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148
New Inventions and Patents.

Sept. 1, posing on the stone a drawing traced on black, called Frankfort black, to give it paper with the prepared ink.

an intense colour is added; the mixture All kinds of close calcareous stone is then poured into moulds, where it of an even and fine grain, which are must remain till it is quite cold, when it capable of taking a good polish with will be proper to be used as chalk pumice stone, and having the quality of pencils. absorbing water may be used for litho V. LIST OP NEW PATENTS. graphy.

John Neilson, of Linlithgow, ScotComposition of the Ink.--Heat a glazed land, glue-manufacturer, for an improveearthen vessel over the fire; when it is ment in the tanning and tawing of hides hot introduce one pound by weight of and skins; and in the dying or colourwhite Marseilles soap, and as much ing of leather, and other articles. June mastic in grains; melt these ingredients, 22, 1818. and mix them carefully; then incor ALBERT Roux, of Yverden, in the porate five parts by weight of shell lac, Canton of Vaud, in Switzerland, Doctor and continue to stir it ; to mix the in Divinity, for an improvement, or imwhole, drop in gradually a solution of provements, applicable to locks of difone part of caustic alkali in five times its ferent descriptions ; communicated to bulk of water. Caution, however, must him by a foreigner, residing abroad. be used in making this addition, because June 30, 1818. should the ley be put in all at once, the JOHN Baird, of Lanark, Scotland, liquor will ferment, and run over. When North Britain, manager for the New the mixture is completed by a moderate Shots Iron Company; for various heat, and frequent stirring, a propor- improvements in the manufacturing tionate quantity of lamp-black must be and making of cast-iron boilers, used added, after which a sufficient quantity for the purpose of evaporating the of water must be poured in to make the juice of the sugar-cane or syrup derived ink liquid.

from thence, by means of annealing them Drawing. This ink is used for draw. in a furnace or kiln of a peculiar coning on the stone in the same manner as struction. July, 1818. on paper, either with a pen or pencil; WILLIAM BAILEY, of High Holborn, when the drawing on the stone is quite ironmonger, for certain improvements in dry, and an impression is required, the sashes, sky-lights, and frames, generally surface of the stone must be wetted used for the purpose of receiving, holdwith a solution of nitric acid, in the ing, and containing glass for the admisproportion of fifty to one of water; this sion of light, and the exclusion of rain must be done with a soft sponge, taking and snow; and also for making roofs or care not to make a friction in the draw- coverings for houses and various other ing. The wetting must be repeated as buildings. July, 11, 1818. soon as the stone appears dry; and James Milron, late of Paisley, in when the effervescence of the acid has North Britain, but now of Ashtonceased, the stone is to be carefully under-Line, Lancaster, for a new species rinsed with clean water.

of loom-work, whereby figures or Printing.–While the stone is moist, flowers can be produced in a mode it should be passed over with the prin- hitherto unknown upon any fabric of ter's ball charged with ink, which will cloth, while in the process of weaving, adhere only to those parts not wetted. whether such fabric be linen, cotton, A sheet of paper properly prepared for woollen, silk, or any of them intermixed. printing is then to be spread on the July 11, 1818. stone, and the whole cominitted to the John RICHTER, of Holloway, Midpress, or passed through a roller. dlesex; for certain improvements in the

To preserve the drawing on the sto ne apparatus of utensils used for distillafrom dust, when not in use, a solution tion, evaporation, and condensation, and of gum arabic is passed over it, which that the same are new in this country; can be ensily removed by a little water. communicated to him by a foreigner Instead of ink, chalk crayons are some- residing abroad. July 14, 1818. times used for drawing upon the stone RICHARD ORMROD, of Manchester, or upon paper ; from which a counter- Lancashire, iron-founder; for an improof is taken upon the stone. The provement in the manufacturing of copcrayons are thus made,-three parts of per, or other metal cylinders, or rollers soap, two parts of tallow, and one part for calico printing. July 22, 1818. of wax are all dissolved together in an URBANUS SARTOREES, of Winearthen vessel. When the whole is chester-street, London, merchant; foran well mixed, a sufficient quantity of lamp- improvement in the method of produc

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1818.]
Reports of Public Institutions.

149 ing ignition in fire arms, by the condensa- method of regulating the admission of tion of atmospheric air. July 22, 1818. stcam into pipes or other vessels, used

HENRY CREIGHT ON, of the city of for the heating of buildings, or other Glasgow, civil engineer; for a new places. July 22, 1818.

REPORTS OF PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS.

I. Report of the Commillce of the Society these points, they attribute the pre

for the Improvement of Prison Disci- valence of juvenile delinquency, and the pline, and for the Reformation of Ju- general increase of crime rather to the venile Offenders.

present state of our prison discipline, THIS Institution originated three which is more disgraceful to a moral years ago in the exertions of a few indi- nation than any or all of the causes that viduals, whose philanthropy was excited have been enumerated. Upon this head by the cases of several boys convicted of the report is very full, and it is to be capital offences. Having entered upon hoped that means will be devised for the an inquiry into the subject, it was found correction of this crying abuse. One that juvenile delinquency existed in the powerful remedy, which has suggested metropolis to a most alarming extent; itself to the committee, and deserves that a system was in action by which un- public attention, is that of establishing fortunate children were organized into à Reformatory for boys, combining in an gangs; that they resorted to houses eminent degree these most important where they planned their enterprizes, requisites:- The power of complete and and afterwards divided the plunder. constant inspection, classification and Upon this a public meeting was con- facilities for carrying on various branches vened, and a society formed, the object of labour. This is the tried plan of the of which was to obtain information re- Philanthropic Institution in St. George's specting the nature and causes of the Fields, the success of which holds out a evil, and to ascertain the most efficient sufficient inducement for an extension means of removing or diminishing it. of such foundations over the kingdom. With this view the members of the coin We are sorry to find from this report, mittee arranging themselves into sub- that “the expe ses necessarily incurred divisions, visited the prisons in and have exhausted the very limited funds about London; examined the boys of the Society;" but we trust that when apart; pursued their enquiries among their object becomes generally known, the parents, friends, or associates of the the co-operation of the benevolent will culprits; kept a journal of cases, in not be wanting to enable them to go on which all particulars were carefully re with renewed vigour in this good work ; corded; and in short adopted every further particulars of which may be measure likely to ensure an

known of WILLIAMALLEN, Esq. Plough knowledge of the extent of the evil and Court, Lombard Street; Thomas Fothe causes of its increase. In the pre WELL BUXTON, Esq. Spitalfields ; SAsent report these causes are stated to be MUEL Hoare, Jun. Esq. Lombard 1. the neglect of moral and religious Street; and Dr. LUSHINGTON, Doceducation: 2. the want of suitable em tor's Commons. ployment for children in early life: 3. the II. Statement of the Society for the Surwant of necessaries to support life. Be

pression of Mendicity. sides these general sources of early vice, The Board of Management have taken there are others of a peculiar character, a house in Red Lion Square for the as,—1. Flash houses, where boys and transaction of business, and another congirls frequently associate with common tiguous, where soup is served to those thieves and prostitutes.-2. The fairs in who produce tickets; besides which, the neighbourhood of the metropolis, temporary lodging is provided for such where every species of debauchery and as would otherwise be consigned to the profligacy is practised eighty-two days streets. Tickets are sold to non-subin the space of seven months.—3. The scribers at two-pence each; by which severity of the penal laws, which, instead means the objects of charity will have a of checking, may be said to give encou- larger quantity of wholesome nourishragement to crime, in consequence of ment than can be elsewhere procured the leniency of Juries, and the impunity for that sum.

When a mendicant apshewn to early offenders. But though plies with one of these tickets, if he be the committee dwell emphatically upon not already known at the office, an exa

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150

Proceedings of Philosophical Societies. (Sept. 1, mination takes place by the sitting mem- apination as to their acquaintance with ber of the Board, in order to ascertain the leading doctrines of christianity, and the state of the beggar, and to provide

the facts of scripture history; their profor his further reliet, if he be an object ficiency in all which delighted and astoof real distress; but if the applicant nished the meeting. Honorary medals proves to be an impostor, or a confirmed and premiums were presented by the vagrant, the Secretary is instructed to chairinan to such of the pupils aš had put the law in force. The following peculiarly distinguished themselves. Aftable exhibits a pretty correct idea of the ter the examination the Rev. Dr. Ritchie state of mendicity, and of the utility of read the report of the directors during this Institution :

the past year, and one from the comObtained parochial relief by the

mittee of ladies, as to the internal ma

74 interference of the Society

nagement of the Institution, and educaProvided with employment and

tion of the female pupils, both of which

} 34 partly clothed

were stated to be altogether excellent.

Upon a motion for recommending the Relieved and sent to parishes in

29 Institution to the attention of the varithe country

ous counties and presbyteries, it was obRelieved and sent to sea

22 served that the nuinber of deaf and dumb Fully clothed and sent to sea

persons

in Scotland was not less than Provided with the means of support 15

eight hundred. Nothing, therefore, Admitted into workhouses

19

could be more judiciously imagined than Admitted into hospitals and infirmaries 10

the measure here detailed for making Taken into the care of the Scot's Corporation

the charity generally known by a peram

bulation of the tutor with a select numTaken into the charge of Foreign ? 4 ber of his scholars. In 1814. Mr. KinniConsuls

burgh went to Glasgow with a few of his 36

pupils, who underwent two examinable of providing for themselves tions in public, in presence of crowded Discharged, having refused paro- meetings of the inhabitants. An auxi

19 chial relief

liary Society was immediately formed Did not return as ordered

49

there, by the aid of whose contributions Ascertained impostors and prosecuted 43

a considerable number of additional puApprehended and committed 12 pils have ever since received the benefits Remain undisposed of

23 of instruction in the Institution. En

couraged by this success, Mr. Kinniburgh 400 and a few of his pupils were sent last

autumn to the north. His first public An annual subscription of one guinea examination was at Dundee, whence he constitutes a governor; and a donation proceeded along the coast to Aberdeen of ten guineas within the year, a life and Inverness, and returned by Perth. governor.

He exhibited the progress of his pupils III. Report of the Institution for the at every considerable town upon this

Education of Deaf and Dumb Chil- route, and meetings have been held in dren, established June 25, 1810, and consequence at several places for the incorporated by seal of cause from of the parent Institution.

formation of auxiliary Societies, in aid the Magistrates of Edinburgh. At the annual meeting of this institution adopted with equal advantage in the

This proceeding, we think, might be in May last, the pupils, fifty in number, southern part of the island, by which were examined in arithmetic, the prin- means similar Institutions would no ciples of composition, the definition of doubt be established in the principa simple and abstract terms, articulation, cities and county towns of England. &c. They also underwent a minute ex

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PROCEEDINGS OF PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETIES.

LISBON.

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1. ROYAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES AT nounced by the Vice-President, the

Marquis of Borba, one of the governors On the 24th of June this learned body of the kingdom. The Secretary then held a public Session. Its proceedings made a statement of the labours of the were prefaced by a short discourse pro- Society, and of the memoirs which had

1818.]
Proceedings of Philosophical Societies.

151 been presented and read during the pre- Annals of the Lagides, or the Chronology ceding year. Sebastian Francisco de of the Kings of Egypt, from the death Mendo Trigoso afterwards read a me

of Alexander the Great, to the subjugamoir on the five first editions of The Lu- tion of the country by the Romans, after siad of Camoeus. He was followed by the death of Cleopatra, the daughter of Mattheus Valente de Conto, who read Ptolemy Auletes. an introduction to a memoir which had The prize was adjudged to the Megained a prize, relative to the pro- moire enregistered under No. 1, the gramma of the Academy, upon the de- motto of which was, Et ament indulgere monstration of rules given by Wronski, periti, ('he author is M. J. J. Chamfor the general reduction of equations. pollion Figleac). Joseph Maria Soares read a compen The Academy deemed worthy of hodious statement of the General History nourable mention a Alemoire, having for of Medicine, from the beginning of the its motto the following words of Tacitus : Portuguese monarchy: this statement is Opus aggredior, opimum casibus, atror intended to form an introduction to his præliis, discors seditionibus, ipsa pace History of Medical Science in Portugal. savum. Sebastian Francisco de Mendo Trigoso After this proclamation, which was read a memoir on the establishment of loudly applauded, M. Raoul Rochette the Arcadia in Lisbon, and on its influ- read, for M. Dacier, a biographical notice ence in the restoration of Portugese on the late Ginguené, or rather on the literature. The author of this memoir works of that estimable man, whose pois Francisco Manoel Trigoso de Aragam litical opinions seem not always to have Morato. After these proceedings, the enjoyed the advantage of being approved academician Ignacio Antonio da Fonseca by the Secretary General. The author Benevides read an historical recapitula of the notice pronounced the sincerest tion of the labours of the Vaccine Insti eulogy on all that is good in the works tution, in the course of the preceding of the deceased, and all that was still year. Time would not admit of the better in his private character. reading of other memoirs, and the fol We shall not notice a learned Memoire lowing were therefore omitted :- One on the discoveries made in several islands by Francisco Elias Roderigues da Sil- of Asia, from ancient times up to the veira, upon medical empiricism; another period of the voyages of Magellan; it is by Antonio de Aranjo Travassos, upon one of those productions, the merits of the means of abbreviating typographical which cannot be decided on without malabour; and a third, by Constantino ture consideration; it is impossible 'to Botelho de Lacerda Lobo, on the une- analyse it from a single reading. The qual temperature of the solar rays, sepa- author is M. Walckenaer, a man distin rated by the prism. It appears that the guished for learning. following works were printed by the The general observations on the Academy within the last 12 months: Egyptian Medals, by M. Tochon diAnThe fifth volume of the Chronological necy, are probably good; but though Index of the Portuguese Lausand Edicts, read by M. Quatre-Mere de Quincy, by the Desembargador (the Judge), John but little attention was paid to them; Peter Ribeiro: a Treatise on the Prac and the President finding it would be tice of Medicine, by Joseph Pinheiro de difficult to enter on another subject, Freitas Soares; and the second part of without incurring the risk of a total dethe third volume of the Memoirs of the sertion, prudently closed the Sitting a Academy.

quarter of an hour before the usual 2.-PRENCH INSTITUTE.

time. Public Sitting of the Royal Academy of All these memoirs were replete with

Inscriptions and Belles-Lettres. M. sound erudition, though the subjects Boissonade, President.

precluded the possibility of sacrificing The Sitting of the 17th of July was to the Graces. Perhaps the most inteopened by the announcement of the prizes resting, though we have omitted menproposed for competition in the years tioning it in its proper place, was a no1819 and 1820 ; next was read the de tice by M. Dacier, on the life and writcision pronounced on the memoirs sent ings of the celebrated geographical en for the competition of 1818; and finally gineer, David Niebuhr, who died in the prizes were proclaimed.

Saxony on the 25th of April, 1814. It The subject proposed for 1818 was abounds in facts hitherto but little known; the combination in one Memoire of all it was listened to with an unusual dethat can be collected respecting the grec of attention, and the interest was

152

The Basso-Relievo at the New Custom House. (Sept. 1, increased by the manner in which M. vestigated, would afford certain indicaRaoul Rochette read the Essay.

tions of several maladies, which, in the 3.- ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. present state of science, we could searcely In one of the recent Sittings of this have thought of. One of these indicaAcademy at Paris, M. Percy, in the tions, among others, showed the existname of the Committee, presented a Re ence of ulcers in the lungs, their extent, port on the memoir of Dr. Laennec, their state of greater or lesser fullness, Physician to the Necker Hospital, rela- the nature and consistence of the mattive to a new mode of demonstration, ter which they contained. The instruproper to develope, with greater cxac- ment which M. Laennec used for these titude than any yet adopted, the various purposes was a cylinder of wood, which, diseases of the lungs and of the heart. according to the nature of the proposed The properties which solid bodies pos- examination, should be solid, pierced sess, the tube, the trump, or portevoix, from one end to the other by a straight &c. of transmitting to the ear even the canal or cavity, or widened at one extrefeeblest sounds and impulses, had sug- mity in the manner of a horn. gested to M. Laennec the idea of study According to the favourable manner ing, with the assistance of similar instru- in which this improvement is spoken of ments, the different sounds, intonations, in the memoir, it appears that the exand movements which take place within tent of the results already obtained, or the interior of the chest, and their coin- those which may rationally be looked cidence or sympathies with a state of for, by means of the above instrument health or of disorder. The voice, the of demonstration, is not less remarkable respiration, the noises within the throat, than its simplicity. and the oscillations of the heart, so in

FINE ARTS.

THE BASSO-RELIEVO AT THE NEW CUS At no time could the Elgin MARBLES TOM-HOUSE.

have arrived so happily, or have con: THE absurd and unjust assertion tributed so effectually to the progress of which has been made by prejudiced the cause of art. The eyes of the artist writers, that the climate of this island and the amateur are now cleared of the and the temperament of its inhabitants film which has long oppressed and dismust necessarily prevent the successful torted their vision : they have already progress of the arts, has been, even in begun to recur to nature and the simplest our own times, triumphantly disproved. principles of composition, and in these We do not-we dare not challenge a admirable works they find an illustracompetition with the great masters of the tion of the efficacy of such a course of ancients, but we confidently invite a com- study: they behold all that is beautiful parison of the late works of the Eng- in nature, sublimated and refined by lish school with the contemporaneous art, but still remaining untouched and productions of any other: and we are unaltered in its essential qualities. There convinced that the result of a dispas- are, however, some who err as much in sionate examination would not merely anticipating a sudden renovation in the place us on a level with our neighbours, arts of design, as those who have prophesibut would assign to us a proud and a ed their eternaldebasement. We have ever deserved pre-eminence. Our best artists been foremost in our admiration of the are now sedulously employed in the Elgin marbles. We consider them to be study of nature, and have successfully the purest models of imitation, and were retraced their steps to that unadulterated ardent in our hopes of the amended taste source of information. They are con which their presence in this country vinced of the justice of the observation of would be likely to induce; but we are one of our own poets :

too old to believe that even their radiance First follow Nature, and your judgment taste which had been so long accumu

would instantly dispel the clouds of bad frame By her just standard, which is still the same:

lating. The rising race of artists will Unerring Nature, still divinely bright,

exhibit more than the present; the iraOne clear, unchanged, and universal light. provements which they are calculated to Life, force, and beauty, must to all impart effect, the next in succession will evince At once the source, and end, and test of art. still more; and thus will they act in pro

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