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astonishing, production for a young lady of that age.
“The hallowed page of fleeting Time prophane, We turn its pages with amusement, for we stumble And prove to Man that man has liv'd in vain; over the wit that comes of miscellaneous reading
Pass the cold grave with colder jestings by;
And use the truth to illustrate a lie!" and marvelous memory in the first paragraph of her preface, which is flavored with Bottom, and Snug
The eight lines which follow are perhaps the most the Joiner, and the exquisite foolery of the “Mid
brilliant in the whole poem, and were certainly summer Night's Dream.” Tacitus is quoted on the inspired by intense admiration of Byron : next page, and Plato and Newton referred to on the “Man! Man! thou poor antithesis of power! third page; Locke, Boileau, Lucretius, Dante, Child of all time! yet creature of an hour! Quintilian and Gibbon follow. Byron (who had
By turns chamelion of a thousand forms,
The lord of empires, and the food of worms! been dead two years) is mentioned as "that immor
The little conqueror of a petty space, tal writer we have just lost," and his dictum that
The more than mighty, or the worse than base ! “ethical poetry is the highest of all poetry, as the Thou ruin'd landmark in the desert way, highest of all earthly objects must be moral truth," Between the all of glory and decay !" is re-asserted and made the text of a lecture, which And so on, for ten or twelve more clever, but cloying this fair girl-graduate in her golden hair (but was lines of smart antithesis. her hair golden ?) straightway proceeds to deliver.
The young female philosopher (whose system we We shall not quote any of Miss Elizabeth Barrett
don't pretend to understand) demolishes Buffon in Barrett's prose, which is smart and jaunty, but turn
four savage lines, Leibnitz in four more, and the to her “ Essay on Mind,” which is divided into Cynics and Cato, each in a couplet : two books, and which, as might have been expect
“E'en Cato, had he own'd the senate's will, ed, is superimposed upon Byron's basis of ethical
And washed his toga, had been Cato still." poetry. Milton wrote arguments for each of the twelve books of “ Paradise Lost," so of course Miss (Poor Cato!) We turn next to the notes that Barrett Barrett wrote analyses for the two books of
illustrate and elucidate, and consecrate this unique her " Essay on Mind."
contribution to English poetry, and obtain several The “Essay on Mind” is a singular performance,
clews to the reading of the youthful writer. Among -pert, flippant and pretentious. The models
the authors quoted from, or mentioned by her, are which Miss Barrett Barrett set up before herself in
the elder Disraeli, Cowley, Alfieri, Thucydides, Virgil, writing it were Pope, in his “Essay on Man,” Mitford, Voltaire,,Archimedes, Cicero, Gray, Buffon, Byron, in his heroic narrative poems, and, possibly, Leibnitz, Southey, Lord Bacon, Sir Isaac Newton, Campbell, in his “Pleasures of Hope,”-a trinity of Plutarch, Berkley, Condillac, Strabo, Plato, Loninterblending strength and weakness. The versifi- ginus, Milton, Dugald Stewart, Herodotus, Moschus cation is hasty and careless, “cares” rhyming to
and Bion, and Calmet. "hexameters" very early in the poem. Byron is “What, will the line stretch out to the crack o' doom?" complimented two pages further on as “the Mont
And what adds to our wonderment is, that they Blanc of intellect,"--a phrase which would have
appear to have been read at first hand, and in their tickled lis lordship if he could have heard it when
original languages ! alive, quite as much as Lamartine's lurid “Chanteur
The little volume in which the “ Essay on Mind" d'Enfer." The cleverness of such a couplet as this is undeniable, and the clap-trap character of it
was published, contained fourteen minor poems of likewise :
a marked character and of varying excellence.
They are, first, a tender, pleasant address “ To my “ The scale of life is link'd by close degrees ;
Father on his Birthday; " two Spenserean stanzas Motes float in sunbeams, mites exist in cheese." (which are too Spenserean in their archaic spelling),
“On a Boy of three Years old”; a loving copy of Jeffrey comes in for six lines of eulogy, in which he figures as “The letter'd critic of a letter'd age,"
“ Verses to my Brother," which show genius; four who judges justly, discerns rightfully, teaches wisely, Spenserean “ Stanzas on the Death of Lord Byron," and learns candidly! (What do you think, Miss
a charming octo-syllabic poem on “Memory," and
eight stanzas “To — ,” in a favorite measure of Barrett Barrett, of his “ This wont do,” when he reviewed “The Excursion"?) Here is a good coup
Mrs. Hemans. The manner of Mrs. Browning is
fixed in the last: let in regard to the opulence of Mind, who
“ Hast not thou look'd upon “Gives the dank wreath and dusty urn to fame, And lends its ashes-all she can-a name."
The flowerets of the field in lowly dress?
Blame not my simpleness Here are four lines which are better still :
Think only of my love! my song is gone."
This is followed by eleven stanzas in a ringing “Go! let the tomb its silent lesson give, And let the dead instruct thee how to live!
ballad measure, celebrating the memory of Captain If Tully's page hath bade thy spirit burn,
Demetrius, an old Roumelian, who burst into tears And lit the raptur'd cheek-behold his urn!" at the mention of Byron's name; one of them is Here are three couplets which are terse and worthy of Wolfe. striking :
“ Ye left his HEART, when ye took away
The dust in funeral state; “Important trust! the awful dead to scan,
And we dumbly placed in a little un And teach mankind to moralize from man!
That home of all things great."
"The Past” fills out eight grimly rollicking of its popularity, if of nothing else. That the stanzas, of which we give the second :
author shows a marked partiality for German art,
especially in its modern phases, as Mr. Cook points “ The winds beat not their drum to the waves, But sullenly moan in the distant caves :
out, certainly cannot be denied. But even in spite Talking over, before they rise,
of this limitation, it must be conceded that there are Some of their dark conspiracies."
probably but few persons, if any, better qualified to
undertake so stupendous a task as the writing of a Next come three Spenserean stanzas, “The Prayer " (which is poor but pious); ten ballad general history of art than Professor Lübke. In stanzas “On a Picture of Riego's Widow," and a
proof of his qualifications, it is only necessary to wonderful “ Song,” which seems to have wandered point to the many works from his pen which em
body the results of his diligent research in various down from the age of Elizabeth :
departments of art. “Weep, as if you thought of laughter !
There is, however, another part of the work under Smile, as tears were coming after!
review which demands a somewhat fuller discussion Marry your pleasures to your woes;
at our hands, i, e., the work of the translator and And think life's green well worth its rose !
of the editor. But before speaking of this translaNo sorrow will your heart betide,
tion in particular, we are tempted to say a few Without a comfort by its side ;
words on translations in general. There is eviThe sun may sleep in his sea-bed,
dently a curious misapprehension in the mind of the But you have starlight overhead.
public in regard to work of this kind. It seems to be Trust not to joy! the rose of June,
almost taken for granted that no, or at best but very When opened wide, will wither soon;
little, literary talent is needed by the translator, that Italian days without twilight
his work is purely mechanical, and that almost any Will turn them suddenly to night.
one can make a translation who can write his own Joy, most changeful of all things,
language grammatically and has a smattering of the Flits away on rainbow. wings;
language from which he translates. Not very long And when they look the gayest, know
ago, a popular author gave shape to this erroneous It is that they are spread to go!"
idea in an article which was widely circulated in the We have not left ourselves room to speak of the papers. This author recommended those who have rest of the poems in this volume, the last of which,
a taste for literary work, but lack the power of “The Vision of Fame,” is a very remarkable piece original composition, and yet are too good to be of imaginative writing.
mere translators, to make indices of books already Seven years later, Miss Barrett Barrett published published. The custom, which is constantly growing, her first version of“ Prometheus Bound," and with it of omitting the name of the translator on the titleother smaller poems, in which her future greatness pages of translated books, is likewise a result of this was as unmistakably shadowed forth as the future curious misapprehension. And yet a moment's re. greatness of Keats in“ Endymion.” They are for the
flection ought to be sufficient to show that a good most part large in conception and utterance; not
translator needs very many qualities which entitle very musical in structure, but filled with creative
him to a tolerably advanced position on the literary energy, and a latent force of tremendousness. “The
ladder. He must have a good command of lanTempest, a Fragment,” reads like a discarded sec
guage; he must be able to analyze and thoroughly tion of “ Hyperion.” The American publisher of
to penetrate into the innermost peculiarities of his Mrs. Browning has announced that he will reprint him to do unless he has not only a good grammati
author, and this it will be utterly impossible for this volume at once.
cal, but also a perfect idiomatic knowledge of the languages
with which he has to deal. To this must The American Edition of Lübke.*
be added, in the case of technical books more The publication of a specifically American edition especially, a pretty full understanding of the subjectof a book like Lübke's “Outlines of the History matter of the work to be translated, or, in default of Art” gives pleasant assurance of the fact that of this, a painstaking conscientiousness which will the interest in art in our country is not only shun no trouble in endeavoring to arrive at the spreading, but also deepening. In view of the meaning and the correct rendering of the technical great amount of dilettanteism in matters of art terms employed. with us, this deepening of interest is one of We are sorry to say that, measured by this the most hopeful signs of healthy progress. To standard, the American translation of Professor comment on the character of Professor Lübke's Lübke's “Outlines” is not quite satisfactory. book itself would seem to be superfluous. The There is little fault to be found, indeed, in the matfact that it has gone through seven editions in its ter of style; but occasionally the meaning of the German garb, and through two editions in Miss author has been missed, and the technical terms, Bunnètt's English translation, is evidence sufficient especially in that part of the work which relates to
the architecture of antiquity, are very frequently in* Outlines of the History of Art. By Dr. W. Lübke. A correctly rendered. That, of course, is a grievous new translation from the seventh German edition. Edited by Clarence Cook Two volumes. Illustrated. New York:
fault in a work of this nature. The editor was Dodd, Mead & Co.
perfectly justified in rejecting Miss Bunnett's transmet. But on such a subject we do not usually an“Holbein” (mentioned by Lübke on page 490), he will find that all the facts heretofore held to be * See note, page 592, vol. II. established have been upset by the discovery of the
lation, but it is a pity that he did not exercise a guilty, and that even Grandpapa Hans Holbein, to more vigilant control over his own translators. whom reference is made in a note on page 468, has The following examples may serve to verify our again been ousted from the history of art, into assertion :
which he had been introduced by fraud, and simply Volume I., page 6, “ of which that of Teocalli” for the purpose of upholding the theories of an should be, "of which the Teocalli," as Teocalli is infatuated man. not a place, but means "the house of God.” Page The position which Mr. Cook assumes in refer26: “A ribbon-like astragal” is a contradiction ence to German art is, to say the least, as extrava. equal to saying a flat round; for a ribbon is gant on the one side as Professor Lübke's is on the flat, and an astragal is a half-round. Professor other. A person of Mr. Cook's information must Lübke speaks of "a round molding ornamented know that the exhibition of German pictures at with a sort of ribbon wound around it.” On the Philadelphia consisted mainly of sweepings, and same page the “abacus ” of a cornice is spoken of, that hardly one of the names of which Germany but the term “abacus” applies only to the upper is proud was represented in it.* But if he knows member of a capital. Page 38: "Imperious bear- this, his assertion is unfair, while, if he does not ing” should be the very reverse," attitude as- know it, he must give up his claims to be considsumed at command." Page 135: “Substructure ered an authority. (as Miss Bunnett correctly has it) is rendered Desiring to be counted among the “ faithful crit"stylobate,” while, if a Greek word was necessary ics ” to whom Mr. Cook appeals in his preface, we at all, it should have been “stereobate.” Page 154: have been reluctantly compelled to make these “Temple of Ilissus” should be “temple on the remarks. Mr. Cook undoubtedly deserves well of banks of the Ilissus," the Ilissus being, not a god, art in America. He has for years been the but a river. Page 157: • Modillions” should be best, if not the only representative of courageous “coffers.” Modillions are a sort of brackets, while and outspoken criticism in matters of art among us; Professor Lübke speaks of the sunken panels for while the general run of so-called criticism was (Kassetten) in the ceiling. Volume II., page 1o: really nothing but indiscriminate praise, born out the German “Dienste” (bowtells or shafts) is of ignorance, and degrading alike to those who translated servants.” This is neither an English lavished it and to those upon whom it was lavished, technical term, nor is it a correct literal translation, his writings always carried with them the force of as “ Dienste ” signifies "services.” Other exam- conviction, and therefore commanded the respect ples might be given, but lack of space prevents. even of those who radically differed with him. To
Mr. Cook's notes will prove very valuable to maintain this honorable position, however, scrupuAmerican students, especially through their con- lous exactness in statements of fact and incorruptible tinual reference to American collections and to justice toward all are the most necessary requisites
, English books not mentioned by the author. These 'without which even indomitable courage will avail notes show that Mr. Cook has followed the litera- nothing. ture of art in the main very carefully, and it is, But in spite of the short-comings which we have therefore, all the more to be wondered at that he felt it our duty to point out, Mr. Cook's edition of nowhere informs his readers of the existence of an Lübke still has our most cordial wishes for success, English edition of the “Denkmäler der Kunst" as 'there is no other book in American, or even (Monuments of Art), although this work is, in fact, English, literature, so far as we know, which might an atlas to Professor Lübke's book, and
take its place. In a second edition, which we trust tioned on almost every page. Only in a very few the book may soon reach, most of the defects al. instances, as far as we are able to judge, has Mr. luded to can easily be repaired. It will then, also, Cook allowed himself to be betrayed into error. be time to rid the book of the many typographical Thus, in a note on page 155, volume I., the “string errors in which, unfortunately, it abounds, and to of beads above the triglyph frieze" of the Parthe- add the index of technical terms, with which the non is questioned, while it is plainly indicated in German edition is provided, but which, in the the cut on the same page, and also (perhaps some- American edition, has been omitted. what more plainly) in cut 129, page 227 of the first volume of Fergusson.' On page 176, Dædalus is
"The Final Philosophy." made the inventor of the fish-hook, although the Greek word, "ichthyocolla,” signifying fish-glue, is
This book of the Princeton Professor is in seve added in brackets. A third mistake, finally, and ral respects a remarkable one; and in no respect rendered all the more apparent because Professor
more remarkable than in the fact that it is readable. Lübke is severely taken to task for it, is to be found
From so imposing a title we are led to expect a in the note, volume II., page 466. Mr. Cook has
learned volume, and in this we are not disappointed. evidently allowed the last developments of the
We naturally look for evidence of more than ordiHolbein controversy to escape his notice.
If he nary depth of thought, and here our expectation is will look up the second edition of Woltmann's
+ The Final Philosophy, or System of Perfectible Knowledge,
Issuing from the Harmony of Science and Religion. By Charles astounding forgery of which Eigner made himself Woodruff Shields, D.D. N. Y. : Scribner, Armstrong & Co
ticipate such lucid arrangement of material, or subjugated philosophy; and the reforming age of such brilliancy of style, as shall render the subject Christian science when theology and philosophy attractive and clear to what we may call the lay read- were torn asunder.” er. The book is indebted for its charm to several He traces next the "modern antagonism between particulars. It is characterized by a well-digested science and religion,” and treats severally of the method, by a thorough survey of the field of thought conflict in astronomy, geology, anthropology, psyit discusses, and at times by an epigrammatic force chology, sociology, theology and philosophy, and of expression which fixes the thought with the in- the results in civilization. This conflict represents cisiveness of a proverb. As an instance of this last the Extremists, whom he describes on the one hand quality, what could be happier than the description as infidels, on the other as apologists. Next he of the Act of Uniformity in Great Britain under treats of the Indifferentists, divided into sciolists Elizabeth, as “that political massacre of dissent and dogmatists, and portrays their conflicts as rewhose ghost now comes back in the shape of dis- sulting in the schism in the sciences before menestablishment;” or what more terse than, when tioned, and of the breach in civilization consequent speaking of Mr. Mansel and Mr. Spencer as the on this rupture in philosophy. Then follows a extreme right wing and left wing of the same phil- criticism on the Eclectics, or Impatients as he deosophical tendency, he says, “ Thus the very cant fines them, who seek to blend hypothesis and dogma of divines is becoming the creed of thinkers, at the prematurely; and he carries this criticism through same time that the speculations of thinkers are the same cycle of sciences and philosophies. He made the dogmas of divines.” Again, “Mr. Mansel's ends this Part First by a statement of modern skepschool professed at least to know what they wor- ticism, the skeptics being the Despondents who shiped; Mr. Spencer's, that they worshiped they would abandon science and religion as contradictory knew not what.” Sometimes the style sparkles too and irreconcilable; following with them the same much; and the rhetoric seems caught from the at- course as with the other three classes. mosphere of the classes to whom it was originally So far the criticism is destructive. In Part II., addressed, as e.g., page 750: “Terrene, solar and which treats of “The Philosophical Theory of the stellar influences, wielded by human prowess and Harmony of Science and Religion,” we gain the prayer, may unfold the commerce of heaven, the nearest approach to the constructive portion of the telegraph of the skies, and the worship of the one work. Without giving so complete an analysis of universal Father, until the ripe scient earth echoes this as of the first part, suffice it to say that, after back the anthem that erst hailed her novitiate." maintaining philosophy as the umpire between sciBut though there are occasional blemishes of style, ence and religion, and reviewing the unsolved probno one can say that this is a dull book. “The lems of both the physical and psychical sciences, our Final Philosophy" is readable.
author proceeds to give a searching criticism of the It is time, however, to turn our attention to the positive philosophy or theory of Nescience, and the subject-matter of the book. It does not give us the absolute philosophy or theory of omniscience; as he constructed system of the final philosophy. It concludes that neither science nor religion can fursimply indicates its need, and its task. Its history nish the adequate solution, but philosophy only, so of what has been done in science, philosophy and he decides that neither the positive nor absolute phitheology is intended to show the necessity of a losophy of themselves will suffice. Not the former, thorough reconciliation, and to point out the line in for it would ignore that whole metaphysical region which it is to be brought about. The author insists, which is largely occupied by revelation; not the in the introduction, that science and religion are re- latter, because it would supersede religion throughlated logically, historically and practically, and that out that region. Neither can we, he thinks, remain these relations are very extensive, complicated and satisfied with the “Prudent Nescience” of Sir vital ; that they are not what they should be, might William Hamilton; he requires a final philosophy be, or will be; and that it is important that philoso- which shall furnish the logical conciliation of both phy, as the friend of both science and religion, should absolutism and positivism; for, while the positivist recognize and pursue their harmony. Hence this becomes atheistical in religion, the absolutist bebook.
comes mystical in science. Both, he claims, are It is divided into two parts. The first treats of essential elements in the reconciliation, because both the philosophical parties as to the relations between are deeply rooted in the human mind; and because science and religion ; the second, of the philosophi- they have always acted and reacted on each other ; cal theory of the harmony of science and religion. logically adjusted and combined, they check and comIn the first part he discusses, first. “The early plete each other. This combination is the task of conflicts and alliances between science and religion, the final philosophy. This must prescribe a method as in the pre-Christian age of Pagan science, when of perfect knowledge and furnish the ultimatum religion and science dwelt apart in a state of local organum; it must provide a theory of perfect seclusion; the post-Christian age of Pagan science, knowledge, the omne scibilo; and organize a syswhen religion and science met as strangers, mis- tem of perfect knowledge, the scientia scientiarum. taking each other for foes; the Patristic age of And this is possible, because positive science is Christian science, when under the Greek Fathers, indefinitely extensible toward absolute science, and philosophy had subjugated theology; the scholastic absolute science is only perfectible through positive age when, under the Latin schoolmen, theology had science. The final philosophy has thus before it three tasks. It must furnish an expurgation of the The literature of archäology, so well exemplified sciences, a survey of the sciences, and a theory of in the splendid books recording the achievements the sciences. This would mark the utmost limit of of Dr. Schliemann and General Cesnola, continues to human cognition, and would unite an ultimate receive a large share of the public attention. system of the sciences, an ultimate system of arts There is a promise of some startling news from or applied sciences, and an ultimate system of Captain Richard Burton, the cosmopolitan travsociety, of which the arts and sciences are but eler, who is now engaged in exploring the ancient functions. The present age and the western land of Midian on the eastern side of the Gulf hemisphere offer the proper time and place for this of Akaba and the Red Sea. Besides antiquities, achievement. He closes as follows: “Behold then and the sites of ancient cities, something more at one glance the issue to which we are come. The tangible is looked for by the paymaster of the exsummary want of the age is that last philosophy pedition, the ruler of Egypt, who has a keen eye into which shall have been sifted all other philoso- for the precious metals and hopes to discover in phy, which shall be at once catholic and eclectic, these solitary and unexplored regions the mines which shall be the joint growth and fruit of reason and mineral riches whence the wealth of King and faith, and which shall shed forth, through every Solomon was in a large measure derived. In walk of research the blended light of discovery and another direction, the valley of the Euphrates and revelation, a philosophy which shall be the means Tigris, the immense mass of information now at the of subjecting the earth to man and man to God." command of the learned, from the continued de.
In making this rapid survey of the volume before ciphering of the early Babylonian monuments and us, we have left no room for criticism, which would inscribed records, is really astonishing. A small require a larger spare than we can give to it. One volume of “Lectures on Babylonian Literature," great defect, it strikes us, is the haziness in which delivered at the Royal Institution by Rev. A. H. the doctrine of revelation is involved. The fact is Sayce, the Oxford Professor of Comparative Phi. accepted, but no criticism is offered by which to test lology and one of the pioneers of the study, will it. The author frequently speaks of revealed geol. give an idea of its extent, and furnishes an excellent ogy, revealed astronomy, etc. What is this, or is outline of the subject. Ten years ago the very title there such a thing? He speaks in one place of of the book would have been an absurdity as Baby“sacred cosmogonies, one after another, like chil. lonian literature was as non-existent as the lost dren's bubbles, living their little hours of applause," books of the Sibyl. Now it engages the attention but we are left in doubt as to the true cosmogony. of learned men, especially in England and France; It would seem that the problem he seeks to solve though the death of Mr. George Smith, who seemed would be greatly simplified if revelation were con- to possess a peculiar aptitude for the study, has left fined to spiritual truth, and its scientific illustration a void that has scarcely yet been filled. It will received as a vehicle of expression, and not as a be long before the results arrived at filter down rigid definition of a subject which may be presumed into our manuals and school histories, though they to lie without the boundary or purpose of a revela- are of the utmost importance toward the promotion tion. But we have no room to do more than state of the true history of the early progress of mankind. the objection, and we leave the subject, with thanks In the meantime they can be followed in the series to the author for having done so much so well. of “The Records of the Past: English Translations
of Assyrian and Egyptian Monuments," now ad.
vanced to its ninth volume; “ The Journal of the New English Books.
Victoria Institute," and the “ Archaic Classics, AsLONDON, January 7.
syrian and Egyptian,” now in course of publication.
A work also by M. Lenormant, the distinguished The chief thing in the way of a sensation caused French Oriental scholar, “Chaldean Magic, its by any recent publication has been derived from the Origin and Development,” has just appeared in an new volume of “The Memoirs of the Prince Con- English dress, with many additions by the author. sort” (Albert), written by Theodore Martin from It yields to the reader much more than the title materials furnished by the queen. As it includes promises, being a perfect store of information on the period of the Crimean war, and consequently the religious superstitions, etc., of the ancient Chalshows the decided anti-Russian feeling of the court daic or Accadian people, all derived, at first hand, and the people at that time, it is supposed by many, from the ancient records themselves. Egypt can in the present uncertainty that prevails as to the never lose its charm, and the translation of M. Maintention of the government, to have been issued riette Bey's work on “The Monuments of Upper now with the object of exciting a similar state of the Egypt," is a welcome present both to the actual public mind under the pressure of the stirring mili. and the stay-at-home traveler. M. Mariette Bey tary news daily received from the east of Europe, has been strangely reticent of the information he but apparently with little effect. Considered as possesses on Egyptian antiquities, probably in a materials for an important period of European his higher degree than any of his contemporaries, and tory, the work is very valuable, and all that can be on them he speaks as one having authority that made known of Prince Albert only serves to exalt none can question. his character as one of the best men, and wisest, As Mr. Stanley has not yet reached England, but noblest, and most far-seeing statesmen of his age. is enjoying richly deserved welcome from the con