Imágenes de páginas

author of Sir Tristrem would long ago have joined, in duction of our Thomas the Rhymer. But I am inthe vale of oblivion, “ Clerk of Tranent, who wrote clined to believe them of a later date than the reign the adventure of Schir Gawain,” if, by good hap, the of Edward I. or II. same current of ideas respecting antiquity, which The gallant defence of the castle of Dunbar, by causes Virgil to be regarded as a magician by the Black Agnes, took place in the year 1337. The Lazaroni of Naples, had not exalted the bard of Ercil- Rhymer died previous to the year 1299 (see the char. doune to the prophetic character. Perhaps, indeed, ter, by his song in the Appendix.) It seems, there he himself affected it during his life. We know, at fore, very improbable, that the Countess of Dunbar least, for certain, that a belief in his supernatural could ever have an opportunity of consulting Thomas knowledge was current soon after his death. His the Rhymer, since that would infer that she was prophecies are alluded to by Barbour, by Winton, married, or at least engaged in state matters, preand by Henry the Minstrel, or Blind Harry, as he is vious to 1299 ; whereas she is described as a young, or usually termed. None of these authors, however, a middle-aged woman, at the period of her being begive the words of any of the Rhymer's vaticinations, sieged in the fortress, which she so well defended. but merely narrate, historically, his having predicted If the editor might indulge a conjecture, he would the events of which they speak. The earliest of the suppose, that the prophecy was contrived for the enprophecies ascribed to him, which is now extant, is couragement of the English invaders, during the Scotquoted by Mr. Pinkerton from a MS. It is supposed tish wars; and that the names of the Countess of to be a response from Thomas of Ercildoune to a Dunbar, and of Thomas of Ercildoune, were used for question from the heroic Countess of March, re- the greater credit of the forgery. According to this hy. nowned for the defence of the Castle of Dunbar pothesis, it seems likely to have been composed after against the English, and termed, in the familiar dia- the siege of Dunbar, which had made the name of the lect of her time, Black Agnes of Dunbar. This pro- Countess well known, and consequently in the reign phecy is remarkable, in so far as it bears very little of Edward III. The whole tendency of the prophecy resemblance to any verses published in the printed is to aver, that there shall be no end of the Scottishi copy of the Rhymer's supposed prophecies. The war (concerning which the question was proposed,) verses are as follows :

till a final conquest of the country by England, atla Countesse de Donbar demande a Thomas de Essedoune tended by all the usual severities of war. “ When the

quant la guerre d' Escoce prendreit fyn. E yl l'a re- cultivated country shall become forest,” says the propoundy et dyt.

phecy ;- when the wild animals shall inhabit the When man is mad a kyng of a capped man;

abode of men ;-when Scots shall not be able to escape When man is levere other mones thyng than his owen;

the English, should they crouch as hares in their form” When londe thouys forest, ant forest is felde ;

all these denunciations seem to refer to the time of When hares kendles o' the her'stane;

Edward III., upon whose victories the prediction was When Wyt and Wille werres togedere ; When mon makes stables of kyrkes, and steles castels with probably founded. The mention of the exchange be

twixt a colt worth ten marks, and a quarter of whaty stye; When Rokesboroughe nys no burgh ant market is at Forwy- [indifferent] wheat," seems to allude to the dreadful lege;

famine, about the year 1388. The independence of When Bambourne is donged with dede men;

Scotland was, however, as impregnable to the mines When men ledes men in ropes to buyen and to sellen;

of superstition, as to the steel of our more powerful When a quarter of whaty whete is chaunged for a colt of ten markes;

and more wealthy neighbours. The war of Scotland When prude (pride) prikes and pees is levd in prisoun ;

is, thank God, at an end ; but it is ended without her When a Scot ne me hym hude ase hare in forme that the people having either crouched like hares in their form, English ne shall hym fynde;

or being drowned in their flight," for faute of ships," When rycht ant wronge astente the togedere;

-thank God for that too.—The prophecy, quoted When laddes weddeth lovedies; When Scottes flen so faste, that, for faute of shep, hy drown in the preceding page, is probably of the same date,

and intended for the same purpose, eth hemselve ; When shal this be ?

A minute search of the records of the time would, Nouther in thine tyme ne in mine;

probably, throw additional light upon the allusions Ah comen ant gone

contained in these ancient legends. Among various Withinne twenty winter ant one." Pinkerton's Poems, from Maitland's MSS. quoting rhymes of prophetic import, which are at this day from Harl. Lib. 2253, F. 127.

current amongst the people of Teviotdale, is one, sup

posed to be pronounced by Thomas the Rhymer, preAs I have never seen the MS. from which Mr. Pin- saging the destruction of his habitation and family: kerton makes this extract, and as the date of it is

“The hare sall kittle [litter) on my hearth stane, fixed by him (certainly one of the most able antiqua

And there will never be a Laird Learmont again. ries of our age) to the reign of Edward I. or II., it is with great diffidence that I hazard a contrary opinion. The first of these lines is obviously borrowed from that There can, however, I believe, be little doubt, that in the MS. of the Harl. Library.—“ When hares ken. these prophetic rerses are a forgery, and not the pro- dles o’the her`stane”- ?-an emphatic image of desola. tion. It is also inaccurately quotea in the prophecy | nal purpose, in order to apply it to the succession of of Waldhave, published by Andro Hart, 1613 : James VI. The groundwork of the forgery is to be

found in the prophecies of Berlington, contained in “This is a true talking that Thomas of tells,

The hare shall hirple on the hard [hearth) stane." the same collection, and runs thus : Spottiswoode, an honest, but credulous historian,

“ Of Bruce's left side shall spring out a leafe, seems to have been a firm believer in the authenticity

As neere as the ninth degree; of the prophetic wares, vended in the name of Thomas And shall be fleemed of faire Scotland, of Ercildoune. “ The prophecies, yet extant in Scot- In France farre beyond the sea

And then shall come again ryding, tish rhymes, whereupon he was commonly called

With eyes that many men may see. Thomas the Rhymer, may justly be admired ; having

At Aberladie he shall light, foretold, so many ages before the union of England

With hempen helteres and horse of tre. and Scotland in the ninth degree of the Bruce's blood, with the succession of Bruce himself to the However it happen for to fall,

The lyon shall be lord of all; crown, being yet a child, and other divers particulars,

The French Quen shall bearre the sonne, which the event hath ratified and made good. Boe

Shall rule all Britainne to the sea ; thius, in his story, relateth his prediction of King Ane from the Bruce's blood shal come also, Alexander's death, and that he did foretel the same As neer as the ninth degree. to the Earl of March, the day before it fell out; say

Yet shal there come a keene knight over the salt sea, ing, “That before the next day at noon, such a tem

A keene man of courage and bold man of armes; pest should blow, as Scotland had not felt for many

A duke's son dowbled (i. e. dubbed], a born man in France, years before. The next morning, the day being clear,

That shall our mirths augment, and mend all our harmes; and no change appearing in the air, the nobleman did

After the date of our Lord 1513, and thrice three thereafter; challenge Thomas of his saying, calling him an impos. Which shall brooke all the broad isle to himself, tor. He replied, that noon was not yet passed. About

Between thirteen and thrice three the threip shall be ended

The Saxons shall never recover after." which time a post came to advertise the earl of the king his sudden death. “Then,' said Thomas, “ this

There cannot be any doubt that this prophecy was is the tempest I foretold; and so it shall prove to Scot- intended to excite the confidence of the Scottish naland.' Whence, or how, he had this knowledge, can

tion in the Duke of Albany, regent of Scotland, who hardly be affirmed; but sure it is, that he did divine arrived from France in 1515, two years after the death, and answer truly of many things to come.”-SPOT- of James IV. in the fatal field of Flodden. The ReTISWOODE, p. 47. Besides that notable voucher, Magter Hector Boece, the good archbishop might, had gent was descended of Bruce by the left, r. e. by the

female side, within the ninth degree. His mother was he been so minded, have referred to Fordun for the daughter of the Earl of Boulogne, his father banished prophecy of King Alexander's death. That historian from his country—“ fleemit of fair Scotland.” His calls our bard “ ruralis ille vates.”—Fordun, lib. x. arrival must necessarily be by sea, and his landing

was expected at Aberlady, in the Frith of Forth. He What Spottiswoode cails “ the prophecies extant

was a duke's son, dubbed knight; and nine years, in Scottish rhyme,” are the metrical productions from 1513, are allowed him, by the pretended prophet ascribed to the seer of Ercildoune, which, with many for the accomplishment of the salvation of his counother compositions of the same nature, bearing the try, and the exaltation of Scotland over her sister and names of Bede, Merlin, Gildas, and other approved rival. All this was a pious fraud, to excite the confisoothsayers, are contained in one small volume, pub- dence and spirit of the country. lished by Andro Hart, at Edinburgh, 1615. Nisbet

The prophecy, put in the name of our Thomas tho the herald (who claims the prophet of Ercildoune as

Rhymer, as it stands in Hart's book, refers to a later a brother-professor of his art, founding upon the va

period. The narrator meets the Rhymer upon a land rious allegorical and emblematical allusions to heral- | beside a lee, who shows him many emblematical visions, dry) intimates the existence of some earlier copy of described in no mean strain of poetry. They chiefly his prophecies than that of Andro Hart, which, how- relate to the fields of Flodden and Pinkie, to the naever, he does not pretend to have seen. The late ex- tional distress which followed these defeats, and to cellent Lord Hailes made these compositions the sub-| future halcyon days, which are promised to Scotland ject of a dissertation, published in his Remarks on the; One quotation or two will be sufficient to establish History of Scotland. His attention is chiefly directea

this fully: to the celebrated prophecy of our bard, mentioned by Bishop Spottiswoode, bearing that the crowns of Eng

"Our Scottish King sal come ful keene, land and Scotland should be united in the person of The red lyon beareth he; a King, son of a French Queen, and related to the A feddered arrow sharp, I ween, Bruce in the ninth degree. Lord Hailes plainly

Shall make him winke and warre to see

Out of the field he shall be led, proves, that this prophecy is perverted from its origi

When he is bludie and woe for blood;

Yet to his men shall he say,
I See Appendix, Xote C.

• For God's love turn you againe,

cap. 40. .

And give yon sutheme folk a frey!

Take tent to Merling truely
Why should I lose, the right is mine?

Then shall the wars ended le,
My date is not to die this day."

And never again rise.

In that yere there shall a king, Who can doubt, for a moment, that this refers to

A duke, and no crown'd king: the battle of Flodden, and to the popular reports con

Becaus the prince shall be yong,

And tender of yeares." cerning the doubtful fate of James IV.? Allusion is immediately afterwards made to the death of The date, above hinted at, seems to be 1549, when George Douglas, heir apparent of Angus, who fought the Scottish Regent, by means of some succours deand fell with his sovereign :

rived from France, was endeavouring to repair the

consequences of the fatal battle of Pinkie. Allusion is “The sternes three that day shall die,

made to the supply given to the “Moldwarte [England] That bears the harte in silver sheen."

by the fained hart,” (the Earl of Angus.) The Regent The well-known arms of the Douglas family are the is described by his bearing the antelope ; large supheart and three stars. In another place, the battle of plies are promised from France, and complete oonPinkie is expressly mentioned by name :

quest predicted to Scotland and her allies. Thus was

the same hackneyed stratagem repeated, whenever At Pinken Cluch there shall be spilt

the interest of the rulers appeared to stand in need of Much gentle blood that day; There shall the bear lose the guilt,

it. The Regent was not, indeed, till after this period, And the eagill bear it away."

created Duke of Chatelherault; but that honour was

the object of his hopes and expectations. To the end of all this allegorical and mystical rhap

The name of our renowned soothsayer is liberally sody, is interpolated, in the later edition by Andro used as an authority, throughout all the prophecies Hart, a new edition of Berlington’s verses, before published by Andro Hart. Besides those expressly quoted, altered and manufactured, so as to bear refer- put in his name, Gildas, another assumed personage, ence to the accession of James VI., which had just is supposed to derive his knowledge from him ; for he then taken place. The insertion is made with a pecu- concludes thus : liar degree of awkwardness, betwixt a question, put bri the narrator, concerning the name and abode of the “ True Thomas me told in a troublesome time,

In a harvest morn at Eldoun hills." person who showed him these strange matters, and the

The Prophecy of Gildus. unswer of the prophet to that question :

In the prophecy of Berlington, already quoted, we “ Then to the Beirne could I say,

are told,
Where dwells thou, or in what countrie?
(Or who shall rule the isle of Britane,

“ Marvellous Merlin, that many men of tells,
From the north to the south sey?

And Thomas's sayings comes all at once."
A French queene shall bear the sonne,
Shall rule all Britaine to the sea ;

While I am upon the subject of these prophecies,
Which of the Bruce's blood shall come,

may I be permitted to call the attention of antiquaries As neere as the nint degree: I frained fast wha was his name,

to Merdwynn Wyllt, or Merlin the Wild, in whose Where that he came, from what country. ] name, and by no means in that of Ambrose Merlin, In Erslingtoun I dwell at hame,

the friend of Arthur, the Scottish prophecies are is. Thomas Rymour men cals me."

sued ? That this personage resided at Drummelziar, There is surely no one, who will not conclude, with and roamed, like a second Nebuchadnezzar, the woods Lord Hailes, that the eight lines, enclosed in brackets, of Tweeddale, in remorse for the death of his nephew,

we learn from Fordun. In the Scotichronicon, lib. 3. are a clumsy interpolation, borrowed from Berlington, with such alterations as might render the supposed cap. 31, is an account of an interview betwixt St. prophecy applicable to the union of the crowns.

Kentigern and Merlin, then in this distracted and While we are on this subject, it may be proper miserable state. He is said to have been called Laibriefly to notice the scope of some of the other predic-loken, from his mode of life. On being commanded tions, in Hart's Collection. As the prophecy of Ber- by the saint to give an account of himself, he says, lington was intended to raise the spirits of the nation, that the penance which he performs was imposed on during the regency of Albany, so those of Sybilla and him by a voice from heaven, during a bloody contest Eltraine refer to that of the Earl of Arran, afterwards betwixt Lidel and Carwanolow, of which battle he Duke of Chatelherault

, during the minority of Mary, had been the cause. According to his own prediction, a period of similar calamity. This is obvious from the he perished at once by wood, earth, and water ; for, following verses :

being pursued with stones by the rustics, he fell froin

a rock into the river Tweed, and was transfixed by a “Take a thousand in calculation,

sharp stake, fixed there for the purpose of extending a And the longest of the lyon,

fishing-net :-
Four crescents under one crowne,
With Saint Andrew's croce thrise,

Sude perfossus, lapide percussus, et unda,
Then threescore and thrise three :

Hæc tria Merlinum fertur inire necer

Sicque ruit, mersusque fuit lignoque prehensus, He answers briefly to Waldhave's enquiry concerning
Et ficit vatem per terna pericula verum.

his name and nature, that he “drees his weird,” i. e. But, in a metrical history of Merlin of Caledonia, does penance in that wood; and, having hinted that compiled by Geoffrey of Monmouth, from the tradi- questions as to his own state are offensive, he pourg tions of the Welsh bards, this mode of death is attri- forth an obscure rhapsody concerning futurity, and buted to a page, whom Merlin's sister, desirous to

concludes, convict the prophet of falsehood, because he had be

“ Go musing upon Merlin if thou wilt: trayed her intrigues, introduced to him, under three

For I mean no more, man, at this time." various disguises, enquiring each time in what manner the person should die. To the first demand Merlin

This is exactly similar to the meeting betwixt Meranswered, the party should perish by a fall from a

lin and Kentigern in Fordun. These prophecies of rock ; to the second, that he should die by a tree; and Merlin seem to have been in request in the minority to the third, that he should be drowned. The youth of James V.; for, among the amusements with which perished, while hunting, in the mode imputed by For- Sir David Lindsay diverted that prince during his dun to Merlin himself.

infancy, are, Fordun, contrary to the French authorities, con

“The prophecies of Rymer, Bede, and Merlin." founds this person with the Merlin of Arthur; but

Sir David LINDSAY's Epistle to the King. concludes by informing us, that many believed him to be a different person. The grave of Merlin is pointed And we find, in Waldhave, at least one allusion to out at Drummelziar, in Tweeddale, beneath an aged the very ancient prophecy, addressed to the Countessa thorn-tree. On the east-side of the churchyard, the of Dunbar :brook, called Pausayl, falls into the Tweed; and the following prophecy is said to have been current con- “ This is a true token that Thomas of tells, cerning their union :

When a ladde with a ladye shall go over the fields." " When Tweed and Pausayl join at Merlin's grave,

The original stands thus :Scotland and England shall one monarch have."

“ When laddes weddeth lovedies." On the day of the coronation of James VI., the

Another prophecy of Merlin seems to have been Tweed accordingly overflowed, and joined the Pau- current about the time of the Regent Morton's exesayl at the prophet's grave.-PENNYCUICK's History cution. When that nobleman was committed to the of Tweeddale, p. 26. These circumstances would charge of his accuser, Captain James Stewart, newly seem to infer a communication betwixt the south-created Earl of Arran, to be conducted to his trial at west of Scotland and Wales, of a nature peculiarly Edinburgh, Spottiswoode says, that he asked, “Who intimate ; for I presume that Merlin would retain was Earl of Arran ?' and being answered that Capsense enough to choose for the scene of his wander- tain James was the man, after a short pause, he said, ings, a country having a language and manners simi- And is it so? I know then what I may look for?' lar to his own.

meaning, as was thought, that the old prophecy of Be this as it may, the memory of Merlin Sylvester, the · Falling of the heart 3 by the mouth of Arran,' or the Wild, was fresh among the Scots during the should then be fulfilled. Whether this was his mind reign of James V. Waldhave,' under whose name a

or not, it is not known; but some spared not, at the set of prophecies was published, describes himself as time when the Hamiltons were banished, in which lying upon Lomond Law; he hears a voice, which business he was held too earnest, to say, that he stood bids him stand to his defence ; he looks around, and in fear of that prediction, and went that course only beholds a flock of hares and foxes ? pursued over the to disappoint it. But if so it was, he did find himself mountain by a savage figure, to whom he can hardly now deluded; for he fell by the mouth of another give the name of man. At the sight of Waldhave, Arran than he imagined.”-SPOTTISWOODE, 313. The the apparition leaves the objects of his pursuit, and fatal words alluded to seem to be these in the proassaults him with a club. Waldhave defends himself phecy of Merlin :with his sword, throws the savage to the earth, and refuses to let him arise till he swear, by the law and “In the mouthe of Arrane a selcouth shall fall,

Two bloodie hearts shall be taken with a false traine, lead lie lives upon,“ to do him no harm.” This done,

And derfly dung down without any dome." he permits him to arise, and marvels at his strange appearance :

To return from these desultory remarks, into which

I have been led by the celebrated name of Merlin, “He was formed like a freike (man) all his four quarters; And then his chin and his face haired so thick,

the style of all these prophecies, published by Hart. With haire growing so grime, fearful to see.”

is very much the same. The measure is alliterative, and somewhat similar to that of Pierce Plowman's The barges of clear barons down shal be sunker, Visions ; a circumstance which might entitle us to

2 See Appendix, Note D.

1 I do not know whether the person here meant he Waldhave, an cbbot of Melrose, who died in the odour of sanctity, about 1160.

3 The heart was the cognizance of Morton.

Seculars shall sit in spiritual seats, ascribe to some of them an earlier date than the reign

Occupying offices anointed as they were." of James V., did we not know that Sir Galloran of Taking the lily for the emblem of France, can there Galloway and Gawaine and Gologras, two romances be a more plain prophecy of the murder of her morendered almost unintelligible by the extremity of narch, the destruction of her nobility, and the desoaffected alliteration, are perhaps not prior to that lation of her hierarchy? period. Indeed, although we may allow that, during But, without looking farther into the signs of the much earlier times, prophecies, under the names of times, the Editor, though the least of all the prophets, those celebrated soothsayers, have been current in cannot help thinking, that every true Briton will apScotland, yet those published by Hart have obviously prove of his application of the last prophecy quoted been so often vamped and re-vamped, to serve the in the ballad. political purposes of different periods, that it may be Hart's collection of prophecies was frequently reshrewdly suspected, that, as in the case of Sir John printed during the last century, probably to favour Cutler's transmigrated stockings, very little of the the pretensions of the unfortunate family of Stuart. original materials now remains. I cannot refrain For the prophetic renown of Gildas and Bede, see from indulging my readers with ihe publisher's title Fordun, lib. 3. to the last prophecy, as it contains certain curious Before leaving the subject of Thomas's predictions, information concerning the Queen of Sheba, who is it may be noticed, that sundry rhymes, passing for identified with the Cumæan Sibyl: “Here followeth his prophetic effusions, are still current among the a prophecie, pronounced by a noble queene and mat- vulgar. Thus, he is said to have prophesied of the ron, called Sybilla, Regina Austri, that came to Solo- very ancient family of Haig of Bemerside, mon. Through the which she compiled four bookes,

“Betide, betide, whate'er betide, at the instance of the said King Sol, and others

Haig shall be Haig of Bemerside." divers : and the fourth book was directed to a noble king, called Baldwine, King of the broad isle of Bri- The grandfather of the present proprietor of Bemertain ; in the which she maketh mention of two noble side had twelve daughters, before bis lady brought princes and emperours, the which is called Leones. him a male heir. The common people trembled for How these two shall subdue and overcome all earthlie the credit of their favourite soothsayer. The late Mr. princes to their diademe and crowne, and also be Haig was at length born, and their belief in the proglorified and crowned in the heaven among saints. phecy confirmed beyond a shadow of doubt. The first of these two is Constantinus Magnus ; that Another memorable prophecy bore, taat the Old was Leprosus, the son of Saint Helena, that found Kirk at Kelso, constructed out of the ruins of the the croce.

The second is the sixt king of the name Abbey, should “fall when at the fullest.” At a very of Steward of Scotland, the which is our most noble crowded sermon, about thirty years ago, a piece of king.” With such editors and commentators, what | lime fell from the roof of the church. The alarm, for wonder that the text became unintelligible, even be the fulfilment of the words of the seer, became uniyond the usual oracular obscurity of prediction ? versal ; and happy were they who were nearest the

If there still remain, therefore, among these pre- door of the predestined edifice. The church was in dictions, any verses having a claim to real antiquity, consequence deserted, and has never since had an it seems now impossible to discover them from those opportunity of tumbling upon a full congregation. I which are comparatively modern. Nevertheless, as hope, for the sake of a beautiful specimen of Saxothere are to be found, in these compositions, some Gothic architecture, that the accomplishment of this uncommonly wild and masculine expressions, the prophecy is far distant. Editor has been induced to throw a few passages to- Another prediction, ascribed to the Rhymer, seems gether, into the sort of ballad to which this disquisi- to have been founded on that sort of insight into futu. tion is prefixed. It would, indeed, have been no rity, possessed by most men of a sound and combining difficult matter for him, by a judicious selection, to judgment. It runs thus :have excited, in favour of Thomas of Ercildoune, a

“ At Eldon Tree if you shall be, share of the admiration bestowed by sundry wise per

A brigg ower Tweed you there may see." sons upon Mass Robert Fleming. For example :

The spot in question commands an extensive pro“But then the lilye shal be loused when they least think; speet of the course of the river ; and it was easy to Then clear king's blood shal quake for fear of death;

foresee, that when the country should become in the For churls shal chop off heads of their chief beirns, And carfe of the crowns that Christ bath appointed.

least degree improved, a bridge would be somewhere

thrown over the stream. In fact, you now see no leşg Thereafter, on every side, sorrow sha arise ;

than three bridges from that elevated situation.

i The Rev. R. Fleming, pastor of a Scotch congregation in text in the Apocalypse, that the French Monarchy would London, published in 1701, “ Discourses on the Rise and Fall undergo some remarkable humiliation about 1794.-ED, of Papacy." in which he expressed his belief, founded on 3

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