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employed, and that there was nothing of banking system of the country could be discontent amongst them. The business placed on that broad basis of national adof Birmingham, Wolverhampton, and Wal- vantage and stability which he begged sall, it appeared, was greatly improved ; | leave to assure the House Ministers were that the manufacturers there had lately anxious it should rest upon. The right got as many orders as in any year for a hon. Gentleman repeated, that it was the long time. It was true, that some of the ardent wish of the Government to place iron-masters worked below a profit, perhaps, the general banking system of the country but they made as much as the capital they on that broad basis ; and to effect that as expended; and the legislature could not, soon as circumstances would permit. Miby any act, support thriftless speculators. nisters conceived, he said, that the JointThe condition of the workmen themselves, stock banking system presented advantages he was pleased to observe, and wished to to the public beyond those which the primake the House observe, from the mention vate banking could, in the nature of things, made of those buildings, was greatly im- afford. There would be, in the first place, proved. He would not fatigue the House a greater security for the holder of the with longer statements, but he had re- notes issued ; and, what was a still greater ceived several other communications, all recommendation, and should be an indisshowing that the manufacturing interests pensable condition, such banks could enwere not in that depressed state which dure, and should be required to give, pubsome hon. Members represented, and that licity to the amount of their issues. This there was a satisfactory prospect of still publicity was the great recommendatory greater improvement. Having shown this, feature-in fact, the essence-of Jointhe would now say one word as to the stock banks ; indeed, he would almost say causes to which hon. Members attributed it was peculiar to such banks, as few prithat which he admitted to constitute the vate banks could endure, or ought in fairdistress of the country-the low price of ness to be required, to put the public in labour, low profits, and low returns on in- full possession of all their transactions. vestment. If hon. Members attributed | The system he should like to see acted these to the changes in the currency, he upon, would be one similar in kind to that could assure them they were much mis. so long in force in Scotland; for he taken. He did not deny that the changes thought none was likely to be equally conin the character of the currency had pro- ducive to the wants, resources, and interduced partial pressure, but he did deny that ests of the country. That system was, in that pressure was so extensive as had been his conviction, the best which Parliament stated. He would not then open any new could sanction, and it was that which Miviews of our currency system, as other nisters wished to see established, and more fitting occasions would present them. would support, though they could not selves, but would content himself with then take upon themselves to specify the confidently asserting, that the changes in period within which it would be recomthe currency were not the cause of the pre- mended to Parliament, and measures sent distress, and that therefore the remedy brought forward to ensure its establishshould not be sought in retracing our steps ment. In conclusion, the right hon. Genin our monetary system. With respect
With respect tleman said, he should oppose the Motion to what had fallen from a noble Lord of the hon. Member, as he conceived it (Howick) opposite, on the subject of could only tend to keep the public mind banking, he wished to say, that he con- in a state of agitation without
any countercurred with the noble Lord as to the balancing advantage. The remedy for the importance of the subject, and willingly present distress was not in the power of admitted that it was well worthy of the Parliament;-it was to be sought for in consideration of the House, with a view to the innate energies of the country alone. affording greater facilities to the formation That distress was not confined to Great of local banks, than the law at present Britain—it extended over the commercial permitted. It was well known to the world, and arose from causes over which House, that though some of the obstacles there could not in any state be a legislawhich the Charter of the Bank of England tive control. He would, with permission placed in the way of such establishments of the House, read an extract from the had been somewhat relaxed in 1826, many report of Mr. Ingram, the Secretary to the other obstacles must be removed before the Treasury in the United States, in order to show that that gentleman took a similar cause of the present Distress, and into the view of the causes and extent of the pre- remedies for that Distress.” sent general distress as that entertained Alderman Waithman seconded the by his Majesty's Ministers. To the con- Amendment. cluding sentence of Mr. Ingram's report On the question, upon the Amendment he wished to direct the best attention of being put, the House : “It may not be unprofitable Mr. Fergusson rose, to suggest to the to observe that a total revolution is taking House the expediency of not coming to a place in many productive employments conclusion on a question of such importthroughout the civilized world. The im- ance without further discussion. Many provements in science and arts, no longer hon. Members were, as he knew, anxious interrupted by war, have been directed to to express their opinions on it; but the other objects, and have so increased the lateness of the hour precluded them on power of production, that the tide of prices that occasion, and the subject was, to all which had been long on the flood is now intents and purposes, as yet almost ungradually ebbing, even under a depre- touched. He therefore should propose, ciated currency.
The relative values “That the further consideration of the between labour and product have also Motion before the House be adjourned till changed, but are not yet adjusted. The Thursday.” depression of prices falling unequally on The further Debate was accordingly different species of property is ruinous to fixed for Thursday next. many, and repugnant to the feelings even of those who do not suffer. It may be Excise Acts.] The Resolutions moved long before a proper adjustment of these last night by the Chancellor of the Exchevalues removes the evil, and until then quer in the Committee were reported. the busy world will be agitated by the They were as follows: convulsive struggles of its various interests 1st, " That from the 15th day of March, each to avert from itself, and throw upon 1830, there shall be raised, levied, and others, the impending adversity. The collected, and paid for, upon every Gallon ramifications of these connecting and con- of Spirits which shall be distilled in Engflicting operations are so complicated that land, or which shall on, or after, that day, it may be doubted whether any degree of be found in the stock, or possession, of intelligence, however free from the influ- any distiller in England, or which shall be ence of special interests, could by the exer- brought from Scotland, or Ireland, into cise of political power materially lessen England, an additional duty of one shilling. the evil. The active energies of man, 2nd, “That from and after the 15th stimulated by necessity, emulation, and day of March, 1830, there shall be raised, the love of wealth, are perhaps the agents levied, paid, and collected, upon every most to be relied upon, in maintaining a Gallon of Spirits which shall be distilled salutary equilibrium in the various opera- in Scotland or Ireland, or shall, on or tions of human enterprise." So with his after that day, be found in the stock, or Majesty's Government with respect to the possession, of any distiller, or which shall distress which the hon. Member had be taken out of warehouse for consumpbrought that evening
under the considera- tion in Scotland or Ireland respectively, tion of the House. For that distress they an additional duty of two-pence. looked with confidence to the innate re- 3rd, “That from and after the 5th day sources of the country for the best and of July, 1830, all Duties of Excise on speediest remedy. [hear, hear]
Leather shall cease and determine." Sir C. Burrell was anxious that an in- The Resolutions were agreed to, and quiry should be instituted into the causes Bills ordered to be brought in to carry and probable remedies of the present con- them into effect. dition of the country, but should prefer an impartial select committee to one of the STAMP DUTIES.) Mr. Bright wished to whole House, as proposed by the hon. know from the right hon. the Chancellor of Member for Shaftesbury. With the view the Exchequer when he intended to submit of obtaining a select committee, he should to the House his statement of the tendency propose, as an Amendment to the hon. I and
his intendo bill respecting Member's Motion, that a “Select Com- Stamps. He hoped that time would be mittee be appointed to inquire into the afforded between the delivery of that statement, and the forwarding the measure to 1 The fact was this: he was accidentally be founded upon it through its stages, in present at the second reading of the Bill. order that the public, who felt a deep in- At that time the thought of offering any terest in the matter, might have time to opposition to the measure had not entered express its opinions on its tendency. To his mind; as, indeed, it could not, for he make known the substance of his mea- repeated that accident alone had led him sure would be the more necessary, as no to the House on the evening to which he petition could be presented against the had alluded. When he came into the bill, it being a money bill, after it was House, witnesses were being examined at brought in. He trusted, therefore, that the bar preparatory to the second readthe right hon. Gentleman would make ing of the Bill, and the examination was known the substance of his intended alter- conducted in a manner which forced itself ations, that the public might know how to upon his notice, and he must say, in a proceed.
manner which surprised him. Still, howThe Chancellor of the Exchequer said, ever, he had no thought of obstructing the the object of his intended bill was merely progress of the Bill; and when he was to simplify what was intricate and obscure asked on that occasion if he wished the in the present Stamp-acts. The hon. Mem- evidence to be printed, he answered ber would therefore, he was sure, at once
"No." But, as he before observed, his atsee the inexpediency of departing from the tention had been attracted by the mode usual practice of the House, by his making in which the examination was conducted ; a statement like that which the hon. Gen- and, after reflecting on the subject, he tleman had just asked for. He should came down to the House the next day, probably move for a Committee of the and asked to look at the manuscript eviwhole House, and place a copy of the act dence. The manuscript, he was told, was in the hands of the Members, as he did not ready, and could not be seen till the not think much information could be ob- following day. On the following day he tained by his reading the schedule of saw it, and the third reading of the Bill Stamp duties.
was put off until this day. He therefore
had been the cause of the delay, and he II OUSE OF LORDS.
begged to assure their Lordships that he
deeply regretted the accident which Wednesday, March 17.
brought him to the House on the second MINUTES.) Returns were presented, or the per centage at reading of the bill; because it had forced
upon him the discharge of an extremely levied :-Of the Arrears and Balances left annually due, on the land revenue of India : and returns were ordered, painful duty. Still, however, he felt that on the Motion of the Earl of ROBEBERY, of the amount of duty paid on each sort of foreigu Corn, Flour and Meal, There were many considerations which
it was a duty, and ought to be performed. entered for home consumption, since July 5th, 1828. The Mutiny Bill, the Marine Mutiny Bill, and the Penought to induce their lordships to make sions Bill were read a second time.
their proceedings in this, and in all similar Petitions were presented: --- By Lord GRANVILLE, from Newcastle under Lyne, against the Truck System :--By the !
cases, open, clear, and free from all objecEarl of Clare from several parishes in Monmouthshire, tion. Disagreeable as it was, in all cases, praying for a revision of the Tithe-laws:-By Lord to interfere between an applicant for WHARNCLIFFE from Swaindale, Yorkshire, praying that a duty might be imposed on Foreign Lead imported divorce and the remedy he sought, that into this country
interference became still more disagreeable
in the present case where the applicant ELLENBOROUGH's Divorce Bill.] was a member of that House, and a memThe Earl of Rosslyn moved that this Bill ber of the Government. But if the disbe read a third time.
charge of the duty were thus rendered The Earl of Radnor rose for the pur- more painful, it was at the same time renpose of explaining to their Lordships the dered the more imperative from the very reasons why he was obliged, but with feel- same reasons. When the applicant for ings of pain and regret, to dissent from the divorce was a peer of the realm, and high Motion. Perhaps he owed some apology in his Majesty's councils, it became into their Lordships for having taken up this cumbent on the House to see that the business at so late a period, and he should proceedings were conducted with the be extremely sorry if inconvenience restrictest regularity and formality, lest men sulted to any of their Lordships by the should suspect it to be possible that the course he had felt it his duty to adopt. I dissolution of the most solemn of all en.
which the several branches of Revenue in India are
gagements was more easy to those in high | that counsel did not avail himself of obstations than to those whose condition jections that were palpable, and he negwas less elevated. It was incumbent | lected to sift, by cross-examination, eviupon their Lordships to guard against such dence the most loose and unsatisfactory. a suspicion, and much more incumbent Could he, then, help believing that Lady upon them was it to see that there should Ellenborough did not intend to make a be no ground for the imputation that bona fide opposition ? And if she did not, their Lordships could be influenced by any why did counsel appear for her, instead other considerations than those of even- of leaving the case undefended, which was handed justice. No one would suppose the ordinary course, unless the appearhe meant to insinuate that any of their ance of counsel were intended, as he belordships could be so influenced; but in lieved it to be, as a blind to their Lordsuch a case as this, it was of the highest ships. There were other circumstances importance that no objection should be connected with the conduct of the case, fairly taken to their proceedings, because which, he must say, he thought deserving if those proceedings were in any respect the serious attention of their lordships. liable to objection, no one could tell to It appeared to him, also, that many parts what suspicions that fact might give rise of the evidence were too vague, too loose, Now it did appear to him that the pro- and too unsatisfactory for their Lordships ceedings in the present case were liable to act upon. The case, their Lordships to objections. There were many parts of would recollect, appeared to fail in that the case which required a more rigorous part of the evidence which related to examination than they had yet received. the identity of the parties ; and in In the present case the alleged adulterer consequence, additional evidence was was a foreigner. This, of course, was a brought forward on that point. Looking misfortune which attached to the case, at the whole of the evidence upon this and not a matter of blame to those who part of the case, he assured their Lordhad conducted it; but it ought to be to ships that, as an honest man, he could their Lordships a reason for more careful not lay his hand upon his heart and say, examination, because it had deprived the upon his honour, that he was satisfied proceedings of that important feature with it. Any counsel, he was sure, might which was generally requisite in such have destroyed the case of the applicant cases,-namely, a trial at law. There on this point, if he had been instructed was another circumstance, too, which to make a bona fide opposition to the Bill. made it incumbent upon their Lordships He would not, however, insist upon this that the evidence in this case should be point, for it was, in his view of the case, carefully examined. A counsel had ap- altogether insignificant when compared peared on behalf of Lady Ellenborough with another, upon which alone he should in opposition to the Bill ; but what had be inclined to rest the propriety of his been the conduct of that counsel, who opposition to the further progress of the must be supposed to have acted, as all Bill. The point to which he referred was counsel did act, according to the instruc- the conduct of Lord Ellenborough, and tions he had received from his client? | he would state at once that he did not Why, he firmly believed, and every one of think the conduct of his lordship had their Lordships who had observed the con- been such as entitled him to the relief duct of Lady Ellenborough's counsel must which he sought from that House. He also believe, that he had been instructed had heard it stated, but not without not to offer any bond fide opposition to the astonishment, that if two parties were wilbill. Why, then, had counsel appeared ? | ling to separate, it was unfair and ungeWhy, as he believed, merely as a blind, nerous in any one to oppose a divorce and to prevent any noble Lords from ask- prayed for by the one and not objected ing questions of the witnesses, or taking to by the other. It was said to be for objections, when they saw that the coun- the happiness of both parties that, under sel, who should have done this, refrained. such circumstances, a separation should He hoped that he was not doing injustice take place. It was said, that it was harsh in making these observations, but such and even cruel, to bind two persons towas his impression from what he had seen gether by indissoluble bonds, when each and heard. Counsel was in attendance of them was inclined for separation, pominally for Lady Ellenborough; but . Let him, however, remind their lordships, that there were other considerations be- ' very little of them afterwards. But consides the wishes of the parties, which nected with the evidence of this witness, their lordships, were bound not to lose there was a very remarkable circumstance, sight of. If a proposition were brought which ought by itself to have attracted forward to this effect, -namely, that un- the attention of their Lordships to the manhappiness of temper, dissimilarity of taste, ner in which the case had been conducted. increasing dislike, from whatever cause, In the proceedings in the Ecclesiastical and the like circumstances, should be courts, this lady stated in her evidence, sufficient ground for divorce between two that Lord and Lady Ellenborough had not parties who were mutually inclined to sepa- cohabited together for some months prerate,—the introduction of such a proposi- vious to their separation. Now this tion would form the proper occasion of fact was not brought out at the bar of discussing and deciding upon its merits. their Lordships, although counsel appeared He might have his own opinion upon such in opposition to the Bill. But was this a proposition ; but whether he had or had fact not important? If the conduct of not, certainly this was not the time to say Lord Ellenborough towards his lady were one word upon it, for no lawyer would to have any weight with their Lordships, peril his reputation by contending that, as he could hardly conceive a more imthe law now stood, the wish of the par- portant fact than this, especially when ties could be any ground for a divorce. coupled with other circumstances which He might, then, dismiss this proposition, bore upon the same point. Let their Lordsince, with its merits or its demerits, their ships consider what the conduct of Lord lordships, as judges and as legislators, had Ellenborough had been. For twelve nothing to do. To return, then, to the months Lady Ellenborough went, in evidence taken in the case before them : broad day-light, four or five times a-week, - let him recall to the recollection of their into a public street, at an hour when the lordships the nature of the evidence with streets were most frequented,—and that respect to the terms of mutual happiness street being in the immediate neighbouron which Lord and Lady Ellenborough hood of her father's house. She went lived together. In his opinion, this part thus openly, without disguise or attempt of the evidence again, was most unsatis- at concealment, to the house of Prince factory. Only two witnesses had been Schwartzenberg, where she undressed, went called to give evidence on this point. to bed, stayed there two or three hours, One of them was Mr. Law, the brother and then returned home. What was of the noble applicant, the other a lady Lord Ellenborough about all that time? who had been governess to Lady Ellen- Could their Lordships conceive it possible borough. No doubt it would have been ex- that any man who had the least regard tremely desirable to go out of Lord Ellen- for the honour of his wife,—who placed borough's family for evidence as to the the slightest value upon the affection of terms on which the noble Lord and his his wife,-could have failed to arrive at Lady had lived ; but if it were absolutely the knowledge of such proceedings ? necessary to go into his Lordship's family Should a man be never with his wife, for evidence on this point, surely the should he never trouble himself to inquire witness should have been a person where she went,- how she was spending who was in the habit of seeing them the many hours of the day during which constantly. But how did the fact she absented herself from home? If this stand? Why Mr. Law spoke only of the conduct of Lady Ellenborough did come terms on which they had lived for two to the knowledge of his Lordship, there years after their marriage; Mr. Law then was an end of the case ; if it did not, went abroad, and did not return until the Lord Ellenborough was guilty of the most adulterous intercourse had been going on culpable want of attention towards his for twelve months. How did Mr. Law lady. He begged their Lordships to refind them on his return? Why, Mr. Law collect what kind of lady this was : she was said, he found them in the same state of very young, --only one-and-twenty years connubial happiness. Then, as to Miss of age,—and said to have been extremely Margaret Steele, the governess, who was beautiful. He had not the honour of bethe only other witness on this point; she ing acquainted with the unhappy lady merely said that they lived happily at the before her fall, and could not, thereperiod of their union, and that she saw | fore, say how correctly her personal