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year on the result of the preceding year's work in the Department, and holders must continue their studies in Chemistry during the year of tenure.
FOUNDED IN 1860.
Patron- THE CROWN.
Professors—1860 George Dickie, M.A., M.D., F.R.S., retired 1877, died 1882.
1877 JAMES W. H. TRAIL, M.A., M.D., F.L.S., F.R.S. GENERAL LECTURE COURSE.—This course is attended during the summer session in Marischal College, meeting at 8 A.M., from Monday to Friday, and consists of “not fewer than fifty meetings”. During past years the number of meetings in each session has been considerably above this minimum. The Senatus has sanctioned the distribution of the fifty meetings as follows :
Forty lectures, six oral examinations with tutorial instruction, two written examinations, and two excursions to enable students to observe plants in their native habitats. Additional meetings are at the discretion of the Professor.
The lectures are fully illustrated by means of living specimens, microscopic and other preparations, diagrams, models and experiments on living plants.
The course includes an account of the following :
The characters distinctive of plants; the life-histories of number of types selected to illustrate in the greater groups of plants the characteristic structures, processes of self-nutrition and reproduction, and gradual advance in complexity; classification, with special reference to groups of plants of importance from a scientific point of view, or as affording products of value to man, or as causing diseases in plants and animals; and vegetable physiology, in so far as required to supplement the references to the subject under the former heads.
The practical applications of Botany are noticed during the course, when occasion offers.
PRACTICAL INSTRUCTION IN BOTANY is given in connection with the general course. Attendance on this is optional to any student attending the general course. No fee has been charged for such instruction, but a small charge is made for expenses, and for the use of a microscope, if required by any student.
These sums must be paid to the Teacher on entering the class.
Attendance on this instruction, extending to twenty or more hours, does not qualify as a half course in Practical Botany for graduation in Arts.
CLASS OF PRACTICAL BOTANY.—This class is held during the
summer session on Mondays from 11 A.M. to noon, and on Wednesdays and Fridays from 10 A.M. to noon. It extends to about fifty hours' instruction.
ADVANCED INSTRUCTION is provided for such as desire it either with a view to graduation or for any other reason; but the arrangements for such instruction are subject to such modifications as will best meet the necessities of each case. It includes practical instruction in the general and physiological laboratories of the Department with special courses of lectures. Intending students are requested to communicate with the Professor.
The laboratory is open to students who desire to work in it on terms stated under "Fees ". Each student has been permitted to select his own hours for work in the laboratory, specimens and materials being supplied (for which a small charge may be made in the laboratory).
BOOKS.-For the general lecture course: Green's "Manual of Botany," or Strasburger's "Text-book of Botany ". Scott's "Structural Botany," and J. Oliver's "Systematic Botany" are good as regards the part of the Science treated of by each. For Systematic Botany, either Hooker's "Student's Flora," ed. 3, or Babington's "Manual of British Botany," ed. 8. Dickie's "Botanist's Guide” gives localities of plants near Aberdeen. On Practical Botany among the most useful works are Bower and Vaughan's "Practical Botany for Beginners," and Darwin and Acton's "Practical Physiology of Plants".
The following books will be found useful by senior students : Sachs' "Text-book of Botany," Goebel's "Morphology of Plants," Sachs' "Lectures on the Physiology of Plants," Vines' "Students' Text-book of Botany," Green's "Vegetable Physiology," Detmer-Moor's "Practical Plant Physiology," Schimper's" Physiological Plant Geography," Willis' "Manual and Dictionary of Flowering Plants and Ferns," Sachs' " History of Botany," Seward's "Fossil Plants," or Scott's "Fossil Botany," De Vries' "Plant Breeding" and "Mutation Theory," and "Types of British Vegetation," edited by A. G. Tansley. Advanced students have access within the Department to numerous works of reference, and use them freely, especially in studying the classification of plants.
Further information will be given at all times by the Professor, to any one desiring it, with regard to other botanical works including those in foreign languages and on special branches of Botany.
PRIVATE RESEARCH.-The botanical laboratory is open to any person desirous to make original investigations in any branch of the science, on the conditions detailed under "University Fees".
Lecturer-SAMUEL LIPP, M.A., B.Sc.
Instruction in Vegetable Physiology for the Final B.Sc. Examination in Botany includes a course of fifty Lectures held during the first Term of the Winter Session. Practical instruction is provided in the Summer Term in a laboratory course of twenty-two hour periods.
Professors--1860 (1853) James Nicol, F.R.S. E., F.G.S., resigned and died 1878. 1878 J. Cossar Ewart, M.D., F.R.S., demitted 1882.*
1882 Henry Alleyne Nicholson, M.D., D.Sc., F.R.S., died 1899. 1899 JOHN ARTHUR THOMSON, M.A., LL.D.
The arrangement whereby the department of Natural History was held to cover both Zoology and Geology came to an end in 1908, when a separate Lectureship in Geology was instituted.
I. SYSTEMATIC ZOOLOGY. Before Christmas, daily. After Christmas on Tuesdays and Thursdays. The hour of meeting is The course will deal with the facts and principles of
As a text-book, students should use the Professor's "Outlines of Zoology," 6th ed.
II. PRACTICAL ZOOLOGY. A course of Practical Zoology, similar to that in the summer session, will be held after Christmas if a sufficient number of students present themselves.
III. A special course of Laboratory Work and Advanced Instruction is also arranged for advanced students. This class meets daily at 9 A.M.
Advanced students are recommended to consult the "Textbook of Zoology" by Parker and Haswell, Sedgwick's "Student's Text-book of Zoology," Wiedersheim's "Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrates," Reynolds' "The Vertebrate Skeleton," "Textbook of Embryology" by MacBride and others, Marshall's "Vertebrate Embryology," and Lankester's "Zoology”.
I. SYSTEMATIC ZOOLOGY. Daily. The hour of meeting 2 P.M. II. PRACTICAL ZOOLOGY. Daily, 3-4 P.M.
* On appointment to Professorship of Natural History in Edinburgh University.
The work includes :-
animals, supplemented by demonstrations.
(4) Identification of representatives of the local fauna. The work of the class will, so far as practicable, be supplemented by excursions.
This course is supplementary to the lectures delivered in the Systematic Class and should be taken along with it.
III. A special course of Laboratory Work and Advanced Instruction is arranged for advanced students, in continuation of that held in the winter. The hour of meeting is 8 A.M.
Advanced students, specialising in Zoology for the degree of B.Sc., are expected to take advantage of the special courses on Parasitology, Statistical Methods, Fishery Problems, and Embryology.
CLASS OF AGRICULTURAL ZOOLOGY.-See under “ Agriculture”. PARASITOLOGY AND EXPERIMENTAL ZOOLOGY.
Lecturer-JOHN RENNIE, D.Sc., F.R.S.E. A course, embracing lectures, demonstrations, and practical work, will be held during the Winter Term. The subject matter will be selected from the following :
1. Protozoology : Examination of living parasitic Protozoa from natural sources and cultures. Recognition of common forms. Examination of infected material-intestinal contents, blood, etc. Search for and study of, in the living state, Amoeba, Trypanosoma, Spirochaeta, Monocystis, Eimeria (Coccidium), Balantidium, etc. Practice in staining and mounting of a selection of the foregoing;
2. Medical Entomology: Examination of the following Insects, Mites, and Ticks--Culex, Anopheles, Glossina, Musca, Sarcoptes, Ixodes, Argas, Ornithodoros; noting distinctive features and the pathogenic or hygienic significance of each. How to recognise a blood-sucking insect.-Examination of the mouth parts of a series of selected types, illustrating different habits. Preparation of Insect and Arachnid parts for microscopic examination. Dissection of Insects, etc.
Examination of their intestinal contents-Identification of parasites in these. Methods of des. truction of harmful insects. Preventive measures.
3. Helminthology : Identification of important forms occurring in man – Filaria, Ankylostoma, Necator, Ascaris, Trichocephalus, Trichinella ; various flukes and tapeworms.
Examination of the ova of a series of worms in naturally infected material. The recognition of worms by their ova-size and other diagnostic features-practice in measurement. Examination of Tapeworm heads and segments-distinguishing characters of im. portant forms. Hydatid cysts—their distinctive features, recogni. tion of their hooklets, which may occur in sputum, etc. The mounting of Flukes and other worms for diagnosis.
A short Course adapted to the requirements of medical students, dealing with the biology of pathogenic parasites and their agents in transmission, will also be arranged, in association with the course in Tropical Medicine.
Opportunities for training in research in Experimental Zoology are also afforded under the Lectureship.
The courses are free to members of the University staff and others interested.
THE SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF FISHERIES.
Lecturer_1908 Thos. Alex. Wemyss Fulton, M.D. A short course of lectures and demonstrations on the scientific study of Fishery problems, conducted by Dr. T. Wemyss Fulton, Scientific Adviser to the Scottish Fishery Board. The subjects discussed and illustrated in this course will be, in the first instance, the various modes of fishing and the appliances used, the distribution of food-fishes and the factors determining this, the physical conditions of the sea and their influence on the life and distribution of fishes, the chief fishing grounds and the natural history of the most important food-fishes—their food, reproduction, growth, migrations, etc. The course is primarily intended for students attending the advanced course of Zoology, but it is open without fee to all interested in Fisheries.
WINTER SESSION. I.-An advanced course of laboratory instruction, qualifying for the B.Sc. degree in pure Science, is given during the Winter Session. The course includes lectures and practical work and may include field work. For particulars as to books, etc., see under “Degrees in Science, $ VII.” A detailed syllabus of the practical work lies in the Advanced Laboratory.
II. - The Research Laboratory is open to persons wishing to prosecute original research.