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1818.] Memoir of the Life and Writings of Lady Morgan. 143 him that patronage, which, but for the was less likely to succeed abroad, and ungovernable and self-willed indepen- the French translation is both coarse dence of Dermody's capricious dis- and unfaithful. It was however read position, must have led to every temporal with great eagerness in Paris, and has, success. To Lady Morgan's only sister, as we are inforined, obtained likewise Lady Clarke, has descended a full por- the honors of a Dutch and Spanish tion of hereditary ability, which would costume. The work however which have been more productive, if the cares has made Lady Morgan most generally of a young and numerous family ha not know is her
France ;" having passed occupied too large a portion of her time through three editions at home, three in and attention. This lady has recently America, and as many in France. An brought out on the Dublin stage, à abridgment also has been formed, incomedy, called “ The Irishwoman,” re- cluding those passages which fell under plete with originality of conception, the censure of the French police, and and humorous dialogue, and which met published, we believe, in Geneva, under with the most decided success; so that the title of “ L'Esprit de Lady Morgan." it will probably soon find its way to the Lady Morgan is in person petite, London theatres.
feminine, graceful and animated; uniting Lady Morgan commenced her public in her gay conciliating appearance, the career very early in life : notwithstand- ease of fashionable life, with the naiveté ing therefore that she is still the youngest of strong and original talent, and that successful candidate for literary honors, even flow of spirits which springs from of her own sex, her published works constitutional benevolence, and an active are already numerous. They are a and occupied mind. We have heard the volume of poetry, written before she conversational abilities of this Lady was fourteen, and dedicated to that highly extolled, and her success in the patroness of Irish talent, the late great world attributed to that cause, and Countess of Moira: “St. Clair," 2 vols.; to what the French call l'art de raconter “ Novice of St. Dominick," 4 vols.; bien. If we may trust to our own powers “ Wild Irish Girl," 3 vols. ; Patriotic of observation, great humour, pleasantry, Sketches,” 2 vols.; “ ]da," 4 vols.; "The and the absence of all affectation, and Missionary,” 3 vols.; - O'Donnel," 3 pretension, constitute no small part of its vols.; “ France," 2 vols. 8vo.; “ The merits. Lady Morgan is, however, acLay of the Irish Harp," 1 vol.; and a cused of being what is called uncertain, volume of twelve Irish Melodies. She of only coming out iu particular sets and has now in the press another national circles; and we have heard that when novel, to be called “ Florence Macarthy," called on to shew off, she has, like her own which will appear in the coming season. Duchess of Belmont, quoted the well
In her later publications she has taken known parlez nous la philosophie et puis a higher flight, and has exhibited a la theologie, and then remained buried in profounder acquaintance with the human impenetrable reserve and silence. One heart, and perhaps a more caustic and feature in her character it would be philosophical view of life, than is to be wrong to pass by, although we do not found in her earlier productions. Her always approve its results, we mean her reputation consequently has rapidly in- enthusiastic love of her native country. creased; and public expectation looks The situation of Ireland naturally begets forward to further and still more suc- strong party feelings ; and to remain cessful efforts of her pen.
neuter in times of civil dissention was It is a singular fact, that on the Con- by a great Law-giver denounced as tinent, the works of this Lady rank still treason. Though Lady Morgan was higher than they do at home; and it bred a protestant in the boson of the affords a decided testimony of their in- established church, she has from con: trinsic eloquence of thought and sen- scientious motives strenuously advocated timent, that they should have been ren- the cmancipation of the Catholics. This dered so popular under the disfiguring vein of political sentiment has drawn garb of foreign translation. “ The down upon her a heavy measure of Wild Irish Girl, St. Clair," and "The critical vituperation. But those who Missionary," are, however, well trans- stem the stream of opinion, (especially lated, and retain their situation among when strengthened by authority,) must the popular and classical productions of expect occasionally to be dashed by its the French press. “O'Donnel," from current against rocks and shallows. the Ilibernicisms with which it abounds,
( 144 )
NEW INVENTIONS AND PATENTS.
1. HISTORY OP DR. BREWSTER's Ka- flectors, pieces of coloured glass and other
irregular objects. The great step, howAS this instrument has excited uni- ever, towards the completion of the inversal attention, we have no doubt that strument remained yet to be made, and our readers will take some interest in a it was not till some time afterwards that short history of the invention, referring the idea occurred to Dr. B. of giving mofor the specification of its principles of tion to objects, either fixed or placed construction to rol. viii. p. 444.
loosely in a cell at the end of the instruIn 1814, when Dr. B.was engaged in ex ment. When this idea was carried into periments on the polarisation of light execution, the Kaleidoscope, in its simple by successive reflections between plates form, was completed. of glass, which were honoured by the The next, and by far the most imporRoyal Society with the Copleyan Medal, tant step of the invention, was to employ the reflectors were in some cases inclined a draw tube and lens, by means of which to each other, and he had occasion to re- beautiful forms could be created from inark the circular arrangement of the ohjects of all magnitudes, and placed at images of a candle round a centre, or the all distances from the observer. In this multiplication of the sectors formed by way the power of the Kaleidoscope was the extremities of the glass plates. In indefinitely extended, and crery object repeating afterwards the experiments of in nature could be introduced into the M. Biot on the action of fluids upon picture, in the same manner as if these light, Dr. B. placed the fluids in a trough objects had been reduced in size, and formed by two plates of glass cemented actually placed at the end of the re, at an angle. The eye being necessarily flectors. placed at one end, some of the cement When the instrument was brought to which had been pressed through between this state, Dr. Brewster was urged by his the plates appeared arranged into a re friends to secure the property of it, and gular figure; the symmetry of which in- he accordingly took out a patent for a duced Dr. B. to investigate the cause of New Optical Instrument for creating the phenomenon, and in doing this he and exhibiting beautiful forms.” In the discovered the leading principles of the specification of his patent he describes Kaleidoscope. He found that in order the Kaleidoscope in two different forms. to produce perfectly beautiful and sym The first consists of two reflecting planes, metrical forms three conditions were put together according to the principles necessary:
already described, and placed in a tube, 1. That the reflectors should be placed with an eye-hole in the particular posiat an angle, which was an even or an tion which gives symmetry and a maxiodd aliquot part of a circle, when the mum uniformity of light, and with objects object was regular, and similarly situated such as coloured glass, placed in the powith respect to both the reflectors; or sition of symmetry, and put in motion, the even aliquot part of a circle when either by a rotatory movement, or by the object was irregular.
their own gravity, or by both combined. 2. 'I'hat out of an infinite number of The second form described in the specipositions for the object within and with. fication, is, when the tube containing the out the reflectors, there was only one reflectors is placed in another at the end, where perfect symmetry could be ob- having a convex lens which introduces tained, viz. by placing the object in con into the picture objects of all magnitact with the ends of the reflectors. tudes, and at every distance,
3. That out of an infinite number of After the patent was signed, and the positions for the eye, there was only one instruments in a state of forwardness, where the symmetry was perfect, viz. the person employed to manufacture as near as possible to the angular point, them carried one to show 'to the princiso that the circular field could be dis- pal London Opticians for the purpose of tinctly seen; and that this point was taking orders. These gentlemen natuthe only one out of an infinite number rally made one for their own use; and at which the uniformity of the light of the character of the instrument being the circular field was a maximum. thus made public, the tinmen and glaziers
Upon these principles Dr. B. con- began to manufacture the detached parts structed an instrument, in which he of it, in order to evade the patent; fixed permanently across the ends of re- while others sold the instrument com
145 plete, without being aware that the pro
Edinburgh, 11th May, 1818. perty of it had been secured by a pa “ I have examined the kaleidoscope intent.
vented by Dr. Brewster, and compared it In order to justify these proceedings, with the description of an instrument which it became necessary to search for some it has been said to resemble, constructed hy combinations of plain mirrors, which Bradley in 1717. I have also compared its might be supposed to have a resemblance effect with an experiment to which it may be to Dr. Brewster's instrument.
thought to have some analogy, described by
Mr. Wood in his optics, Prop. 13 and 14. The first supposed anticipation of the Mr. Wood in his optics,
• From both these contrivances, and Kaleidoscope was found in Prop. X111. from every optical instrument with which I and XIV. of Professor Wood's Optics, am acquainted, the kaleidoscope appears to where that learned author gives a ma differ essentially, both in its effect and in the thematical investigation of the number principles of its construction. and arrangement of the images formed “ As to the effect, the thing produced by by two reflectors, either inclined or the kaleidoscope is a series of figures preparallel to each other. These theorems sented with the most perfect symmetry, so assign no position either to the eye or as always to compose a whole, in which noto the object, and do not even include thing is wanting and nothing redundant. It the principle of inversion, which is abso- instrument is directed, if it only be in its
matters not what the object be to which the lutely necessary to the production of symmetrical forms. The theorems in- proper place, the effect just described is
sure to take place, and with an endless vadeed are true, whatever be the position riety. In this respect, the kaleidoscope apof the object or of the eye. In order to pears to be quite singular among other opput this matter to rest, Dr. Brewstertical instruments. Neither the instrument wrote to Professor Wood, who in his of Bradley, nor the experiment or theorem answer observed, that the propositions in Wood's book, have any resemblance to he had given, relating to the number of this; they go no further than the multipliimages formed by plane reflectors in- cation of the figure. clined to each other, contain merely the Dr. Brewster's instrument requires a parti
“ Next, as to the principle of construction, mathematical calculation of their num
cular position of the eye of the observer, ber and arrangement; and that the and of the object looked at, in order to its effects produced by the Kaleidoscope effect. If either of these is wanting, the were never in his contemplation. symmetry vanishes, and the figures are ir
The next supposed anticipation of the regular and disunited. In the other two Kaleidoscope was an instrument pro- cases, no particular position, either for the posed by Bradley, in his book on gar- eye or the object, is required. dening, first published in 1717. Phis “ For these reasons, Dr. Brewster's ininstrument consists of two large pieces vention seems to me quite unlike the other of silvered looking-glass, five inches wide two. Indeed, as far as I know, it is quite and four inches high, jointed together will be matter of sincere regret, if any ima
singular among optical instruments; and it with hinges, and opening like a book. ginary or vague analogy, between it and These plates being set upon a geometri- other optical instruments, should be the cal drawing, and the eye being placed in means of depriving the Doctor of any part front of the mirrors, the lines of the of the reward to which his skill, ingenuity, drawing were seen multiplied by re- and perseverance, entitle him so well. peated reflections. This instrument was
John PLAYPAIR. described long before by Kircher, and « P. S.--Granting that there were a redid not receive a single improvement semblance between the kaleidoscope and from Bradley. It has been often made Bradley's instrument, in any of the particuby opticians, and was principally used for lars mentioned above, the introduction of multiplying the human face, when placed the reflectors, is quite peculiar to Dr. Brews
coloured and moveable objects, at the end of between the mirrors; but no person ter's instrument. Besides tuis, a circumever thought of applying it to any pur- stance highly deserving of attention, is the pose of utility, or of using it as an in
use of two lenses and a draw tube, so that strument of rational amusement, by the the action of the kaleidoscope is extended to creation of beautiful forms.
objects of all sizes, and at all distances from To those, however, who inay be inca- the observer, and united, hy that means, to pable of instituting a comparison of the the advantages of the telescope. J. P." instruments, the following opinions of Professor Pictet's, of Geneva, opinion. two learned professors must be decisive. is stated in the following letter to Dr. Dr. Playfair, of Edinburgh, writes thus: Brewster :-New MONTHLY MAGNo. 56.
(Sept. 1, Sir,
to science. One publication, the editor Among your friends I have not been one of which takes great credit to himself for of the least painfully affected by the shame having been the means of enlarging the sul invasion of your rights as an inventor, bounds of knowledge, affects to throw which I have been a witness of lately in Lon- contempt upon this optical instrument, don. Not only none of the allegations of by referring for the principle of it to the invaders of your patent, grounded on a pretended similarity between your kaleido Kircher's "Great art of Light and Sha
dow," when it is plain enough that the scope and Bradley's instrument, or such as Wood's or Harris's theories might have learned Jesuit, in the book alluded to, suggested, appear to me to have any real had not the smallest conception of an foundation; but, I can affirm that, neither instrument capable of producing an endin any of the French, German, or Italian less variety of symmetrical combinations authors, who, to my knowledge, have treated in one position of the eye. The referof optics, nor in Professor Charles's justly ence, however, was sufficient to display celebrated and most complete collection of the editor's vanity, while the point of it optical instruments at Paris, have I read or
was calculated also to gratify his maseen any thing resembling your ingenious
lignity. apparatus, which, from its numberless ap
While these attempts are making to plications, and the pleasure it affords, and will continue to afford, to millions of be undervalue the merit of Dr. Brewster as holders of its matchless effects, may be rank
an original inventor in this country, still ed among the most happy inventions science bolder attacks are levelled at him in ever presented to the lovers of rational en- Germany, where it is positively averred oyment.
by one Winkler, a mathematical instruM. A. Pictet.
ment maker at Berlin, that he sold a
Kaleidoscope to a foreigner as early as The propositions in Harris's Optics re
last March, on condition that he should late, like Professor Wood's, merely to
keep it a secret. Winkler, who has the multiplication and circular arrange; taken out a patent for his instrument in ment of the apertures or sectors formed the Prussian dominions, modestly insiby the inclined mirrors, and to the pro- nuates that the instrument which he gress of a ray of light reflected between sold became the pattern of what has two inclined or parallel mirrors; and no allusion whatever is made, in the propo. Prussian, however, has met with an op
been so successful in England. This sitions themselves, to
instrument. In the proposition respecting the multi- ponent in his turn, who roundly asserts plication of the sectors, the eye of the published half a century ago, and that
that the principle of the instrument was observer is never once mentioned, and he has himself manufactured the same the proposition is true if the eye has an infinite number of positions ; whereas, John Bernard Bauer, mathematical in
above twenty years. This claimant is in the kaleidoscope, the eye can only strument maker of Nuremburg, whose have one position. In the other proposi- letter in the Commercial Chronicle of tion, respecting the progress of the that city is really a curiosity,
and deserveye and the object are actually ing of notice. În support of his pretenstated to be placed between the reflectors; and even if the eye had been telmeir's Magazine of Art; and for the
sions he refers to the catalogue of Besplaced without the reflectors, as in the discovery of the principle to Lampert's kaleidoscope, the position assigned it, at German Correspondence, published by a great distance from the angular point, Bernouilli. Lampert, writing from Beris a demonstration that Harris was entirely ignorant of the positions of sym- Augsburg, says,
lin, Sept. 2, 1769, to Mr. Brander at
“soon after I sent metry, either for the object or the eye, away my last, I had a mirror cut with and could not have combined two re- four pyramidical faces, to shew the effect flectors so as to form a kaleidoscope for
to amateurs. These pyramids inay be producing beautiful or symmetrical
considered as an optical amusement ; forios. Such is the account of Dr. Brewster's becomes multiplied in a symmetrical
whatever is laid at the narrow opening, ingenious discovery, than which hardly manner, according to the surface of the any thing of late years has excited sosphere: a three-sided pyramid divides general à sensation, both at home and the sphere like an Icosaedron; a fiveabroad. It is provoking, however, to sided one forms a Dodecaedron, &c. ouserve the zeal which has been on the alert to rob the inventor even of the board, a spherical lattice, a ball regularly
You may represent with it a chesshonour of having added something new
illuminated in various ways." Thus far
III. CRYSTALLIZATION OP TIN.
147 M. Lampert.
M. Brander's answer out ocular demonstration. The appafrom Augsburg, Sept. 21, 1769, says, ratus is now getting up in an article merely, "I am going to have such a py- that will possess all the beautiful effects ramidical mirror made in order to try of the most finished mirror, without the the effect.”. This is what first led to the liability to tarnish, and it is supposed to be manufacturing of this instrument. “I capable of producing many more imporhave not found," says Mr. Bauer, “either tant advantages than have yet been de in Wiegleb or Halle, or other books, veloped. which have very industriously copied each other, any mention of Lampert's M. ALLARD, of Paris, has obtained a pyramidical mirror, which is certainly patent from the Minister of the Interior, one of the inost agreeable optical amuse- for his new method of ornamenting ments. Within these last twenty years japanned metal work by efflorescence I have made some hundreds ; and I have resembling the appearance produced by also put together three mirrors, so as to frost upon glass windows, called moire form a prism, which is exactly the mo. me!allique. The Society of Arts and dern Kaleidoscope, and what is called Sciences at Paris, have also presented the improved one; but it did not please him with a gold medal for this discovery. so much, because it did not present so In addition to what we have already beautiful a globe as a shortened pyra- stated on this subject, we thall observe mid. Painted and cut out triangles that the moire metallique is produced by were put before it, and the transparent sulphuric acid, diluted in from colours produced a very pleasing cffect. to nine parts of water, and then In order to conceal the contrivance, I laid on the sheet of metal with a enclosed the pyramid or prism in a little sponge
The tin must be square box, and called it an Optical heated, so as to form an incipient fusion Image-box. Transparent wheels, cut on the surface, when the acid is applied ; out in various ways, were placed before after which the crystallization ensues. the narrow opening, which produced a The phrase moire is borrowed from the very agreeable play of colours. As such word used to designate watered silk, optical instruments are susceptible of (soie moirée.) The citric acid, it is said, great diversity, this idea was varied in answers better than any other. By many ways, till at last somebody took it employing the blow pipe before the acid, into his head to put what I had enclosed small and beautiful spots are formed on in a square box, into a round tube, and the tin. this is a Kaleidoscope. I think I have
IV. LITHOGRAPHY. proved that the honour of the first exe- The French Academy of Fine Arts, cution belongs to me, but the first idea having appointed a Committee to undoubtedly belongs to Lampert." examine the lithographical drawings of
M. Bauer having thus established, as M. Engelmann, of Mulhouse, in the he thinks, a full right to the construction Upper Rhine, have reported, that the of the Kaleidoscope, demands a third stone must be rendered capable of impart of the profits, or at least the privi- bibing water, and also of receiving all lege of making
one third of the instru- greasy or resinous substances. The first ments used in Europe. This looks very object can be effected by an acid, which much like a hoax, and we are not quite will corrode the stone, take off its fine certain that we have not been bantered polish, and thus make it susceptible of all this while by a sly German hu- water. Any greasy substance is capable mourist.
of giving an impression upon stone, 11. MR. LESTER'S NEW DISCOVERY IN whether the lines be made with a pencil,
or with ink; or otherwise, the ground We understand that this patent Light- of a drawing may be covered with a Projector, as it is called, is exceedingly black greasy mixture, leaving the lines in recommended by its excellence in an eco- white. nomical view. The small one, when Hence result two distinct processes : applied to a candle, produces so great a first, the engraving, by tracing, produced degree of heat, as to render it extremely by the line of the pencil, or brush dipped useful in cold weather; and it not only in the greasy ink. Secondly, the enincreases the heat to a high degree, but graving by dots or lines, as is done on produces light driven forward into a wood or copper. large deep space, so as to illuminate more Impressions of prints may be easily powerfully than can be conceived with- obtained without any reversing by trans