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and distorting others. He could tell his petitioners went on to complain of the evils noble friend that he had been informed by which had arisen from want of sufficient one of his (the Marquis Camden's) own protection to agriculture, and from those tenants, that he had lost 2001. by his farm measures of free trade which were incomlast year, and consequently, though farmers patible with the present situation of the did not throw up their farms, it did not country,-evils which had been greatly agfollow that they were not losing. His noble gravated by the alteration of the currency. friend had said that his rents were well | The petition concluded by a prayer, so paid. He congratulated his noble friend common in similar petitions at present, for upon this : but the fact would prove no- a reform in Parliament, conducted on proper thing, unless his noble friend could show principles. He perfectly concurred in the that those rents were not paid out of the prayer of the petition for Parliamentary tenants' capital. A noble lord (Suffield) Reform thus limited. He had always exhad suggested that evening that reduction pressed his disapprobation of what was of rents would do good: but how did the called radical reform, and he still disapdistress of the landlords arise, except from proved of it; but to limited and wholethe reduction or the utter withholding of some reform he was friendly, because he rents ? He could have no objection to any conceived, and recent experience had connoble Lord reducing his rents as low as he firmed the opinion, that the House of Compleased, but, in the name of other noble mons did not express the feelings of the Lords, and in the name of the rest of the people. Under such circumstances of dislandlords of the country, he must protest tress as were general in all counties, and against measures which were not only which were intolerable in some, he was not objectionable in other respects, but which surprised that the people should call for must inevitably lead to that result as a reform in Parliament; but, in an ancient matter of necessity. There were some and dilapidated edifice like the Constitution parts of the country in which no reduction of this country, they must be careful lest, of rents could take place ; for this simple in making alterations, they destroy the reason_namely, that there were no rents edifice itself. This cry for reform might at all paid. The parts of the country to not be very agreeable to the Government; which he alluded were those in which the but he was sure that if the object of Gopoor-rates amounted to the full 20s. in the vernment had been to excite the people to pound. The petitioners stated that the raise this cry, it could not have taken any amount of taxation was greater than the more effectual means than those which it country, under existing circumstances, had pursued. He would not detain their could bear. Upon this statement he Lordships any longer, because he trusted begged to observe, that taxation had been he should have other opportunities of disvirtually doubled since 1819; that was to cussing all these topics fully. say, it was necessary to sell double the Petition read. produce now to pay the same amount of The Marquis Camden said, that as his noble taxation. The petitioners went on to state,
friend had thought proper to make a great that the poor-rates had increased to so great many observations upon what he had felt an amount as to leave no profit either to it his duty to say in that House, he would the landlord or to the tenant. Now, upon tell their Lordships what he had meant to this subject he could state, that he knew of say on the occasion referred to. He had landed property upon which the assessment meant to say, that as far as his experience for poor-rates had doubled within the last and means of observation would allow him fourteen years. He knew one farm, con- to form an opinion on the subject, the dissisting of 1,341 acres, which paid 9941. tress complained of was not so great or so per annum for poor-rates. He knew ano- general as it had been represented to be by ther instance in which the poor-rates some persons in that and in the other amounted to 2,900l. a year, while the esti- House of Parliament. As to the County mated rental of the estate was only 2,500l. of Kent, he had said that the distress was He was acquainted also with a farin which not so great as it had been represented let only for 501. a year, while the rates and to be. He spoke from his own experience, taxes levied
the same farm amounted and their Lordships would do him the justo 112. a year. He could produce many tice to recollect that what he had said was other similar instances, but he should founded upon a comparison which he had reserve them until the debate which was made between this and former years, the about to come on respecting free trade. The result of which comparison was, that the
county was not so distressed as it had been ships after the result of the debate of the in former years. When, too, he had spoken other night. He had not the vanity to of a political party, he knew that political suppose that any thing he could say would opinions on certain subjects ran high in be of any avail, when he had seen how Kent, and he knew that political opinions useless had been the powerful and eloquent upon one point were often apt to influence appeals which noble Lords had made for men's conduct on others, It had been their distressed fellow-countrymen, who so with him, and he had no hesitation in called upon their Lordships to discharge confessing it. He had no hesitation in that duty which the country had a right to saying, that-it was a great many years demand. He should, however, feel that ago, certainly-he had, with the father of he was wanting in respect to the petitioners his noble friend (Earl Stanhope), attended if he were silent now. In the few obserpublic meetings for the purpose of exciting vations he had to make he should confine popular feeling against a government of himself chiefly to some of the views which which he disapproved. He had meant to the petitioners took of the causes of their say nothing offensive in what had fallen distress, and to the ultimate result of those from him on this subject, and he trusted
He would not occupy the time of that, however his noble friend and he their Lordships in proving the existence of might differ in politics, their friendship that unparalleled distress, of which the would be undisturbed. As to what his country complained ; nor would he afflict noble friend had said about the duties of a their Lordships by detailing the heart-rendLord-lieutenant, he appealed to the noble ing cases of misery which had come under Duke (of Wellington) behind him, if he had his own observation. He would, however, been officious in communicating informa- briefly but boldly assert, against the opinion ti on to the Government.
of the noble Marquis, whom he was proud The Duke of Wellington. - Certainly to call his friend, that the distress which now not.
pervaded the agricultural interest had not The Marquis Camden continued. He been exceeded in the memory of the oldest had spoken as an independent Peer; and man living. He wished that noble Lords in that capacity he had thought it right to who expressed an opinion that the distress express the opinions he entertained. Again, of the country was not so great as some if the county of Kent were as much dis- persons imagined, had taken the trouble to tressed as it was said to be, or even more inquire how rents were paid ; if they had, so, that could not prove that the country they would find that in many instances the generally was distressed. Besides, it should rents came out of the capital of the tenant, be recollected that there was a peculiar instead of coming out of the fair profits of culture in Kent—that of hops. The low the cultivation of the land, and that in price of that produce, and the duty upon it, other cases rents came out of the capimight have made it very difficult for the tal of the landlords themselves. Such growers to remunerate themselves. His was the case where pasture lands were noble friend had alluded to a tenant of his broken up, and converted into arable (Marquis Camden's) who had lost 2001. lands. The noble Earl proceeded to allude by his farm. He did not know who that to and deplore the diminution of the yeotenant was, but he thought it not unlikely manry of this country, who had formed the that a tenant who wished his rent to be intermediate and connecting link between reduced, or the day of payment deferred, the landholder and the peasantry,-a class would hit upon such an argument. that, in the hour of trial and danger,
Earl Stanhope, in explanation, said, he whether arising from foreign or domestic trusted his noble friend did not think he foes, had proved our best safeguard and dehad meant to say that his noble friend's fence. With respect to himself, his oppoconduct had proceeded from any but the sition to the measures of Government was most conscientious motives. As to distress- any thing rather than a factious opposition. ing the Government, he thought it the proper Hé opposed them upon principle, because course to excite noise, and he pleaded guilty lie was convinced they were injurious to to the desire to excite noise, both in that the country. He had no longer any conHouse and out of it, when he found him- fidence in parties with whom he had been self beaten by numbers, and not by argu- previously allied,—for him, the ties of priments.
vate and political friendship had been The Earl of Winchilsea said, he felt cruelly severed. He wished that the noble some reluctance to intrude upon their Lord. Duke, who now possessed an estate in Kent, would spend some of his time there during could not obtain sufficient employment. the Easter recess, and inquire into the con- The petitioners stated, that if things condition of the county; he would find the tinued as they were, they must ultimately district of Romney Marslı, up the Weald become unable to pay the taxes and their of Kent, formerly celebrated for rich pas- debts ; that bankruptcy would be their ture lands, in a state of great distress. Capi- portion, and ruin that of the State. He tal was fast diminishing there, and the farms very inuch feared that matters would bewere not properly cultivated, on account of come worse and worse in the course of a the poverty of the holders. He knew in- few months, if some remedy were not restances in which farms had been let for the sorted to. There was another point to next three years free from all charge in the which the petitioners alluded,-Parliamenshape of rent, on the condition that they tary Reform. He would not enter into should be properly cultivated. In many that subject further than to say, that in his districts, the greater part of the labouring opinion the people did not possess the weight population was wholly unemployed, except and influence to which they were justly during the few weeks of harvest. Let the entitled in the Commons House of Parlianoble Duke terminate his journey in Kentment, and that an unconstitutional influence by a visit to the noble Marquis who had just was frequently exercised in the return of addressed the House on the subject, and to its Members. But he was no radical rethe noble Earl below who had preceded former, and when the proper time came, him, and he would find, that the tenantry would discuss the question on constitutional were in many cases remaining on their grounds. farms because they could not quit them The Marquis Camden said, in explanation, without leaving their property behind, and that he had spoken of the state of things in selling it at a loss of 40, 50, or 60 per cent. his own neighbourhood, and represented it He was informed by a county magistrate, as improving. such was the distress in the town of Chat- The Earl of Darnley observed, that some ham and the neighbouring district, that the apology might be expected from him for not magistrates were frequently employed from taking a part in the getting up of the pemorning till night in devising measures for tition, particularly as he was connected with the assistance of the poor. The petitioners the county from which it had emanated, stated, that the contraction of the currency and was known to be favourable to these was one cause of their distress. He agreed expressions of public opinion. But he had with them in this. Before we ventured to not interfered because he was convinced contract our currency, we should have di- that the distress complained of could not be minished the national debt. If we did not relieved in consequence of any proposition give the country a more extensive circula- of the meeting, and that the suggestions of tion, it would be impossible for us to struggle the noble Lord (supposing him to be famuch longer with our difficulties. Hevourable to them) were likely enough to be was decidedly of opinion that the establish-counteracted. In 1822, when according ment of provincial banks, with liberty to to his opinion the distress was grcater than issue notes (proper security being given), at present, a county meeting was held in would be advantageous to the county in Kent, at which Mr. Cobbett attended and which he resided. Another cause of em- proposed an equitable adjustment. On that barrassment to which the petitioners alluded occasion, acting, as he thought, the part of an was, the system of taking off prohibitory honest man, he had opposed the proposition, duties, and allowing articles of foreign pro- but he stood almost alone in his opposition, duce to compete with the produce of native and it was carried by acclamation. At industry. If the unequal pressure of tax- another county meeting in Kent, the noble ation under which English agriculturists Earl proposed a loyal Address, when up suffered, as compared with those of foreign started an auctioneer, from Rochester, countries, could be removed, he should be knocked down the proposition, floored the an advocate for a free trade in corn, and noble Earl, and his second, and bottle-holder a free admission of foreign produce; but as (a noble Lord not now in his place), and matters stood at present, he maintained upset the entire proceeding. [Laughter] that free trade had been attended with very Would the noble Earl say, that on this remischievous effects upon the interests of this cent occasion the majority of the meeting country, inasmuch as it had been the means were not in favour of an invasion of Church of introducing the competition of foreign property? Let it be recollected that a relabour, at a time when our own population solution against tithes was eventually carried. The grounds of his reluctance to Lords talked of the benefits of reduction attend the meeting were now explained. of taxation ; was the noble Duke prepared He could truly state that the distress was to reduce our expenditure and taxation to not so general as had been represented ; the scale of 1791 ? Was he prepared to reand he was of opinion, that having already duce the debt fifty or sixty per cent and all reached the lowest point of depression, our fixed payments in the same proportion ? condition would improve. The Petition If not, he must consent to the issue of adverted to the Currency and the Corn- paper money to enable the country to bear laws: he believed and trusted that the the burthen of taxation, which had been noble Duke at the head of the Government virtually doubled within the last ten years. was determined to tamper with neither. Lord Suffield expressed his partial conAn interference with them could only be currence in the statements of the noble productive of mischief. Ministers had done Earl behind him, who had drawn with such what they could to alleviate distress by a strong colouring a picture of the distress reduction of taxation, which, it was ad experienced in Kent. Many of the noble mitted on all hands, must be serviceable to Earl's remarks would apply to the county the country. Besides, Government had (Norfolk) wi which he was himself conpledged itself to take the earliest opportu- nected. He regretted as much as the nity of effecting still further reductions. If noble Earl the diminution that had taken any man could point out better or speedier place in the class of yeomanry: persons of means of relief than had been brought for- from 500l. to 1,5001. a year bad felt the ward, he would go hand and heart with him; 1 pressure in a very extensive degree. Howbut nothing more efficacious had been ever, he did not think the distress attridiscovered. It should be the object of their butable to any act of the noble Duke, or Lordships rather to endeavour to hold out the Government: on the contrary, he was to the people consolation and hopes of of opinion that it was the result of longbetter times, than to draw exaggerated pic- continued circumstances over which they tures of distress, and say, bad as things did not possess any control. He should were they would become worse. The noble oppose the Ministers whenever he considerEarl having observed that the meeting at ed their measures to merit opposition; which the petition was agreed on was a
but he did not think them wrong or dehighly respectable one, concluded by stating serving of censure at present. that he felt as anxious as the noble Lords Petition to lie upon the Table. who preceded him to relieve the distress, but could not countenance the adoption of FREE-TRADE IMPORTS AND
Exdoubtful and hazardous remedies.
PORTS.] Earl Stanhope said, he understood Earl Stanhope said, with respect to the it was not the intention of his Majesty's idea of the majority of the meeting being Ministers to offer any opposition to the favourable to the counter-petition, he production of the Returns which he wished thought the majority was for the original to obtain, the motion for which he had proposition, but admitted that if so it was given notice of on a former day. This by no means a large majority. However, being the case, he should not enter into the it was all matter of opinion, and the High subject which the Returns involved upon Sheriff had decided differently. The noble the present occasion, reserving to himself Earl (Darnley) had alluded to former the right, at a future opportunity, when meetings at which he (Earl Stanhope) was the accounts were before the House, to not present, and stated that a proposition make his observations on the question of for an equitable adjustment was carried at Free Trade. The noble Earl moved for one of them. He was not a friend to accounts of the declared value of Foreign what was called equitable adjustment, Manufactured Silk imported into Great beccause he thought it could not be effected Britain in 1826, and the three subsequent in an equitable manner. However, to that years ; of the English Manufactured Silks we must come at last, or adopt an issue of exported in 1823, and each subsequent paper money. He did not wish to allow year; of the value of articles of Leather bankers to make such issues without re- imported in each year subsequent to 1823; quiring from them proper security, and of the quantity of Gloves imported within would rather have country bankers the the same time; of our Exports and Imports distributors than the creators of paper generally to and from France in 1823 and money: He should not object, for instance, every subsequent year; also for an account to an issue of Government paper. Noble of the expenses incurred in the mainte
nance of the Preventive Service, from its year from 1819 to 1829, inclusive, and the rate of Duty
on each article; ordered 18th March:--The number of establishment up to the latest period at
Passengers to and from Ireland by the Liverpool Governwhich they could be made out.
ment Packets; ordered 17th March:- Also, returns of The Duke of Wellington said, he had no unsettled demands on the funds provided by the Govern
ment of France for liquidating the claims of British subobjection to the Returns being furnished,
jects, and of the unappropriated balance of the Funds ; and should himself move for the production ordered 18th February: - And the Annual Accounts of of further returns, explanatory of the sub
Trade and Navigation ,
Petitions presented. Against the Renewal of the East India ject, upon a future day.
Company's Charter- By Mr. MARSHALL, from three different places in the Clothing district of Yorkshire : --By
Mr. S. Wortley, from Wortley :-By Sir M. W. RIDLEY, II OUSE OF COMMONS.
from the Merchants and Inhabitants of Newcastle-uponThursday, March 25.
Tyne. By Mr. H. Davis, from the Licensed Vietuallers
of Bristol, against throwing open the Beer Trade--- ReMINUTES.] Mr. A. Ellis moved an humble Address to
ferred to the Committee on the Beer Licensing System. his Majesty, requesting that the House might be furnished
By Sir J.WROTTESLEY from the Inhabitants of Stoke-uponwith a “copy of a Circular Letter addressed by Mr. PEEL Trent, complaining of Distress :--By Sir W. W. WYNN, to different Public Offices, in favour of the Society for from Denbighshire, with the same prayer. By Mr. WARsuperseding the use of Climbing Boys in the sweeping of BURTON, from Bridport, for a reform in the Criminal chimnies; a list of Public Oflices to which the same
Law:- By Mr. Alderman WAITHMax from the Protestant was addressed, and the number of Flues in each that have
Dissenters meeting in Worship-street Chapel, Finsburybeen swept by Boys or cleaned by the Machine, since
square, with the same prayer. By Mr. W. SMITH, from the date of the Circular : shewing also in which of such TRIVETT ALCOCK, of Norwich, in favour of the Jews :buildings, the Agents of the Society for superseding And by Lord JOHN RUSSELL, from the Letter-press Climbing Boys, or Sweeps that keep Boys are employed." Printers of Sheffield, praying for a reduction in the Agreed to.
Newspaper Stamp Duty. The petitioners stated as their A message came from the Lords, requesting a copy of the opinion, that if this Duty were reduced from 1d. to 2d.,
Report of the Committee of Inquiry on the case of and the Duty on Advertisements reduced from 3s. 6d. Sir JONAH BARRINGTON ; and a copy of the evidence to 28. the revenue would be increased. on which the House passed the Bill for Disfranchising the Borough of East Retford.
MISREPRESENTATION.] Colonel Sibthorp, The Lease of Lands Bill (Ireland) was read a second time. The Indemnity Bill was read a third time and passed. A
in presenting a Petition in favour of the Bill to regulate the Importation of Arms into Ireland was Selby and Liverpool Railway Bill, from brought in by Lord F. L. Gower, and read a first time ; as were a Bill to amend and consolidate the laws respecting himself of that opportunity to rectify an
the inhabitants of Lincoln, said, he availed Tolls, (Ireland), and a Bill to extend the powers of Grand Juries (Ireland) in the execution of the Act of 58 Geo. 3rd, error which had gone abroad with respect relative to Fever Hospitals.
to what he had uttered in the late debate Returns Presented. Annual Accounts of Public Expenditure, Consolidated Fund, Public Funded Debt, Un
on the motion of the hon. Member for funded Debt, Dispositions of Grants, Arrears and Balances : Shaftesbury. That morning a letter had --- Also Accounts of amounts paid in each of the last four been put into his hands, purporting to years for Half-pay, and Retired Allowances; ordered, 8th February and 22nd March : --Also Accounts of the
from a respectable inhabitant of quantity of Spirits that paid Duty in each Kingdom, from London, and written under the misconcep10th October, 1823, to 5th January, 1830, and amount of tion which this inaccuracy in his speech Spirits Distilled, and of Spirits exported to and from each Kingdom, and amount of Duty:-Also Account of Monies
had naturally originated.
He was reprereceived in respect of Droits, and from surplus of four sented to have stated that Mr. Jacob or and-a-half per cent :--Account of Malt charged with Duty, Mr. Poole would have been roughly hanand Malt made; the amount of Duties-paid in each collection of Excise in the year ended 5th January, 1850:- Also
dled in the event of their trusting themaccount of Amount paid as Drawback on Malt under selves in Lincoln. But such an innuendo the Acts 1 and 2 Geo. A. c. 82, 4 Geo. 4. c. 91, and 6 Geo. 4 he had never intended to convey. What c.58; ordered 18th February:-Also Accounts of the number of acres of Land under cultivation of Hops, and of
he did really say was, that he regretted the the Hop Duty for 1829; ordered 8th February :-Also noble Duke should not have had recourse Accounts of the number of barrels of Beer, exported in to better means of obtaining information, the year ended 5th January, 1830; the quantity made;
before he depended upon such authorities of the number of Barrels exported in each year from 5th January, 1825, to 5th January, 1830; number of Barrels for the price of Corn as Mr. Jacob, or for brewed in the year ended 5th January, 1830; and number the price of Wool and Meat as Mr. Giblett. of Brewers in Great Britain ; ordered 8th February :-Also accounts of the quantity of Soap made in each town
In noticing this mis-statement, he could not of Great Britain in 1827, 1828 and 1829, the quantity forbear to add, that he had no reason to exported in 1898 and 1829, the duty repaid as Draw- complain of the newspaper press generally. back allowances made to manufacturers of Silks, He should now postpone his notice of a &c.; distinguishing the hard from the soft Soap and quantity exported to Ireland during the years 1827, 1828, motion for the accommodation of reporters, and 1829; ordered 26th February :--Also Account of the until Thursday, the 13th of May. contract prices of Bread and Meat from 1819 to the
DISTRESS. Sir T. E. Winnington prepresent time, so far as relates to the Commissariat Department; ordered 2nd March :-Returns of the establish- sented a Petition from the freeholders of ment of the Commissariat on the 1st January, 1817, 1822, Worcestershire, complaining of Distress, and 1850, and of all the Appointments and Promotions and praying for an alteration in the principal articles charged with Duties of Excise in cach Currency, and also for Parliamentary