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tinental representatives of science, nothing certain Steam Navigation Company. Possessing more is known about the publication of his journal. than ordinary facilities on this account, they accom“Livingstonia. A Journal of Adventures in Exploring plished within two years the ordinary work of five, Lake Nyassa and Establishing a Missionary Settle- and their handsomely illustrated volume furnishes ment,” by Captain Young, the commander of the the most full and trustworthy account of that region first European vessel ever launched on that inland ever accessible to the public. The only recent consea, is a narrative of great interest. It is edited by tribution to the literature of the war in the East is Rev. H. Waller, who performed the same office for “ The Armenian Campaign : Diary of the Campaign Dr. Livingstone's last journals. The most im- of 1877 in Armenia and Koordestan,” by C. Wilportant general work on Africa ever published is liams, attaché to the staff of Muktar Pasha. the book enlarged and founded on Professor Hell- The general reader may be pleased at the producwald's German work forming a portion of his tion of the first complete and uniform edition of the “ Earth and Man.” It is entitled “Compendium works of George Eliot, elegantly printed in new and of Geography and Travel in Africa,” and is edited legible type on fine paper, about to appear in and extended by Keith Johnston, and brought out monthly volumes, to be completed in eleven, within under the auspices of Mr. Edward Stanford,—the the present year. It will include the dramatic writtwo names best known to all who are conversant ings, besides some shorter stories hitherto uncol. with geographical literature in England. As a con- lected, and commences with “Romola,”—a work densation of existing knowledge, with the addition formerly unattainable in the same style as its fellows of much original information, its value is great. from being issued by a different publisher. The The name of the editor is sufficient authority for elegant edition of Sir Henry Taylor's works, also for the maps, and the ethnological and Livingstonia the first time, comprises in one series his “Notes features of the continent are thoroughly treated in from Life and from Books,” lately very scarce. The appendices by Professor A. H. Keane. It is in- complete works form only five volumes, as the tended to continue the series, and the volumes author of " Philip Van Artevelde" has always been respecting the other portions of the globe are now more solicitous of writing well than writing much. intrusted to the scientific men most competent to A new and enlarged edition of “A Manual of En. do justice each to his subject. “The Country of glish Literature, Historical and Critical, with Appenthe Moors: A Journey from Tripoli, in Barbary, to dix of English Metres,” by Thomas Arnold, forms the Holy City of Kairwan,” is a pleasant volume, now the best small work on the subject. The writrecording some eventful experiences in a rarely er's acquaintance with early English literature has trodden track, by Mr. Edward Rae, who seems re- been shown by the editions of “Beowulf” and of gardless of climate, as his last book, " The Land of Wyclif's English works from the Oxford University the North Wind,” describes his adventures within
press. His book is accordingly not a compilation, the Arctic circle. His account of Mohammedan like most of its kind, but one of original criticism fanaticism connects his book with Major Osborne's and literary history, embodying a great amount of work, “ Islam Under the Khalifs of Bagdad,” a information in a small compass. “A History of continuation of the important work commenced by | English Humor, with an Appendix on Ancient his “ Islam Under the Arabs,"—the most thorough Humor,” is written by Rev. A. G. L'Estrange. review of the spirit and results of that faith ever His theme is so extensive that two modern-sized brought within the reach of the English reader. volumes seem scarcely sufficient to do it justice. In another portion of the globe, the list of recent “The History and Poetry of the Scottish Border, books of travel is completed by “ Fifteen Thousand their Main Features and Relations,” is by Professor Miles on the Amazon and its Tributaries,” by C. Veitch of Glasgow, in one volume. A handsome Babington Browne and William Lidstone. The volume in small 4to, “St. Kilda, Past and Present," authors were members of an expedition for the ex- by George Seton, Advocate, shows what strange ploration of the Amazon and its tributaries and the extremes of civilization may be experienced even neighboring territory, sent out by the Amazon within the limits of the British Isles.
THE WORLD'S WORK.
mental semi-transparent glass, called “muslinThe demand for translucent glass in building and glass,” has been introduced that admits of the use furnishing has led to the use of acids in etching, of a number of colors on the same sheet of glass. grinding, abrasion by the sand-blast, painting and | By this process the glass is first carefully cleaned, burning, and other methods of destroying the trans- and is then covered with a thin coating of vitrifiable parency without making the glass perfectly opaque. color or pigment. This coloring matter is mixed with All of these processes have their advantages and gum-water into the form of a thin paste, and when give highly decorative work, either in two colors or evenly and carefully spread on the surface of the in plain glass. A new method of making an orna- 1 glass is suffered to dry. A gentle heat may be used to hasten the evaporation of the water and fix the
up against it.
Attached to the piston in the pigment on the glass. When the gum is dry, a lower cylinder is another rod extending below stencil is laid over the glass, and, by means of a and designed to support a weight that may be stiff brush, the pigment is rubbed off where it is fastened to the lower end. When in position and exposed by the design cut in the stencil. These ready for use, the water is let on from the main and parts are to be transparent, and they may be left fills the upper half of the chamber and tends to push in this condition without any further ornamentation up the piston in the upper cylinder, and this lifts if it is desired. To add other colors, or to deco- the rod bearing the conical valve and thus closes the rate these blank places, the process is continued by opening into the lower half of the chamber. To placing lace, muslin, or embroidery of a suitable counterbalance this upward pressure, weights are design, in keeping with the pattern of the stencil, placed on the rod extending below the lower cylinover the stencil at the exposed places. The plate, der till the weight exceeds the water pressure when with the stencil and the lace, is put in a frame, to the valve opens and the water flows through the keep them in position, and is then put into tight apparatus, escaping at the outlet. Now if the pressbox. In this box is a small quantity of dry color ure in the mains increases beyond the weight, the of a different tint or shade from the first pigment, water lifts the weight and closes the valve just in and by means of an air-blast the dry powder is the proportion that the pressure exceeds the weight. blown over the glass. It lodges on the exposed In this manner the varying pressure continually parts of the stencil and the spaces between the adjusts the valve, and the pressure at the delivery threads of the lace, and when the surface is well pipe remains constant. If the pressure falls below coated, the plate is carefully taken from the box and the weight, then the valve opens wide and the water submitted to the action of hot steam. This causes flows through the regulator without obstruction, the gum to soften on the exposed parts, and the dry and at its initial pressure. It will be seen that by powder sticks to the surface wherever not protected this device any required pressure at the service pipe by the threads of the lace. On cooling the plate, may be fixed by the weight, and when once adjusted the lace and the stencil may be removed, and the the regulator delivers the water at a uniform pressglass, with the two pigments adhering to it, is put ure, so long as the initial pressure exceeds the in the furnace and burned in the usual manner.
weight. The colors are fused into the glass just as they lie on the plate, and the pattern of the stencil and the
Economy of Fuel. transparent places, more or less covered by the lace, are permanently decorated in the two colors. It The waste of heat by the escape of unconsumed will be noticed that by this most promising method gases from coal burned in the furnaces commonly of treating ornamental glass any number of colors in use is excessive, and experiments are constantly may be laid on one sheet in any desired pattern. being made to secure a more perfect combustion of The present range of colors may be also greatly the fuel to save the heat thrown uselessly up the enlarged by placing one pigment over the other, chimney and to prevent the production of smoke. and thus blending them into new tints and shades. Among the later and more promising of these
experiments is one employing two fires, one fire Water Pressure Regulator.
designed as a gas-producer, and the other as a gas
This double fire system, or twin furThe use of water under pressure for domestic nace, has been applied to steam-boilers, and from and manufacturing purposes, as in the Holly system, the reports of experts, it is said to give excellent often necessitates the employment of some means of results. The twin furnace is applied to horizontal controlling the pressure of the water so that it may tubular boilers, either by placing a fire-box at each remain constant at the delivery pipes under varying end of the boiler or side by side at one end. By pressure in the street mains. An apparatus de- the first plan, the boiler is set in brick-work, with a signed for this duty, and easily adjusted to any size fire-box at each end, and with a bridge between of service pipe, has been brought out and is reported them, precisely as if a second fire-box was placed in to be reliable and effective. It consists of a tubular the empty space behind the bridge of an ordinary chamber of iron having an inlet for the water at one boiler. The doors for the two fires are at the side, side near the top, and a delivery pipe at the oppo- and the chimney is at the opposite side, half-way site side near the bottom. On top of this chamber between the ends of the boiler. The flues of the is fastened a cylinder open at the top and con- boiler open at each end into a chamber that comnected with the chamber at the bottom. At the municates, by means of a fue over the top of the bottom is fixed another of somewhat smaller diame- boiler, with the chimney. Fire-brick doors, or horiter. In the center of the chamber is a diaphragm zontal dampers, are hung on rods in these chambers, having an opening in the middle of the same diam- and by means of chains and suitable lifting apparatus eter as the top cylinder and in a vertical line with they may be raised or lowered so as to close or open it. In the two cylinders, above and below, are traps or doors at the top and bottom of these champistons, fitting water-tight, and joined together by bers, the dampers being so arranged that while the a rod that passes through the opening in the dia- top or bottom of one chamber is open, the top or phragm. On this rod is secured a cone-shaped valve bottom of the other chamber is closed. A movethat closes the hole in the diaphragm when drawn ment of the apparatus reverses this, and the position
of the dampers is changed. In operating the twin is reported to show no smoke at the top of the chimfurnace, a fire is started, say, in the rear or left-hand ney with Cumberland coal, except for a few seconds, fire-box. The Aue-door is open next the fire, and just as fresh fuel is placed on one of the two fires, the smoke and unconsumed gas pass into the rear and except when only one fire is lighted. A decided chamber, and as the damper above is closed, they saving of fuel is also reported. pass through the flues to the front chamber and thence upward into the chimney. When the fire is
Memoranda. bright, the dampers are reversed, and the front fire is started. The smoke and unconsumed gas, find
A COMBINED scoop and weighing apparatus for ing no escape through the chamber, pass over the
the use of tea and sugar dealers has been brought bridge into the rear fire-box. Here the uncon
The scoop is of the usual form, and has a sumed gas meets the hot air from the first fire that
double stem or handle, one stem sliding within the is now at a white-heat, and at once takes fire and is
other. A spring balance is secured within the holconsumed as it flows on into the flues toward the
low handle and supporting the inner stem that is chimney. This process continues till the rear fire attached to the scoop. Friction-rollers are placed needs more fuel, when the position of the dampers handle
, and, by means of a spring-catch, the stem
on the stem so that it will play freely in the outer is reversed. Fresh coal is put on the rear fire, and the unconsumed gas turns to the right or toward
may be fixed in any position desired. To use the the front over the bridge and sweeps over the front
apparatus, the catch is pressed by the thumb, while fire that is now burning brightly. The gas, sup
the handle is grasped in the hand, and the sugar or plied with fresh hot air, breaks into flame as before,
other material to be weighed is gathered in the and flows on into the front chamber, and thence
scoop. The scoop is then held upright, the catch is through the boiler Alues from front to back (right to
released, and the weight of the scoop is thrown on left) to the chimney. When, in turn, the front fire
the spring. By means of a pointer and scale on the needs replenishing, the dampers are changed again, handle the weight may then be read. A set-screw is the current of the products of combustion is reversed,
added to the apparatus for compensating for the and the two furnaces change duties, one making gas,
wear of the spring by usage. the other consuming it. Another form of twin Pæsi, of Italy, recommends the use of perchloride furnace has the two fire-boxes placed side by side of iron and sea-salt in solution as a tanning liquid. at the front, the space under the boiler being divided The perchloride of iron has the advantage of being by a brick wall extending the whole length of the a disinfectant, thus preventing much of the unboiler. In this form of furnace, a single damper of wholesomeness attending the usual methods of fire-brick, pivoted at one end, is placed between the tanning. The solution is reported to tan the hides two fires so that it may be shut down over either at a gain of one-half the time needed where bark is one at will. The fire being started in one of the used. fire-boxes, the smoke and unconsumed gas pass
A new form of foundations for buildings has been backward under the boiler to the rear and through
made the subject of some recent experiments. an opening in the dividing-wall to the opposite side Trenches were cut down to the hard-pan and then of the boiler, thence along the outside to the front filled with water. Sand was then sifted into the again. Here the damper is open, and the gases water till the trenches were filled with the mingled move through the other fire-box to the flues of the
sand and water, and when the sand had settled into boiler, and thence to the chimney in the usual man
a compact mass concrete was spread over it, and on When the fire is burning brightly, the position this the walls were erected. of the damper is changed, and the second is started. The gas from this fire passes backward under the
The gum of the Prosopis glandulosa or mesquite boiler, forward along the side, and then through the of Texas has been examined to test its value as a first fire. Here the unconsumed gas and smoke mucilaginous gum, and it is reported as almost meet with fresh supplies of hot air and are immedi
identical in properties with the common gum-arabic. ately burned. When the first fire needs more fuel,
The mesquite is a mimosa, several species of the process of gas-making and burning begins again
which may be found in Texas, New Mexico, and in the other direction. This novel form of furnace
Arizona. The gum exudes from the stem and presents features of practical value as a gas-consum
branches of the plant, and large quantities of the ing furnace and fuel economizer. The waste of fuel
gum have been gathered and sold within the past and heat in ordinary furnaces results from the escape of gas driven off and sent up the chimney before it In the manufacture of files a new method of can be ignited. By passing it over a second fire, making round files has been tried. Fluted bars where fresh supplies of highly heated air are com- of steel are twisted in a spiral, and the teeth are bined with flame, it is set on fire and consumed cut on the spiral ribs thus formed. The futing before escaping to the open air. The twin furnace of the file gives a convenient means of clearing is already in practical operation, and, so far as tried, away the refuse from the work.
FABLES “OUT OF THE WORLD." •
The Merchant of Venice. A Venetian merchant who was lolling in the lap of Luxury was accosted upon the Rialto by a Friend who had not seen him for many months. “How is this?"
cried the latter; "when I last saw you your Gaberdine was out at elbows, and now you sail in your own Gondola.” “True,” replied the Mer
chant, but since then I have met with serious losses
The Two Turkeys.
An Honest Farmer once led his two Turkeys into to cast about how he might obtain it.
his Granary and told them to eat, drink and be “How tasteful,” he cried, in wellfeigned Ecstasy, “is your Dress; it
merry. One of these Turkeys was wise and one cannot surely be that your Musical sively in the Pleasures of the Stable, unsuspicious of
foolish. The foolish Bird at once indulged exces. Education has been neglected. Will
the Future, but the wiser Fowl, in order that he you not oblige-?” “I have
might not be fattened and slaughtered, a horrid Cold,” replied the
fasted continually, mortified his Flesh Crow, "and never sing with
and devoted himself to gloomy Reflecout my Music, but since you
tions upon the brevity of Life. When press me - At the same
Thanksgiving approached, the Honest time, I should add that I have
Farmer killed both Turkeys, and by read Æsop, and been there be
placing a Rock in the interior of the fore.” So saying, she depos
Prudent Turkey made him weigh more ited the Cheese in a safe Place
than his plumper Brother. on the Limb of the Tree,
Moral. -As we Travel through Life, and favored him with a Song.
Let us Live by the Way. “ Thank you,” exclaimed the
The Glow-worm and the Famished
Nightingale. A FAMISHED Nightingale, who had been singing to very Thin Houses,
chanced to encounter a Glow-worm at Fox, and trotted away, with the Remark that Welsh Eventide and prepared to make upon him 3 Rabbits never agreed with him, and were far inferior Light Repast. The unfortunate Lampyris Splenin Quality to the animate Variety.
didula besought the Songster, in the sacred Name Moral.—The foregoing Fable is supported by a of Art, not to quench his Vital Spark, and appealed whole Gatling Battery of Morals. We are taught to his Magnanimity. “The Nightingale who need. (1) that it Pays to take the Papers ; (2) that Invita- lessly sets Claw upon a Glow-worm,” he said, "is tion is not Always the Sincerest Flattery; (3) that a Being whom it were gross Flattery to term a a Stalled Rabbit with Contentment is better than No Luscinia Philomela." The Bird, however, turned Bread, and (4) that the Aim of Art is to Conceal Dis- a deaf Beak to these Appeals and was about to appointment.
douse the Glim, when the Glow-worm cried out, The Good Samaritan.
“ Beware, lest I give you the Heartburn; rememA CERTAIN Man went from Jerusalem to Jericho ber how Herod and Luther died of a diet of Glowand fell among Thieves, who beat him and stripped worms,” and while the Nightingale (who was by him and left him for dead. A Good Samaritan, seeing no means a bad Bird at Stomach) was considering this, clapped Spurs to his Ass and galloped away, lest these Propositions, escaped, hanging out false he should be sent to the House of Detention as a Lights to baffle his Enemy's Pursuit. Witness while the Robbers were released on Bail. Moral.—Let the Dead Past bury its Dead; Act,
Moral.-The Perceiver is worse than the Thief. act in the Living Present.
* Fables by G. Washington Æsop. Taken “Anywhere, anywhere, out of The World."" With illustrations by F. S. Church. New York: "The World,” 35 Park Row. 1878. Price, 50 cents. By courtesy of the publisher we are permitted to reproduce some of the fables from this clever little book, with specimens of Mr. Church's illustrations
The Grasshopper and the Ant.
The Hare and the
THE Hare once A NEWSBOY was passing along the Street, when challenged the Torhe chanced to discover a Purse of Greenbacks.toise to a Trial of He was at first inclined to conceal it, but, repelling Speed. The Hare frisked about merrily, paying the unworthy Suggestion, he asked a Venerable little attention to his Rival, or jeering him for his Man if it was his'n. The Venerable Man looked Slowness. The Tortoise, however, plodded along at it hurriedly, said it was, patted him on the Head, steadily and had well-nigh reached the Goal, when gave him a Quarter, and said he would yet be Pres- the Hare observed his Progress. Away darted the ident. The Venerable Man then hastened away, Hare like lightning and won the race. but was arrested for having Counterfeit Bills in his Moral.—The race is not always to the Slow. possession, while the honest Newsboy played pennyante with his humble Quarter and ran it up to $2.62.
“How Women Love Dress!" Moral.-Honesty is Sometimes the Best Policy. The Socratic Chimpanzee and the Shallow Baboon.
He sat by a window at twilight, A CHIMPANZEE who had long viewed with Envy And placidly puffed his cigar. the Popularity of a Shallow but Pretentious Baboon, He gazed on a neighboring sky-light, asked him to account for the presence of the Milk in
And thought of his bank stock at par. the Cocoa-nut. The Baboon replied that his Ques
Two voices came upward, as high as tioner believed in the Darwinian Theory that Mon
The place where he sat, from the street ; keys degenerated into Men; an answer which so Two ladies, on “gored” and on “ bias," delighted the Spectators that they tore the Chim- Were holding communion sweet. panzee into Pieces, while the Baboon's work on the Conflict of Science and Orthodoxy attained a Hun
Then he mused upon feminine folly
And fashion's absurd excess; dredth Edition.
And he said with a tone melancholy :
“ Just get any two of them started A PRUDENT Tiger having observed a Procession
And they'll talk for a month about clothes." bearing the Remains of a Sainted Brahmin to the
He spoke like a hero, strong-hearted,
Who all such frivolity loathes. Tomb, communicated the Intelligence to his Wife, who said, “My dear, we are almost out of Meat, “And the way they oppress the poor creatures and though the Deceased, from the Austerities of Who build all those dresses and things ! his pious Life, was in poor Condition, I make no They'd like to make marks on their features Doubt that among his surviving Friends we may
For a little mistake in the strings.” encounter others more Succulent.” “ Miserable
Here a knock at the door. Then a waiter Tigress," exclaimed her Lord, “cannot you see that
And a new suit of garments appear. if we permit the Deceased to be canonized, Pilgrim
“Oh, they've come, have they? Strange they're ages will be instituted to his Tomb, and the Producer
not later. and Consumer will be brought together in accord- Quick, light up the whole chandelier ! ” ance with the True Principles of Political Economy? Rather let us, then, offer a Chromo for each new
One glance from a proper position
Suffices their fate to decide; Pilgrim.” This prudent Advice being followed, the
The linings are only Silesian, Tiger enjoyed a Free Breakfast Table to the End
The trowsers a trifle too wide.
of his Days.
Moral.-Beware of Breaking the Egg that Hatches the Golden Goose.
"Well, if I don't pitch into that Schindler !
I never did see such a bilk.