Imágenes de páginas
PDF
EPUB
[ocr errors]

that the mention of a work destined to be a is a brilliant and telling attack on the fashionable standard one on ceramicş naturally follows. style of philosophizing, and the current scientific For the study of a subject so vast and ex- theories, now so boldly propagated in defiance of tensive, excellent general guides exist in the works the old standard of belief. The scene is laid of Jacquemart, Marryat, and Chaffers. These, at a country house, near town, where the guests indeed, furnish a general map or chart of the whole are assembled to spend a Sunday. Under ficceramic world; but when they are mastered, the titious names, they comprise most of the liteeager collector demands a more detailed account of rary and scientific notabilities of the day, who its separate regions or provinces. Such an one will may be recognized, not by unwarrantable personal be found in the recently published “ History of the allusion, but by an amazingly correct and spirited Ceramic Art in Great Britain, from the Earliest reproduction of their various sentiments and views Period to the Present Day,” by Llewellynn Jewitt, on great social, theological, and scientific questions, F. S. A.-two volumes, royal octavo, with nearly often rising to true eloquence. A reader familiar two thousand illustrations. For the subject it treats with modern literature will have no difficulty in disof Mr. Jewitt's work is an exhaustive one, and as covering under their pseudonyms, Mr. Ruskin, the productions of the English potteries come more Dean Stanley, Mr. Singleton (“ Violet Fane"), readily within the reach of collectors in America Professors Clifford, Huxley, Tyndall, Doctor Pusey, than those of other countries, its interest and utility Mr. Swinburne and many others. Nor is the book are manifest. Commencing with the earliest known merely dry discussion on the great question-the British and Anglo-Saxon pottery as discovered in true end of life; the dialogue and accompanying inci. burrows and sepulchral interments, Mr. Jewitt dents are managed with so much life and charm that furnishes a general view of his subject until the be- the attention is constantly excited, and the reader is ginning of the last century is reached, as at that time beguiled into a higher style of thought almost unthe great improvements in artistic manipulation and consciously. Altogether, the book is a remarkable the practical chemistry of materials were gradually one, as the reception it has met with fully proves. introduced, and the establishment and progress of Among the volumes brought out by some of each separate seat of manufacture becomes of im- the various reproductive processes is the facportance. His method is, then, a combination of simile of the first sketch of “ The Christian local and chronological treatment, tracing each pot- Year," by Rev. John Keble. The book is an exact tery or porcelain work now known to us, by its copy of the beautiful MS. of the author, presented products, from its small beginning to its present to a friend. It contains about forty of the poems state of prosperity, or to (what has too frequently as originally written without a single interlineation happened to the ingenious and inventive arti- or correction. To make the volume a perfect represan) its extinction in failure and commercial loss. entation of Mr. Keble's MS., the prefatory matter, In this way are brought before the reader, and including an interesting comparison of the subsemost amply illustrated by the wood-engraver, the quent changes and various readings of the poem, is spirited and artistic statuettes of Bow; the tasteful printed separately, so that in the book itself the and richly ornamented vases and groups in the purchaser possesses identically the highly prized “soft paste" of Chelsea (now approaching in value gift of its almost sainted author, from whose posthuto the masterpieces of Sèvres itself); the gorgeous mous papers a valuable “ Commentary on the First gilding and coloring of the old Worcester china,- Chapter of St. John's Gospel" has also just been the famous white transparent ware of Derby, pro- published. duced by some secret process now lost, from whence Though inferior in interest to Dr. Schliemann's sprung our modern Parian; the classic forms and book, the work of General Cesnola on “Cyprus admirable workmanship of Wedgwood, who ri- forms a very handsome and richly illustrated volume. valed the works of ancient Greece in the Stafford The other great antiquarian works promised, as ware; Etruria, and the very rare and highly prized Wilkinson's Egyptians," Dennis's “Etruria," productions of the extinct establishments of Bristol, and Brugsch's “ History of Egypt,” are slightly Plymouth, Nantgarrow, Lowestoft, etc.

delayed in their appearance, and will not be A really beautiful monograph of another branch brought out until the spring. of the same subject is furnished by M. Harvard, Mr. Louis J. Jennings, formerly of the “New whose “discovery” of the old cities of Hol- York Times,” and now London correspondent of land, as charmingly described by himself, will be the “New York World,” has exchanged his task of recollected by readers. His new work is “His-tracking the devious course and crooked pathways toire de la Faience de Delft.” That town was one of “the Ring," for more pleasant wanderings in of the earliest seats of ceramic art in Europe, and “ Field Paths and Green Lanes in Surrey and its porcelain is known to rival the Oriental in its Sussex.” The record of these excursions makes a body and surpass it in ornamentation. The richly very delightful book, showing how much that is illustrated book of M. Harvard completely exhausts virtually remote and strange to the dweller in cities the subject under every possible head.

lies within his reach, and what scenes of the piciOf “The New Republic,” of which I wrote last uresque are available even in a few hours' holiday. month, the “

Quarterly Review ” says: “It has The literary veteran, Dr. Doran, has poured the disgusted some readers, puzzled many, and amused contents of his well-filled commonplace book into more; nor can this be wondered at, as the work a discursive book“ London in the Jacobite Times,"

[ocr errors]

two volumes full of the gossip so dear to the lovers rest of the world. His book is a very important of the last century and its literature as exemplified one, and by many good authorities it is considered in the writings of Horace Walpole.

as likely to rival or supersede that of Professor “Democracy in Europe, a History," by Sir | Mommsen on the same subject. Thomas Erskine May, is a book that will live in our “ The Life of Pius IX.," by Thomas Adolphus libraries. In it the author endeavors to trace the Trollope, just published in two volumes, Svo, posfortunes of democracy and political liberty through. sesses claims to notice from the author's great out the history of Europe, both ancient and modern. familiarity with Italian history and long residence Commencing with the political history of Greece

in that country. and Rome, he follows the light of the torch of free- The new volume (third) of the “Life of the late dom through the dark ages to the establishment Prince Consort,” by Theodore Martin, carries the of the Italian, Swiss, and Dutch republics, to the narrative through the period of the Crimean war, development of constitutional freedom in England. and shows a profuse employment of private papers

The new volume of Professor Ihne's “History of and documents relative to current events and living Rome" leaves the conquering people masters of persons quite new to history, and not altogether Italy and prepared to try their strength against the eommendable.

THE WORLD'S, WORK.
New Portable Battery.

mine accurately the location of such obstructions, a A NEW galvanic battery employing paper as a

pistol and an electric chronograph are now emvehicle for the liquid has been brought out. It is ployed. The pistol is fired at the open end of the made on the plan of the Daniell cell and consists of tube, and the resulting sound wave travels through a circular disk of zinc and another of copper, the

the tube toward the obstruction. At the same intwo being placed one over the other, and separated stant, the firing of the pistol is electrically recorded on by a number of disks of paper. These paper disks

a very sensitive chronograph. The pulsation of sound are first bound together in a mass, and are then

meets the obstruction in the tube and is at once soaked in a saturated solution of sulphate of copper,

reflected, and, traveling back to the open end of the care being taken to wet only one-half of the bundle. tube, meets a delicate diaphragm, and thus records The bundle of disks is then turned over and the its return by means of the chronograph.

The temother half is soaked in a solution of sulphate of zinc.

perature of the tube having been found, the exact When well saturated the liquid is allowed to drain speed of the sound wave may be ascertained, and by away, the paper retaining enough of the solution to comparison of the speed of the wave with the time carry on the work. The zinc disk is placed at the

recorded by the chronograph, the precise distance end of this mass of paper next the part soaked in

the sound wave traveled may be found in centithe zinc solution, and the copper disk is placed at

meters. Half of the distance over which the sound the other end. A copper rod, insulated from the

moved is the distance of the obstruction from the paper and the zinc, passes through the bundle to

end of the tube. To insure accuracy, the sound is the copper disk and serves to keep the whole in allowed to re-echo from the diaphragm and to make position. The rod also passes through the slate excursions to the obstruction and back till it is cover of the glass vessel in which the battery is exhausted, and the successive measurements thus kept and makes one of the poles. This battery,

made give greater precision to the work. The locadepending only on the moisture held in the paper,

tion of the obstruction having been determined, it is is portable and is reported to remain constant for a easy to cut the tubes at the right place. year. When needing renewal, it is only necessary to re-soak the lower part of the paper in sulphate of

Improved Method of Sinking Tube Wells. copper, or to put in new zinc or fresh paper. The

The tube wells so much used in this country are battery has been found useful in medical applica- usually sunk in the ground by means of heavy tions, and as a battery for field telegraphing.

blows, from a pile driver, delivered near the top of Appliance for Locating Obstructions in Tubes.

the pipe. By this plan it sometimes happens that

when the point of the tube meets an obstruction the PNEUMATIC transthission has always labored tube is bent, or it acts as a spring, and the power is under the objection that the carriers sometimes thus wasted. A new method of driving such wells become wedged and stuck in the tubes so that they employs a long iron weight that may be dropped in cannot be moved, and all the traffic is, for the time, the interior of the pipe. The pipe with its steel at a stand-still. The chief difficulty in such cases is point having been started in the usual way, a tripod not in the removal of the carrier, but in locating the is set up over the well to hold the pipe in place, position of the obstruction in the tubes. To deter- and above this is an upright, carrying a wheel over

which a rope may be passed to sustain the weight. ances are provided for holding the movable edges By this arrangement the blows are delivered on the in place, and by means of an extra set of holes in inside of the pipe at the bottom, just where they are the edge-piece, additional needles may be used if needed. Another plan is to inclose the lower part desired. Every form of plait may be made with this of the weight with a circular casing, to keep out apparatus by simply adjusting the needles to the sand and dirt, the weight moving freely in the requirements of the work. Another form of plaitcasing, and, by means of a shoulder, bringing it to ing machine dispenses with the needles and uses a the surface when the work is finished. Another knife mounted on a frame and having a reciprocating method employs a smooth, steel-pointed pipe, 130 movement imparted to it by simple machinery. The centimeters long and somewhat smaller than the fabric is passed under the knise, and is pushed for. well tube. This is driven first, and the tube with ward at each movement, and is thus folded and the perforations is screwed on above it. The doubled into the required shape. The length of weight or hammer used is made of two iron pipes the stroke of the knife decides the width of the placed one within the other. The annular space plaits, and, as this may be adjusted within certain between them is filled with lead, and at the bottom limits, any width of plaits may be continuously is a packing to act as a piston. At the top is a produced as long as the machine is kept in motion. valve opening upward. On letting this weight fall This machine measures the width of the plaits in the interior of the tube, the air is driven out of automatically, and performs the work quickly and the long hammer through the valve and a blow is accurately, and with only the power needed to tura struck at the bottom of the well. On raising the a small hand-crank. A larger and more effective hammer a partial vacuum is formed, and when it plaiting machine, designed for the use of wholesale again falls the pressure of the atmosphere is joined dress-makers, combines the reciprocating knife for to the weight of the hammer, thus adding to the forming the plait and a device for pressing the fabrie force of the blow. By all of these methods the as it passes through the machine. This apparatus tube is saved from injury, as only the steel point is secured to a bed-plate of iron that may be fastened receives the force of the blows needed to sink the to the table by means of clamps. At the front of well. While these methods are more complicated the machine, is a knife hinged at each end and hasthan those usually employed in this work, they have ing a handle at the back. The cloth is passed under the merit of being founded on correct principles, the knife, and by means of the handle, a forward and the advantage of preventing waste of time and and backward, combined with a vertical, motion is material.

given to the knife, and the cloth is pushed and folded

into the required plaits, and is then pushed under Plaiting Machines.

the heater. The heater is a cast-iron box contain. The free use of “plaits” in making up all kinds ing a hot iron, and supplied with an adjustable of dress goods has led to the manufacture of a num- weight. Each movement of the plaiting knife lifts ber of appliances for facilitating the work of plaiting the heater and pushes a plait under it. The knife The most simple of these machines is a flat board is then withdrawn to make a new plait. The next on which the fabric may be laid and folded in various movement lifts the heater, pushes out the plait ways over and under a number of long steel needles. under it, and inserts a fresh one. By this arrangeTo keep these needles in place there is a raised ment the speed of the work regulates the time the edge on both sides of the board, and the needles are plait is under the pressure of the hot-box. Applidropped into slots cut in these, edge-pieces. To ances are added for adjusting the width of the facilitate the work the needles are secured by means plaits, and the pressure of the hot-box and the of eyes at the ends to one of these edge-pieces to machine will plait any kind of fabric, thick or thin, keep them in reach till laid down on the fabric, and with hemmed or plain edges. Simple plaiting to assist in removing them when the work is finished. of narrow material may be done on this machine at In using the plaiter the needles are first turned back the rate of a yard a minute, and for general work it out of the way and the fabric is laid down on the is a useful invention as it combines both plaiting board. A fold is then made by hand, and a needle and pressing in one apparatus. is laid down to hold it in place. Then another plait is made and more needles are put in position over

Memoranda. the work. In this manner, box, side, knife, rose, and other varieties of plaits may be quickly and To loosen a hard, tenacious clay on the bottom easily laid out and secured in place by the needles, of a bay to enable a steam-dredge to work with ease and when the board is covered, a hot iron is passed in deepening the water, a plow has been used with over the work to fix the cloth in its new shapes. advantage. Steam power was supplied from the The needles may be then withdrawn by removing shore, and by means of a wire-rope the plow was the edge-piece to which they are fastened. Another dragged over the bottom of the water. A diver form of plaiter uses both sides of the board, one walked behind the plow to guide it, and to supply side being smooth for ordinary work and the other him with air, a boat with the air-pumps followed the cut in parallel grooves for "cord plaiting.” The plow. At the end of the row the plow and wire needles are hing

on a movable

dge that may were taken over the water and the next row was be turned round so that the needles may be used started from the shore. It was found that the diver on either side of the board. Suitable locking appli- could work in 6.30 meters (twenty feet) of water in

ease and safety, and that the plowing materially The waste scraps of gutta percha, so often thrown assisted the work of dredging. The same plan away as useless, may be formed into caps for bottles might be useful in removing sand bars in rivers by dissolving them in benzole. Dissolve the gutta wherever the current is sufficiently strong to carry percha in benzole over a gentle heat till a moderaway the loosened drift and sand.

ately thick fluid is formed, and then add vermilion

or other coloring matter to suit the fancy. The In sheathing iron ships with wood to prevent the corrosion of the iron, efforts have long been made

corked bottles are then dipped in the mixture, as in to find some means of securing the wooden planking making capsules is reported to give capsules that are

making caps in hot sealing-wax. This method of to the iron that would not set up a galvanic action

impervious to air and all ordinary liquids, and the and thus injure the iron. This has now been ac

process has the merit of being simple, easy, and complished by the use of wooden bolts, having iron

cheap. heads, and driven from the inside of the iron skin of E the ship. These bolts are reported to be strong and The new alloy, known as manganeze bronze, has

durable, and to be entirely free from galvanic action. been made the subject of some recent experiments Yellow metal sheathing is applied over the wooden to test its strength. A cold rolled rod sustained a planking precisely as in wooden ships.

strain of 34,000 kilograms (34 tons) before stretch. A convenient apparatus for the sick-room where ing, and displayed an ultimate strength of 40,000 cold drinks are wanted is recommended by “Les

kilograms per 6 square centimeters (1 square inch), Mondes.” It is made by placing two vessels (pre- length. This places the alloy on a par with steel,

with an elongation of only 11.6 per cent. of its sumably of glass), one within the other, and filling and in its elastic limit somewhat above it. The alloy the inner vessel with a solution of nitrate of ammo

has been made in the form of wire, plates and tubes, nia. The outer vessel may be a goblet, and the

and in all these forms it is reported to be superior inner vessel is formed in the shape of an inverted

to brass, and as it retains its qualities under great truncated cone, and has a cover that is large enough heat, it would seem to be valuable for boiler and to cover the goblet. For a goblet of water 150 condenser tubes. grammes of the nitrate of ammonia are placed in the inner vessel, and water is added till it is filled. The search for tannin materials has been rewarded To hasten the action, the solution should be stirred by the discovery and application, upon a commercial as the water is put in. The water in the goblet is scale, of the valuable properties of the wild “sweet soon reduced about 22 degrees Fahr., when the inner fern,” so abundant in New England. This hitherto vėssel may be removed. To use the solution again it useless product affords a good extract of tannin, and is only necessary to spread it in the sun till the water a manusactory has been erected to utilize the crop evaporates and the nitrate recrystallizes.

of fern in Maine.

BRIC-À-BRAC.

Autre Temps, Autre Meurs.

voice doubtless made to order, it fitted him so well Poised upon a budding spray

-he introduced himself as Mr. Keesir, the warden, On a morning of the May,

and expressed his willingness to show me around Love, with fickle wings unfurled,

at once. While I was investigating he answered Half decides to fly away.

all my questions briskly. Stay, Love, stay!

“What are literary lunatics?" he replied to a Now, when skies are blue and clear, You have grown so dear, so dear !

query of mine, “That's easy to say. They are mon. Stay, Love, stay !

omaniacs. And their one weak point is in some

way literary. They have a passion for the col. Clinging to a withered bough

lection or creation of the trifles of literature, the That the wind beats to and fro,

curiosities of letters. There are men here who Love, his bruised wings folded close, make and collect macaronics, echo-verses, anagrams, Trembles 'mid the falling snow.

chronograms, telegrams, epigrams, epitaphs, palinGo, Love, go! Since the summertide has gone,

dromes, centos, acrostics, impromptus, bouts-rimés, All your pretty songs are done

inscriptions, paronomasia, puzzles, and other curiGo, Love, go!

ous quips and quirks. Walk into our parlor and Julie K. WETHERILL. I'll introduce you to some of our patients with

pleasure." A Visit to the Asylum for Literary Lunatics.

But few of the patients were in the handsome WHEN I entered the asylum-as a visitor merely, apartment used as a sitting-room. Some of them not as a patient, I assure you-a cheery little man were reading and apparently studying at the tables. came to meet me and in a cheery little voice-a | Others were walking up and down, to and fro

a

a

a

[ocr errors]

with stolid regularity; these seemed to be thinking | ing me alone with the literary lunatic. I hardly knew out deep problems, for now and then they would what to say, but he quickly broke the silence saying: stop and jot a line or two in their note-books. “I suppose you too, sir, are annoyed by this per

“ Here is one of our most curious cases,” said petual stealing. This kidnapping of the thoughts Mr. Keesir cheerily, pointing to a thin young man, of others, this everlasting never-ending pilfering. pacing along alone with an air of melancholy ab- I suppose you, like me, are worn out in the strug-| straction and now advanced toward us.

“ He is a

gle to detect and expose these brazen brokers in paronamasiast, a punster.

It's a confirmed case, I other men's originality. I can stand it no longer. fear. Ah, Mr. Pughney, gentleman would like to I feel savage. I must cry out, or- ugh! I sometalk with you."

times fear I shall do some one a fearful injury." Mr. Pughney gravely approaching replied sol. I condoled with him suggesting that there was a ėmnly:

limit at which forbearance ceases to be a virtue. He “ Talc! Do you ask for sermons in stones ?" started as I said this and rapidly rejoined, Humoring him the warden cheerily answered : “Ah! you quote from Burke ? Of course! Ah, “ We did expect a sermon from a Living-stone." ha!” and he sighed plaintively, “Few writers have

“ Indeed ?—Now that Stanley is in Africa so the originality of Burke. Ah, yes, nowadays there long I suppose the natives call him Sahara's young seems to be nothing new under the sun!” man,” rejoined Mr. Pughney sadly.

I felt like suggesting that his last remark was a This was staggering even to cheery little Mr. plagiarism from King Solomon, but I luckily refrained Keesir.

and in turned asked him for a few particulars as to Stanley,” continued the monomaniac,“ has by the various forms of literary larceny, a subject about this time met the Simple Simoon of the desert, and which I knew nearly nothing, and of which he apperhaps they have discussed together the works peared to be perfect master. He bowed as though of Madame Sand."

refusing a compliment which he, however, felt to be We both drew a breath of relief as the paron justly his due, and offering me a chair, which I acamasiast gravely withdrew. Even the cheery cepted, he remarked : little warden seemed chilled by Mr. Pughney's Plagiarism may be of two kinds,—the purloiner solemnity. “It's nothing to what I have to under- either appropriates the whole of his predecessor's go sometimes,” and pointing toward another work, or he only takes a part. The first form is patient, diligently conning and comparing books naturally but little used. It is too dangerous, beat a table near by, he said, “ Here is a rarer and cause too easily detected. But it exists : witness more disagreeable form of literary lunacy. Mr. • Beautiful Snow' and 'Rock Me to Sleep, Mother.' Quin Siddons is a plagiarist-detector."

I may remark that men of taste and judgment never “ A what?" I asked, as we walked toward Mr. employ this form of plagiarism. Pieces of disputed Quin Siddons, and the warden answered:

authorship are generally of little value. The second "A plagiarist-detector! That is, he thinks that form of stealing convey, the wise it call'-I quote, every word that he hears or reads is stolen from you observe, from the 'Merry Wives of Windsor'some other speaker or writer. What makes us al- is far more common. A man may steal from a most despair of curing him is his wonderful memory, | foreign author with little chance of detection, parwhich rarely permits us to catch him tripping. We ticularly if this writer lived in a former age. Some have kept all the new books from him, however, for books now are only remembered because they have nearly two months, now, and he is beginning to re- been so unmercifully plagiarized from. There are

Indeed he has not had a single severe attack men who take a thought here and a thought there, since he read “The Wandering Heir,' of Mr. wandering to and fro, culling flowers from every Charles Reade."

corner of the fertile field of literature, to make their Mr. Quin Siddons rose at our approach, and

own weak nosegay. There is not a line-not an Mr. Keesir introduced me, saying :

idea—not an expression—not an epithet even, I as“If you converse with Mr. Quin Siddons on sure you, in either Mr. Gray's • Elegy' or Mr. literary topics, you will soon find that he knows Longfellow's ' Psalm of Life,' that cannot be found what's what!”

in the works of some of these gentlemen's predeMr. Quin Siddons bowed very politely to me, and cessors. Some men seem to think themselves privithen turned to the warden, remarking, hesitatingly: leged to pilfer: even our friend Sheridan stole right

“Allow me to suggest, Mr. Keesir, that your and left, although he wrote in the 'Critic,' Scene I., last remark about knowing what's what, is a remi- Act 1. : 'Steal! to be sure they may, and, egad, niscence of ‘Hudibras,' Part I, Canto I, Line 149." serve your best thoughts as gypsies do stolen chil.

The warden laughed cheerily, and rejoined: dren,—disfigure them to make them pass for their “I wont attempt to argue with you.

You are

own.' And that figure itself is kidnapped from right, I suppose. I leave you the field. Discretion Churchill. They will not allow me to see any new is the better part of valor.”

books,—not even the new papers. I have not read "Ah!” Mr. Quin Siddons instantly ejaculated : a copy of Notes and Queries' for a month. I have " that proverb is first found in the play of Beaumont no doubt that in the world without men are stealing and Fletcher, ‘A King and No King,' in the third thoughts and words, and plagiarists are daily exscene of the fourth act.”

posed, and yet I am not able to participate in these The warden was here called off on business, leav- ljoys. Here, in America, in this free land, “whose

cover.

[ocr errors]
« AnteriorContinuar »