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stowed upon different districts, of the same country, different advantages, which it is for the interest of that country that each district should improve to the utmost. But every one may see, that the same principles apply to different nations inhabiting the different quarters of the globe. The separation of the earth into warring nations, is nothing but the arbitrary work of man; it alters neither the qualities nor the relations which God has given to things, nor the laws under which he has constituted man. man own a farm, of which one part is suited only to tillage, and another part only to grazing, and he divide it, and sell the pasture land to his neighbor; this does not alter the nature of the soil. Will it not be just as profitable to appropriate each part to the purpose for which God designed it, after the purchase, as before ?

Every man needs, for the gratification of his innocent desires, nay, for his conveniences and even necessaries, the productions of every part of the globe. To be convinced of this, we have only to enumerate the articles which furnish our houses, the food that covers our tables, and the raiment which clothes our bodies. How greatly would all our means of happiness be diminished, were we deprived of the iron, the furs, and the hemp of the North; the coffee, teas, sugar, rice, fruits, and spices of the South; or the wool, the wheat, and the manufactures, of temperate climates.

Every one must be convinced that the happiness of every man is increased in proportion as he is furnished with the greatest number of these objects of desire; and furnished with them, in their greatest perfection, and at the cheapest rate.

But, it is evidently the will of our Creator, that but few of these objects, every one of which is necessary to the happiness of every individual, should be produced except in particular districts. Others, if they can be produced in several places, can be produced much more cheaply, and in greater perfection, in some places, than in others. Every part of the globe possesses peculiar advantages for the production of something; but no part possesses advantages for the production of every thing. Hence we see, on the principle illustrated above, that the annual production of the globe will be greatest; that is, there will be the largest amount falling annually to the share of every individual; that is, every individual will be richer and happier, when each portion of the globe devotes itself to the creation of those products for which it has the greatest natural facilities. If a man in New York can produce, by one day's labor, one hundred pounds of flour, but could not produce more than one ounce of coffee; and a man in Cuba can produce twenty-five pounds of coffee, but cannot produce more than one pound of four, and they exchange, as we have before seen they must exchange, labor for labor: the one will produce, by a day's labor, twenty-five pounds of coffee, instead of an ounce; and the other, one hundred pounds of flour, instead of a pound. Is not this better than for the New York farmer to raise his coffee in a hot-house, at the expense


a day's labor for an ounce; and the West Indian to raise his wheat on the mountains, at the expense of a day's labor for a pound ? Such are the advantages of that division of labor suggested by geographical position.

And the final cause of all this is evident. God intended that men should live together in friendship and harmony. By thus multiplying indefinitely their wants, and creating only in particular localities, the objects by which those wants can be supplied, he intended to make them all necessary to each other; and thus to render it no less the interest, than the duty of every one, to live in amity with all the rest.

Nor is the application of this principle confined to geographical localities. The simple fact that a nation possesses facilities, be they either natural or acquired, for creating any product at a cheaper rate than any other nation, is a reason why that nation should devote itself to the creation of that product; and why another nation should, for the same reason, improve its own peculiar advantages. Thus, there are certain states of society, and a certain amount of accumulation of capital, most favorable to the creation of certain products. A nation in this state, and with this accumulation, can furnish these products cheaper than her neighbors; and this is a reason they should purchase them of her. Could not one of our old States supply one of the new States with manufactures, cheaper than the new State could produce them itself? And is not this a reason why the new State should procure them by exchange, rather than by direct production ? Is it not cheaper for an Indian to buy a rifle of an European, than to attempt to make one for himself?

This is, however, by no means to assert that such arrangements and relations are to be permanent. As a country accumulates fixed capital, it creates its own facilities for creating almost every kind of manufactured product. One nation will naturally begin to do this at the same point of accumulation at which another began to do it. And the way in which to arrive at this point the soonest, is to become rich as fast as possible; that is, to buy as cheap as we can, or, in other words, to procure, annually, as many objects of desire as possible, for a given amount of labor. A tribe of Indians would much sooner be able to make rifles for itself, by purchasing, at first, rifles of an European, than by determing that it would never use rifles, until it could manufacture them for itself. As the use of a rifle would render industry more productive, and thus render the tribe richer, it would bring them one step nearer to that degree of accumulation, at which they might begin to make rifles for themselves. But the resolution not to purchase of others, would have no such tendency, inasmuch as it would do nothing whatever towards accumulating production; but would, on the contra

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ry, shut them out from the very means offered them for most rapidly benefitting their condition.

To sum up what has been said. It will be seen that production will be increased; that is, men will be richer, and therefore may be happier, as the following conditions are complied with :

1. As the laws of nature, designed by our Creator for our benefit, are understood;

2. As the means are devised for availing ourselves, in the most successful manner, of the utility of these laws;

3. As the human labor necessary to be expended, is so arranged as, with a given expenditure, to produce the greatest and most perfect result; and

4. As the inhabitants of the earth, in different localities, devote themselves most exclusively to the production of those objects of desire, for the production of which they have received, either directly or indirectly, from their Creator, the greatest facilities.

Or, still more generally, production will be abundant; that is, man will enjoy the means of physical happiness, in proportion to his individual industry, both of mind and body; and to the degree of harmony and good feeling which exists between the individuals of the same society; and also between the different societies themselves.




This subject has been already so frequently alluded to, and all the points on which it depends so distinctly stated, that it will not be necessary to examine it so fully, as might otherwise be required.

The result of industry applied to capital is product, value, or the means of gratifying human desire. The result of increased productiveness of human industry, is, with the same labor, increased product, value, or means of gratifying human desire. That is, in general, increased productiveness is equivalent to increased means of human happiness. This simple statement would seem sufficient to explain the whole subject. In order, however, to obviate any objections that may arise, we will proceed to show its practical operation, by several illustrations.

Take the case of a single individual. Suppose a man, by the same amount of labor that he spent last year, to be able this year to create twice as much value. Suppose that a farmer has twice as large a harvest; that is, that his instrument is twice as good this year as it was last year. The result is, he will be able to satisfy the desire which that product gratifies, twice as abundantly as he did last year. He will have more to exchange with other producers, and hence he will be able to gratify other desires more abundantly. He will be able to make exchanges which were before out of his power; hence, he will be able to add to his mode of living, new means of happiness. And, on the other hand, as he is able to make exchanges with others with whom it was before impossible, others, in return, are able to avail themselves of his product or means of happiness, who were before unable to do so. Hence, he is not only happier himself; but the very means, by which he becomes so, render him the instrument of greater happiness to others. Hence, it is a benefit to a whole neighborhood, for a single member of it honestly to become rich. In other words, increased productiveness, in one branch of labor, increases productiveness in every branch of labor.

Let us call this first individual A, and suppose that before the productiveness of his labor had been increased, he exchanged with another individual B, on equal terms. If the labor of A and B were 10 per

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