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DURING the infancy of a nation, every member depends on his own industry for procuring the necessaries of life : he is his own mason, his own tailor, his own physician; and on himself he chiefly relies for offence as well as defence. Every savage can say, what few beggars among us can say, Omnia mea mecum porto ; and hence the aptitude of a favage for war, which makes little alteration in his manner of living. In early times accordingly, the men were all warriors, and Vol. II.

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every known art was exercised by women; which continues to be the case of American savages. And even after arts were so much improved as to be exercifed by men, none who could bear arms were exempted from war. In feudal governments, the military fpirit was carried to a great height : all gentlemen were soldiers by profession ; and every other art was despised, as low, if not contemptible.

Even in the unnatural state of the feudal system, arts made fome progress, not excepting those for amusement ; and many conveniencies, formerly unknown, became neceffary to comfortable living A inan accustomed to manifold conveniencies, cannot bear with patience to be deprived of them: he hates war, and clings to the sweets of peace. Hence the neceflity of a military establishment, hardening men by strict discipline to endure the fatigues of war. By a standing army, war is carried on more regularly and scientifically than in a feudal government; but as it is carried on with infinitely greater expence, nations are more reserved in declaring war than formerly. Long experience has at the same time made it evident, that a nation feldom gains by war ; and that agriculture, manufactures, and commerce, are the only folid foundations of power and grandeur. These arts accordingly have become the chief objects of European governments, and the only rational gauses of war. Among the warlike nations of Greece and Italy, how would it have founded, that their effeminate defcendents would employ foldiers by profession to fight their battles! And yet this is unavoidable in every country where arts and manufactures flourish ; which, requiring little exercise, tend to enervate the body, and of course the mind. Gain, at the fame time, being the fole object of industry, advances felfishness to be the ruling paffion, and brings on a timid anxiety about property and self-preservation. Cyrus, though enflamed

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with resentment against the Lydians for revolting, listened to the following advice, offered by Crasus, their former King. “ Cyrus, destroy s not Sardis, an ancient city, famous for arts and

arms; but, pardoning what is past, demand « all their arms, encourage luxury, and exhort “ them to instruct their children in every art of s gainful commerce. You will soon see, o King, ss that instead of men, they will be women.” The Arabians, a brave and generous people, conquered Spain ; and drove into the inaccellible mountains of Biscay and Asturia, the few natives who stood out. When no longer an enemy appeared, they turned their swords into ploughshares, and became a rich and flourishing nation. The inhabitants of the mountains, hardened by poverty and fituation, ventured, after a long interval, to peep out from their strong holds, and to lie in wait for fraggling parties. Finding themselves now a match for a people, whom opulence had betrayed to laxury and the arts of peace to icowardice; they took courage to difplay their banners in the open field; and after many military atchievements, fucceeded in conquering Spain. The Scots inhabiting the mountainous parts of Caledonia, weré an overmatch for the Piąts, who occupied the fertile plains, and at last subdued them *.

Benjamin de Tudele, a Spanish Jew, who wrote in the twelfth century, obferves, that by luxury and B2

effeminacy

Before the time that all Scotland was brought under one king, the hìghlanders, divided into tribes or clans, made war upon each other; and continued the same practice irregularly many ages after they fubmitted to the king of Scotland. Open war was repreffed, but it went on privately bay depredations and reprisals, The clan-fpirit was much depressed by their bad success in the rebellion 1915; and totally crushed by the like bad fuccess in the rebellion 1745. The mildners with which the highlanders have been treated of late, and the pains that have been taken to in troduce industry' among ther, ' have totally extirpated depredations and reprisals, and have rendered them the moft peaceable people in Scodands but have at the same time reduced their military spirit to a low ebb. To train them for war, military discipline has now become noʻlets neceffery than to others,

effeminacy the Greeks had contracted a degree of -foftness, more proper for women than for men ; and that the Greek Emperor was reduced to the neceffity of employing mercenary troops, to defend his country against the Turks. In the year 1453, the city of Conftantinople, defended by a garrison not exceeding 6000 men, was besieged by the Turks, and reduced to extremity; yet not a single inhabitant had courage to take arms, all waiting with torpid despondence the hour of utter extirpation. Venice, Genoa, and other small Italian states, became fo effeminate by long and fuccessful commerce, that not a citizen ever thought of serving in the army; which obliged them to employ mercenaries, officers as well as private men,

These mercenaries, at first, fought conscientiously for their pay; but reflecting, that the victors were no better paid than the vanquished, they learned to play booty. In a battle particularly between the Pirans and Florentines, which lasted from fun-rising to sun-setting, there was but a single man løst, who, having

accidentally fallen from his horse, was trodden under foot. Men at that time fought on horseback, covered with iron from head to heel. Machiavel mentions a battle between the Florentines and Venetians which lasted half a day, neither party giving ground; some horses wounded, not a man flainHe obseryes, that such cow ardice, and disorder was in the armies of those times, that the turning of a single horse either to charge or retreat, would have decided a battle. Charles VIII.2 of France, when he invaded Italy, anno 1498, understood 'not such mock battles; and his men were held to be devils incarnate, who seemed to take delight in shedding human blood. The Dutch, who for many years have been reduced to mercenary troops, are more indebted to the mutual jealousy of their neighbours for their independence; than to their own army. In the year

1. 1672,

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1672, Lewis of France invaded Holland, and in forty days took forty walled towns. That country was saved, not by its army, but by being laid under water. Frost, which is usual at that seafon, would have put an end to the seven United Provinces.

The small principality of Palmyrą is the only instance known in history, where the military fpirit was not enervated by opulence, Pliny delcribes that country as extremely pleasant, and blessed with plenty of springs, though surrounded with dry and fandy deferts. The commerce of the Indies was at that time carried on by land, and the city of Palmyra was the centre of that commerce between the East and the West. Its territory being very small, little more than fufficient for villas and pleasure-grounds, the inhabitants, like those of Hamburgh, had no way to employ their riches for profit but in trade. At the same time, being situated between the two mighty empires of Rome and Parthià ; it required great address and the most affiduous military discipline, to guard it from being swallowed up by the one or the other. This ticklish situation preserved the inhabitants from luxury and effeminacy, the usual concomitants of riches. Their fuperfluous wealth was laid out on magnificent buildings, and on em: bellishing their country-seats. The fine arts were among them carried to a high degree of perfection, The famous Zenobia, their Queen, being led captive to Rome after being deprived of her dominions, was admired and celebrated for spirit, for ļearning, and for an exquisite taste in the fine arts.

Thus, by accumulating wealth, a manufacturing and commercial people become a tempting object for conquest; and by effeminacy become an easy conquest. The military spirit seems to be at a low ebb in Britain : will no phantom appear, eyen in a dream, to disturb our downy rest ? Fora

merly

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