions of the case of the critic. After assimilating the heart, on the faces of their figures, poetry to a bird, a carriage that goes on

with the utmost spirit and vivacity, springs-a flame-a river-a parallelo. True Poetry the painter's power displays, gram, and representing it as bright and True Painting emulates the poet's lays, obscure, vast and infinite, making the odds The rival sisters, fond of equal fame, even, sometimes composed of gauze and Alternate change their office and their name. silver spangles, and at others of nothing Fresnoy. Mason's Translation. at all; we have a clumsy comparison The

pen and the pencil equally corof its merits with painting, on which we spire to preserve to men the memory of shall beg leave to offer a few observations. the illustrious of all ages—to record high “We may assume without much teme- and exalted deeds, and rescue their rity," says Mr. H. “ that poetry is more names from oblivion in spite of mortality, poetical than painting. When artists or We do not think with our cockney critic, connoisseurs talk on stilts about the that “ by the time the picture is painted poetry of painting, they shew that they all is over;" on the contrary, we look know little about poetry, and have little upon an interesting painting to be to the love for the art. Painting gives the ob- imagination, what the key note is to the ject itself; poetry what it implies. Paint- melody, in music, which gives us an iming embodies what a thing contains in it- pulse, a ground work for the fancy to exself: poetry suggests what exists out of pand upon. But we are getting into a it in any manner connected with it." lengthy dissertation quite foreign to our “But by the time the picture is painted, intentions; the object we had in view all is over. Faces are the best part of a was simply to expose Mr. Hazlitt's fallipicture; but even faces are not what we bility as a critic, -an aim which we have chiefly remember in what interests us doubtless pretty well accomplished. We most. The information we gain from have shewn him to be ignorant of all he the first part of this estimate is infinitely pretends to understand-a mere quackluminous. We are at a loss to conceive à mountebank; who has wriggled himwhy Mr. Hazlitt will not permit self into public notice by spouting his noisseurs and artists” to talk upon stilts creaking prose in tavern halls, and would as well as himself; it would be scarcely have poisoned the public with his“ brick possible for them to say any thing fur- dast powders," and "tallow pills" had NEW MONTALY MAC.-No. 57.

VOL. X.

2 D

con

SUPERIORITY OF THE BRITISH TROOPS

OVER THE FRENCH.

202 Superiority of the British Troops over the French. [Oct. I, not his imposture been discovered, and born with an equal average of individual himself held up to the contempt he bravery, though babits and education Herits.

may tend to subdue or diminish it. 2. Whether the French are our inferiors

in this species, I know not. I should rather incline to think them personally

as valiant as ourselves; but in a colTHAT the British troops have al- lective body, no doubt, they are far ways proved victorious over the French, beneath us. The reason may be this ; whenever there was any thing like a where the performance of an exploit parity of numbers, is an historical fact, depends upon the courage of one man undeniable from the times of Agincourt alone, he knows how far he can rely tu those of Waterloo. This ascendancy upon himself, and if he be valiant he in prowess, proceeds from moral and will not fear abandoning his own atpolitical

, as well as physical causes. In a tempt. But when he forms only a part free state, where every man feels; more of an executive machine, he has the or less, identified with the existing order additional fear of being abandoned by of things, and where the privileges to others, and the courage necessary to which the constitution entitles him assist him is not entirely his own. gives dignity to his sentiments, and Now, when a man finds himself a part elevates him above the mere tool of only of an integral body, private feeling arbitrary ambition, it is natural that naturally becomes subordinate to public, he should become actuated by a more partakes of its tenor, and adopts its rational and staple motive, than spirit. In the case, therefore, of a contest mere professional advancement or in- between French and English armies, if it dividual glory. Those interests and be true, that the public spirit of the einotions, in short, which render the latter, (for the reasons before assigned,) officer always more steady, determined be superior to those of the former, it and effective than the private soldier, follows, that however brave an individual are infused in a far greater degree, into Frenchman may be, he will accommodate the subordinate ranks of such an army, the exertions of that bravery to the than into mechanical inasses of slaves, general tone of his associates. The who care little about the political result; Frenchman will argue, that it were usebuit conceiving every object accomplished less to attempt enterprizes, which might, when their victories enable them to not be supported by his comrades; plunder the dead, retire from the field, whereas the Englishman places as much covered with glory and gold lace. reliance on his comrades as on himself.

At the commencement of a battle This difference then, in the esprit du plıysical prowess and constitutional corps, of both armies, often tends to bravery are the principal qualities ex- make the Frenchman, if he be a brave erted on both sides, and as these are man, act like a coward; and the Englishgenerally dispensed on both sides, in a man, if he be a coward, act like a brave pretty equal proportion, the contest generally remains for some time unde Courage is also divisible into two cided. But it is after their exhaustion, other species-active and passive. In it is after the mere brutal powers have the latter, the French are certainly our expended themselves, it is after the body equals : for they will stand tamely to be has overworked its functions, that the shot at, a whole summer's day. But mind developes its strength, and decides when the combat ceases to be missile, the fate of the day. Then the love of when steel encounters steel, and the freedom contends against the love of hand which deals death, and the eye plunder, the sober habit of reflecting that threatens it, approach and beupon consequences against the chimerical come visible, then the Frenchman begins rashness of indefinite aims; and the cool to feel his inferiority, and the Englishintrepidity of principle, against the short man to glory in his prowess. Then, lived enthusiasm of glory.

indeed, the Frenchman knows that the The quality of courage has often desertion of his comrade will prove been divided into two kinds-consti- fatal, and the Englishman is conscious tuitional and moral; that which despises that into whatever peril he rushes he personal danger, and that which bears shall not want support. The conseup against mental calamity. But the quence has been, that throughout the former is itself subdivisible into two whole of the Peninsular war, the species-individual and aggregate. Per- French never but twice attempted to haps the great mass of every nation is cross bayonets with British troops, but

inan.

MODERN PATRIOTISM.

1818.]
Modern Patriotism.

203 always fled from the charge, just when and virtuous, or servile and vicious they had advanced so far as to render empires, and afterwards mainly conretreat infinitely more difficult and fatal tribute, either to preserve or to destroy than a contest. Yet this sort of panic them.

B. applies to them only where they meet British troops ; for they feel, and therefore, (so far as confidence goes,) possess MR. EDITOR, a decided superiority at the

bayonet over ALTHOUGH a constant and systethe troops of every other nation. matic opposition to the measures of

Our advantage in close combat, in- government may appear somewhat undependent of moral causes, is attributable reasonable, it is difficult to conceire to the habits and exercises of our people, that our constitution could otherwise he which tend, at once, to strengthen their preseryed in a vigorous and healthy muscular powers, and familiarize them state ; or, indeed that it could exist at alí. with personal contentions. Cricket, Opposition, while it nourishes manly football, tripping, wrestling and boxing and independent feelings among the per are the sports of our English youth. ple, by its vigilance, often instructs minis. The latter, especially, in which almost all ters how to act, and at all times im. are adepts, accustoms them to view with- poses on them the duties of moderation out terror, an antagonist face to face, and circumspection. Most of those', and glaring fierceness and destruction however, who engage in this practice from his eye. Now the power of the rush into such extremes as entirely tu human countenance to create terror, not defeat their own purpose. Were they alone in beasts, but in fellow men, is to study a greater degree of candor and well authenticated; and more than one discrimination, it is evident that their Frenchman has been heard to say, that censures would acquire more force ng he dreaded our eyes more than our well as dignity. Interest, disappointed bayonets. It is a fact too, that a French- hopes, envy, rivalship, revenge, &c. are man never thinks of running till he has often too plainly the main-springs of approached close enough to see the their political invectives. Some few visage of his enemy. There is no doubt, there are, possessed of peculiar maligtherefore, that this circumstance alone, nity, who, in their rage against its go. produces no small effect in a Frenchman, vernors, extend it also to the country whose sole exercise is fencing ; a science, itself, rejoicing in its misfortunes, anul where the first lesson taught, is to pre- would seem ever fervently to wish its sent a serene countenance, for the pur- total downfall; assured, in this case, that pose of preserving temper and self pos- the hated possessors of power would be session. Strength and activity of arm the first to be involved in the universal are also required, in a far greater ruin. Of this description, undoubtedly, degree, by the manly games of English- the most conspicuous are Cobbett anii men. Though, therefore, a French Phillips. In the last publications of army may outnumber an Englislı, and these ultra-patriots, I observe mutual though the sum total of their strength, compliments on the soundness of their may thus exceed our own, yet as, gene- principles, and the excellence of their rally speaking, each individual English- characters. man surpasses in prowess each individual It has however excited much regret and Frenchman, though he fall short of surprise that the celebrated Jeremy Benany two, yet still, that prowess, being tham, in a late book on the “ İnadeconcentrated, and set in motion by one quacy of moderate, and the necessity of governing power, so as to act instantane- radical reform," should have sullied his ously upon a single point, it becomes, reputation by adopting the vulgar abuse according to mechanic rules, equal in its of the Prestons and Hunts. As this effect, to two distinct powers, which are gentleman does not seem, conspicuously, superior in actual endowment; but to possess natural malignity of temper, it inferior in the means of application. is reasonable to suppose that he must

In short, it is mind, and not muscle, have been thwarted in some application which decides the fate of nations; and to government; or been disappointed in not so much the mind of the general, his expectations.* Of any such particular who by judgment and ingenuity certainly effects a great deal, as that moral # If ministers have really grossly disportion of the mind, those passions and regarded the claims of a man, who, neglectthose feelings, which, according as good ing the lucrative practice, has devoted his or bad preponderates, first create free · life to the illustration of the theory of law,

204
Modern Patriotism.

[Oct. 1, circumstance in the bistory of his life, periment of investing the people with I au wholly ignorant; but a passage new political power. Some late large occurs in this work from which I think minorities, and the last elections, ought, it may be safely inferred that his extra- I think, to convince every candid and ordinary zeal for radical reform pro- reasonable person that our constitution ceeds from a different kind of feeling is already sufficiently democratical; cirthan pure patriotism He exultingly ar cumstances, however, which I do not gues that kings must ever be against re mention as matter of regret, or alarm, form, because, as human creatures they but rather the contrary. But, surely, would not naturally wish to impart any Mr. Bentham must have abandoned all of the good things of the world to re sense of truth and shame when he formers, but retain them all to them- roundly asserts that the liberties of the selves. It must follow, according to his people are now wholly extinguished by own data, that as reformers are also the incroachments of arbitrary power. human creatures they must likewise be It is a glaring truth that popular priactuated by similar principles, by a de- vileges have been continually gaining sire to catch at the good things of the ground since the extinction of the Tudor world. The following are his own ex- Family; and, if I mistake not, they pressions, in which your readers will dis- have attained additional consideration, cover none of the graces of elegance or even in our own times, since the confisimplicity. Money, power, factitious dent administration of Pitt. Yet, says dignity-among the modifications of the this writer, “ Without any outward matter of good, among the good things or visible change in the forms of our of this wicked world-these as it is the constitution, the monarchical and the interest so it has ever been the study- aristocratical have obtained over the as it has been the study, so has it been democratical not only an ascendaney, the endeavour—of the monarch-as it but an ascendancy so complete, that has been, so will it, and where the under the outward shew of a mixed and monarch is a human being, so must it be limited monarchy, a monarchy virtually every where to draw to himself the and substantially absolute is the result. greatest quantity possible.” p. 18. It is Such kind of random, desperate, obhoped that both rulers and reformers servations would have deserved no attenmay be human, and yet their interest tion had they come from a common opwill sometimes consist in more generous position writer, who, for the sake of his and sublime modifications of the matter character or the sale of his works, must, of good than money, power, or facti- without ceremony, persevere in the tious dignity. It is not surely beyond opinions he has publicly avowed; but the reach of human virtue, either in a when a man whose name of all his living monarch or à patriot, that his true contemporaries perhaps best deserves interest and happiness lie in the real to be mentioned by posterity, voluntarily good of his country, and the pleasure of plunges into the mire with the lowest seeing all around him prosperous and herd of croaking politicians, pouring out happy; or, in the consciousness of present those mere“ railing accusations” which and future fame.

have already passed a thousand mouths, Universal suffrage, or, at least, a more and whose appetite is capable of being general suffrage of the people in the satiated with miserable, antiquated election of the members of Parliament satire, of which the meanest pamphleteer is the great outcry of all our reformers. has been twenty years ago ashamed; This convenient topic on which to such as allusions to Burke's swinish display their political sagacity and their multitude and to the house of correction sound patriotism, will, it is likely, last by the name of the Bastillo; which he them long enough; for it is not to be calls one of Lord Sidmouth's Bastilles, imagined that the British Government where the “seditionist lies rotting, unwill ever be se enthusiastically, specu seen and unseenable :" such an extralative, as to in the tremendous ex- ordinary phenomenon well deserves to

be particularly remarked, as one of the they undoubtedly merit the charge of insen most striking, as well as lamentable sibility. In a former age statesmen were proofs of the degree to which partymore ambitious of the praise of literature spirit is capable of perverting the temper, than of late ; they were not only the patrons, and degrading the understanding: but the intimate companions of the Popes and the Gays, the Addisons and the Swifts

E. LEMPRIERE. of their time.

Holborn, Aug, 4, 1818.

1818.)
Nugæ Literariæ.-No. 2.

205 NUG Æ LITERARIÆ. The morning rises black; the low'ring sun, No. 2.

As if the dreadful business he foreknew, The resources of Genius. Drives heavily his sable chariot on, In his musing mood the poet exists in

Alexander. another world, peopled by the beings By which comparison it is seen that of his own prolific imagination. Lee's images are most striking ; AddiHe is there compensated for the neglects son's most correct. he meets with in life. There every tring is adjusted to his taste ; his rivals

Song writing are always disgraced and his nymphs are

Is a talent entirely “per sc,” and always kind. — “Les malheureux qui ont given, like every other branch of genius, de l'esprit trouvent des ressources en

by nature. Shenstone was labouring

through his whole life to write a perfect eus-memes,” says Bouhours: “ Then grieve not thou to whom the indul- song, and succeeded no better than Pope gent Muse

did in his attenupts at a Cecilian Ode. Vouchsafes a portion of celestial fire;

Mr. Moore is one of the very few poets Nor blame the partial Fates if they refuse who have entered into the spirit of this The imperial banquet and the rich attire ; style of composition. His songs abound Know thine own worth, and reverence the in the most exquisite similies, and Lyre!*

generally conclude with one, which may Remarks on a passage in the Dunciad. be said to be to the piece, like the dew “ Yet ne'er one sprig of laurel decked these drop at the end of an unfolding rosebud, ribbalds

which, tinged with the colour of the From slashing Bentley,” &c.

flower, adds brightness to its hues, deli-- The introduction of a name so de- cacy to its shades, beauty to its shape, servedly revered as that of the critic and fragrance to its perfume! Bentley into the Dunciad will ever

Seat of Modesty. reflect the highest discredit upon its

Aristotle observes that lovers gaze on author. The cause of Pope's enmity to no part but the eyes of those they love, this worthy man and excellent scholar, which is the abode of modesty. Pliny, is accounted for in the following anec- however, places it in the cheeks; but dote.

Erasmus in some measure illustrates Atterbury being in company with the meaning of the Stagyrite, by affirming Bentley and Pope, insisted upon known that modesty is said to be in the eyes, ing the Doctor's opinion of the (then) because children when they blush cover recently translated Homer. He warded their eves. He adds that the Poets off the question for some time, but being feign Cupid blind because he is so impuearnestly pressed by both, freely said, dent; were his eyes open nobody would

The verses are good verses, but the trust him. work is not Homer, it is Spontanus;". 6 Which is the villain ? let mesee his eyes an observation which may be considered That I may avoid him.” exceedingly apposite. Pope has been

Much Ado, &c. too attentive to the melody of his ver- Coincidence between Fairfax and Lorenzo sification, and has failed in a great

de Medecis. measure to infuse into his translation

In the twenty-first stanza of the third the simple majesty of Homer. His book of the “Gerusalemme Liberata," descriptions run into florid amplifications where Tancred inadvertently encounters not to be found in the original, and he Clorinda, and knocks off her shelmet, is not unfrequently artificial and affected, Tasso says, when he wishes to be pathetic. In short 6 E le chiome dorate al vento sparse, his splendid and too highly ornamented Giovane donna in ʼmezzo 'l campo apparse." paraphrase is better adapted to the style of the silvery tongued author mentioned fax introduces a very splendid image of

In his translation of this passage, Fairby Bentley than to Homer.

his own. LEE and ADDISON.

“ About her shoulders shone her golden The thought with which Addison's no- locks, ble tragedy Cato opens, appears to have Like sunny beams on alabaster rocks.been borrowed from Lee's Alexander.

Tasso merely observes that a young The dawn is overcast, the morning lowers,

female appeared before him with her And heavily in clouds brings on the day.

golden locks shaken out in the wind. Cato.

The exquisitely graceful addition of the Beuttie's Minstrel.

translator may however be traced to a

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