Elements of Physics: Or Natural Philosophy

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D. Appleton, 1887 - 873 páginas

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illustrations restoration of cohesion
23
Force of cohesion varies with distance 13 Three states of matter solid liquid gas determined by cohe sion and heatmotion
29
Varieties of cohesive manifestation
30
illustrations petrifaction
31
specific gravity
36
Chemical changes in the properties of bodies
37
Chemical attraction does not interfere with gravitation
38
results of chemical attraction ART 93 94 95
39
Crystallization a result of a molecular polar cohesion
40
SECTION 11 PHENOMENA OR MOTIONS OF THE UNIVERSE 41 Analysis of the section
41
velocity table of velocities
42
Uniform motion or velocity
45
The amorphous state of bodies
46
Uniformly accelerated or retarded motion Absolute and relative motion
47
Mohrs scale tempering
48
resultant
49
Parallelogram of motions or velocities
50
components
51
Ruperts drops annealing
52
Force è compound of matter and motion Actual and potential force
53
elastic limit
54
measure of force examples
55
their measure
56
asbestos
58
metallic leaf
59
PAGE
61
platinum wire
62
Attwoods machine
63
resistance of materials to stretching table
64
Laws of falling bodies
65
Measure of gravity
66
illustrations
67
limpid and viscous liquids
68
First
69
examples
70
Porosity density and elasticity of liquids
71
perpetual motion impossible
73
celestial motions
74
Ail natural motions retarded
75
examples
76
examples
77
adhesion in solids and liquids
78
Solution due to adhesion
81
Adhesion between liquids
82
rise of liquids in fine tubes
84
Concussion of elastic bodies Interference of pendulum vibrations and of vibrating magnets
86
The principle of Energy
88
measure of work workpower
89
Footpound Kilogrammetre 91 Relations of Energy to Velocity
91
Different Forms of Energy
93
Kinetic and Potential condition of all Energy
95
watchspring
96
Chernical kinetic and potential Energy
97
Kinetic and potential heatenergy
98
Correlation of Energies or Forces
99
IOI Mechanical Equivalent of Heat 102 Conseryation of Energy ART 183 184 185 186 188 190 192
101
193
102
PART II
103
Practical method of finding the Centre of Gravity
104
Centre of Gravity of homogeneous mass Of any two connected masses Of a triangular plate or rods
105
Of a pyramid and of a cone
106
Centre of gravity tends downwards
107
Illustrations of this tendency
108
Stability of position and structure
109
Examples of stable and unstable equilibrium Attitudes of animals illustrate this
110
centre of centrifugal force 117 Centre of percussion of oscillation 194 196 197 198 199 200 202 203 205 207 210 213
114
214
115
217
116
219
117
THE SIMPLE MACHINES 119 Analysis of the section The mechanical Powers
119
X
120
does not magnify force Perpetual motion impossible
122
its real use examined
123
illustrations
124
steelyard
125
examples
127
compound and bent levers
128
129
131
railway gradients
133
examples
134
its applications
135
fixed and movable pullies
136
Extension of the term Mechanical Power
138
cause
145
examples antifriction expedients
151
examples
158
PART III
165
Liquids press in all directions
173
the Suez canal
179
Liquids of different densities
186
centre of buoyancy 324
191
lifepreservers Boytons lifesaving dress 325
197
Finding specific gravity of solids 333
199
specific gravity of liquids and gases of soluble solids of powders 335
201
Nicholsons hydrometer 341
203
Specific gravity of spirits milk c 343
205
Analysis of the section
207
The weight of the atmosphere 414
248
Capillary depression 88
264
488
318
its measure its variation with
319
temperature
321
Velocity of sound in liquids and solids
322
reflection of sound
324
Acoustic transparency of the
326
Tyndalls experiments
327
whispering galleries
330
the speakingtrumpet acoustic deceptions
333
Musical sounds and noises
336
Means of producing musical sounds
338
The three elements of a musical sound
339
its cause the syren its construction and
340
octaves
342
Numerical relations between the notes of the scale
343
its physical explanation
345
History of the science
346
Law of liquids issuing by an orifice
347
The vena contracta
349
Frictional resistance to moving fluids
350
harmonics of a string Æolian harp
351
The flow of liquids through orifices
352
ventral segments
353
2II Liquid friction
355
height form the bore of a river
357
Chladnis soundfigures
359
Vibrations of rods and wires
360
Kundts experiments
361
law of liquid resistance збо 216 Applications to navigation
362
organpipes their mode of vibration reedpipes the voice the glottis
363
Aërial resistance
364
Limit to velocity through air and other fluids
365
Musical glasses
366
Fluid resistance influenced by shape of solid
367
undershot breast and overshot
369
the waterhammer
370
ventriloquism
372
levigating geological action of liquids winnowing
373
Oblique fluid actionof wind on a sailing vessel
375
gun rifling
377
feathering of an arrow
381
The screwpropellerits power due to oblique action
383
Mechanical theory of Heat 565
384
bucketwheel chainpump ropepump
387
The source of Solar Heat 572
388
Persian wheel
389
Barkers mill Turbine Centrifugalpump
391
161
392
Analysis of the section History of the science
395
its distance measurement of celestial dis
396
Airits lightness and elasticity
398
condensing syringe the airpump
400
Law of gaseous elasticity
403
airgun
404
the fireengine divingbell
406
The Cartesian diver
409
Heros fountain
410
Pressure of Auids in all directions
411
Kinetic theory of gases
412
the Magdeburg hemispheres
415
165
418
The sucking or lifting pump
419
the syphon
420
Examples of the syphon principle
422
Atmospheric pressure illustrated
423
cupping
424
Physiological effects of airpressure
426
167
427
The Barometer 427 263 Different forms of the barometer standard syphon and wheel
428
Bourdons barometer
429
170
430
ihe barometric gradient
432
cyclonic motions of storms
433
Measurement of mountains by the barometer
434
fall of the barometer as we ascend
435
Airpump gauge
436
Use of barometer to find specific gravity
437
Use of barometer in mines
438
Effects of atmospheric pressure
439
balloons
441
modern ascents the Paris siegeballoons
443
flame and smoke
445
fireplaces and stoves causes of smoky chimneys
447
Wet bulb thermometer 648
448
the tradewinds the sea breeze and landbreeze of the tropics
449
cyclones typhoons
451
The pneumatic trough and gasometer
454
laws of liquid diffusion
456
its laws
458
osmometer endosmose exosmose
460
dialysisits medical uses
462
power of air to trans mit mechanical shocks explosions
477
171
478
sensitive flames
479
172
481
the vocal Memnon seashells
482
sympathetic sounds
483
Velocity of sound in hydrogen and in air
484
174
485
The Cryophorus 700
491
Condensation of vapours 704
494
Freezing mixtures 708
497
176
499
The different Scales 713
500
500
503
Differential thermometer 716
504
Pyrometers 717
505
Table of high and low temperatures 718
506
179
527
182
547
Heat Light Electricity and Magnetism 374 The material and dynamic theories
554
Analysis of the section
555
Light from Combustion
558
81 The Radiometer
559
Light from Animals
560
Separation of Light and Hcat
562
Calorescence
563
Nonluminous bodies
565
Light proceeds in straight lines
567
Photometry and Photometers
569
Velocity of light
571
Transparent and opaque substances
573
Refraction of light
574
Volcanoes
575
Temperature of deep mines
576
Deep sea temperatures
577
Polar currents in the Atlantic
578
Source of terrestrial heat
579
Change of bulk caused by heat
580
Physical states of matter dependent on hea
581
Illustrations from mercury and camphor
582
Gases and vapours the result of heat
583
Liquefaction and solidification of gases
584
Action of Lenses
585
equalization of temperature
588
Heat and Cold relative terms
589
Conduction of Heat
590
Relative Conductivity of Solids
591
Optical Instruments
592
Conductors and Nonconductors
593
The structure of the
594
clothing
595
Phenomena of Vision
596
Natural coverings of animals
597
Influence of Snow and Ice
598
Conducting power of the Earth
599
Retention of Heat by bodies
601
Action of Heat on Glass
602
Annealing and Tempering of solids
603
Estimation of sensible Heat
604
Influence of Clothing
606
Principles of the safety lamp
607
Convection of Heat
610
Warming by circulation of hot water
612
Gulf Stream
613
Climatic changes
614
Ventilation of dwellings
616
Heat transferred
617
Radiation of Heat
618
Radiation Absorption and Reflection of Heat
621
Reflection of Heat rays
624
Diaphanous and Diathermarous bodies
626
Formation of dew
628
Chiaroscuro
629
Temperature of space
632
Capacity of bodies for heat
633
Specific heat
635
Principles of the Stereoscope
636
Line of perpetual snow
638
on Temperature
641
The Telescope 647 The Microscope
642
Reflection of Light
649
Concave and Convex mirrors
655
The Camera Lucida
659
The Rainbow
660
Solar Spectrum and Spectrum analysis
663
Fluorescence
665
The Spectroscope
667
Constitution of the Sun and Stars
672
Chemical properties of Light
673
Emission and Wave theories
676
Phenomena of Interference
679
Polarization of Light
683
Polarization of Heat
688
Old and New Theories of Light 804 808 81C 812 814 822 824 825 830 834 836 842 848 861 868 872 878 880 889 892 893 896 899 902 907 90...
689
Nature of Electricity
692
Illustrations of its production
694
Conductors and Insulators 697 Electrical Machines
697
Electrical Induction
700
The Electroscope
702
The Electrophorus
704
IIoltzs Induction Machine
706
The Leyden
707
The Electric Battery
709
Velocity of the Electric flash 713 The Electricity of the Atmosphere
713
Current or Voltaic Electricity
715
Voltaic batteries
719
Passage of Heat into Light
720
Chemical effects of Heat
721
Groves and Bunsens Batteries
722
Influence on germination and incubation
724
Phenomena of combustion
725
Galvanic deposition of metals
726
Electrolysis
727
Decomposition of Water 958 959 960 963 964 965 966
728
Combustion with and without oxygen
729
Spontaneous combustion
731
Magnetism a polar force
732
incandescence
734
Supporters of combustion and combustibles
735
Heat and light of combustion
736
Diamagnetism
737
Nature of flame
738
Variations of the Compass
739
Magnetic charts
740
Electromagnetism
741
Products of Combustion
742
Galvanometers
743
Electrodynamics
745
Electromagnetic Engines
746
Electric clocks
747
Induced Electric currents
748
Fuel
749
Magnetoelectric induction
752
Thermoelectricity
756
The Thermopile
757
Temperature of the bodies of animals
758
Heat borne by man and animals
760
Influence of heat on animals
763
Source of animal heat
764
Submarine Telegraphs
766
Warming of dwellings
767
Duplex Telegraphy
768
Rapidity of transmission
769
Stoves and firegrates
770
1003
772
Mechanical equivalent of heat
773
The roundness and size of the earth
774
Ileat from Collision of bodies
778
Analysis of the section 556 Sources of Light
779
light from the Sun
781
The Earths rotation
787
Instruments of the Astronomical Observatory
793
Mechanical View of the Earths revolution
799
Eclipses of the Sun and Moon
805
Precession of the Equinoxes
812
The description of the
818
Transit of Venus
824
Constitution of Comets
830
Conductibility of solids 485
835
Constituents of the body
836
The form of the skull
837
Construction of the teeth
838
The spinal column
839
The ribs and chest 841 Construction of the arm bones
841
The bones of the
843
Formation of the fout
845
Muscular force
846
Constituents of bone 849 Structure and composition of the teeth ART 1073 1074 1075 1076 1077 1078 1079 1081 1084 1085 1086 1087
849
SECTION II ANIMAI HYDRAULICS AND PNEUMATICS 851 Circulation of the blood
851
Plan of the circulation
852
Constituents of the blood
853
Products of the blood
854
Chemical and vital processes
855
Motion of the blood in the arteries
856
The Capillary circulation
857
Circulation through the veins
858
Effects of gravitation on the blood
859
The force of the heart
860
The nature and cause of the pulse
861
The sphygmograph
862
Life dependent on the heart
863
The number of pulsations
864
Respiration or breathing
865
Amount of air consumed
867
Death from interrupted breathing
868
Changes produced in the blood
869
Capacity of the lungs
871
Aspiratory force in breathing 1089 1090 1091 1092 1093 1094 1095 1096 1097 1097 1098 I 100 IIO2 1104 1105 1106 I108 1109 872 The Hydı...
872
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