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SENATUS ACADEMICUS. The Senatus Academicus consists of the Principal and Professors. It is entrusted with the regulation and superintendence of the teaching and discipline of the University; has the entire power of granting Degrees; and, up to 1890, it also administered the property and revenues of the University. The Principal is
President, with a deliberative and a casting vote; in his absence the senior Professor present acts as Chairman. One-third (nine) of the Senatus constitutes a quorum. The Senatus appoints twothirds of the members of Committees charged by the Universities Commissioners with the immediate superintendence of the libraries and museums of the University, the remaining third being appointed by the University Court; and it receives in the first instance all reports by such Čommittees, and, subject to the review of the University Court, confirms, modifies, or rejects the recommendations in such reports.
The Senatus elects four Assessors* to the University Court. Previous to the Universities Act of 1889, it elected one. No Principal or Professor of any Scottish University can be elected Rector, or be nominated or elected Assessor to any other person or body than the Senatus Academicus.
The Professors are classified under the five Faculties of ARTS, SCIENCE, DIVINITY, LAW, and MEDICINE. The Faculty of Science was instituted by Ordinance No. 31 of the Commissioners under “ The Universities (Şcotland) Act, 1889”. The various Faculties are constituted as under :
(1) The following Professors constitute the FACULTY OF ARTS : the Professors of English Literature, Humanity, Greek, Hebrew and Semitic Languages, Mathematics, Natural Philosophy, Logic, Moral Philosophy, History.
(2) The following Professors constitute the Faculty OF SCIENCE: the Professors of Mathematics, Natural Philosophy, Chemistry, Natural History, Botany, Anatomy, Physiology, Agriculture.
(3) The following Professors constitute the FACULTY OF DIVINITY: the Professors of Systematic Theology, Divinity and Biblical Criticism, Divinity and Church History, Hebrew and Semitic Languages.
(4) The following Professors constitute the FACULTY OF LAW : the Professors of Law, Forensic Medicine and +History.
(5) The following Professors constitute the Faculty OF MEDI. CINÉ: the Professors of Chemistry, Natural History, Botany, Natural Philosophy, Anatomy, Physiology, Pathology, Materia Medica, Medicine, Surgery, Midwifery, Forensic Medicine.
* For names of Assessors, see under University Court.
There are now Assistants to all the Professors except those in the Faculty of Divinity. They are appointed yearly by the University Court on the recommendation of the respective Professors.
All the Assistants are debarred from private teaching.
Bachelor of Divinity (B.D.).
Doctor of Divinity (D.D.). Doctor of Letters (D.Litt.).
Bachelor of Law (B.L.). Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.).
Bachelor of Laws (LL.B.). Bachelor of Science in Agriculture (B. Doctor of Laws (LL.D.). Sc. Agr.):
Bachelor of Medicine (M.B.). Bachelor of Science in Forestry (B.Sc. Doctor of Medicine (M.D.). Forestry).
Bachelor of Surgery (Ch.B.). Doctor of Science (D.Sc.).
Master of Surgery (Ch.M.). With the exception of the Degrees of Doctor of Divinity and Doctor of Laws, which are bestowed honoris causâ tantum, all the Degrees are conferred only after examination.
The granting of the Honorary Degrees of Doctor of Divinity and Doctor of Laws is regulated by Ordinance of the Universities' Commissioners No. 41 (General No. 13 — Honorary Degrees). Two Committees are annually appointed by the Senatus, whose duty it is to select persons to be recommended to the Senatus for the respective Degrees. The Ordinance provides that the Committees shall not entertain applications from or on behalf of persons desirous of receiving the Degrees. The recommendations of each Committee are embodied in reasoned Reports which are submitted to the Senatus.
GRADUATION CEREMONIAL AND ACADEMIC COSTUME. The ceremony of Graduation takes place at two terms in the year–in the beginning of April and the end of July respectively.
Those who are to receive Degrees are expected to appear in Cap and Black Gown, and to come provided with the Hood appropriate to the Degree.
The Gowns are the same in all the Faculties, viz., Black Silk or Stuff; as are the Caps (trenchers). The distinctive part of the Costume is in the Hoods, which for the different Degrees are as follows:
B.Sc.-Black Silk, lined with Green Silk.
B.Sc. Agr.-Black Silk, edged with Green Silk.
For full dress, doctors wear gowns of scarlet cloth with silk facings of the colour peculiar to their Degrees,-White, Green, Purple, Pale Blue, or Crimson. With these, no Hoods are required, and, instead of the ordinary Trenchers, Black Velvet Caps of the "John Knox" style are worn.
I. FOR DEGREES.
The Examiners for Graduation in Arts, Science, and Medicine are the Professors whose subjects qualify for Graduation in those Faculties respectively, together with such Lecturers in the University and such additional Examiners appointed by the University Court, as the Court may deem necessary.
The Examiners for Graduation in Divinity and Law are the Professors or Lecturers on the subjects included in the respective Examinations, and additional Examiners appointed by the University Court.
The University Court appoints two Committees for advising as to suitable nominees for Examinerships as they fall vacant, one dealing with the Examinerships in Arts, Divinity and Law, and the other with Examinerships in Science and Medicine. As a rule the new appointments are made at the July meeting of the Court.
Formerly no person was eligible for appointment as an additional Examiner, who was a Professor, Lecturer, or University Assistant or Demonstrator in any other Scottish University but this disqualification has now been removed.
II. FOR PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS. The University Court of each University annually appoints as Examiners, such number of Professors or Lecturers in the Faculty of Arts in that University, and such Additional Examiners, as may be deemed necessary. The Examiners in each University examine the candidates who present themselves at the Preliminary Examinations in Arts, Science and Medicine of that University, and prepare, set, and mark the Examination papers.
The Preliminary. Examinations are conducted under the control and supervision of a Joint Board of Examiners, constituted under Ordinance No. 13 of the Universities Commissioners, as amended by Supplementary Ordinance, No. 43, and consisting of sixteen members, each of the Scottish Universities annually appointing, as its representatives two Professors or Lecturers and two Additional Examiners. The Joint Board meets for a year at each of the University centres in the following rotation : St. Andrews, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Aberdeen.
The Regulations for the Preliminary Examinations in Arts, Science and Medicine will be found under the several Faculties.
1891-93 Principal A. M. Fairbairn, D.D., Mansfield College, Oxford.
University. 1913-15 Prof. William Ritchie Sorley, Litt.D., LL.D., Cambridge
University. 1917-19 Clement C. J. Webb, M.A., Oxford University, The sum of £20,000 was bequeathed in 1887 by Adam Gifford, one of the Senators of the College of Justice, Edinburgh, for the purpose of founding a Lectureship on Natural Religion. In the testamentary deed executed by Lord Gifford the purpose is more particularly declared to be—“ Promoting, Advancing, Teaching, and Diffusing the study of Natural Theology,” in the widest sense of that term; in other words—“ The Knowledge of God, the Infinite, the All, the First and Only Cause, the One and the Sole Substance, the Knowledge of His nature and attributes, the Knowledge of the relations which men and the whole universe bear to Him, the Knowledge of the Nature and Foundation of Ethics or Morals, and of all Obligations and Duties thence arising”. The Lecturers need not belong to any religious denomination,