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pressions on the mind, which have nothing to do , ford Brooke, Leslie Stephen and Max Müller furnish with the senses, are discovered in every judgment a good deal of the matter. The strongest private that we make, and hence the independence of the conviction expressed is the general one already soul from the action of the senses is postulated. noticed of the existence of God in nature and a soul But he takes care to stop short of the further results in man. Concerning poetry, he says: to which Kant's stern and inflexible reasoning car- "I have said that the range of poetry is boundless ried him. He scouts the idea that we know nothing as the universe. Whenever the soul comes into at all of this world because we can only know the living contact with fact and truth; whenever it impressions upon our senses and soul. That would realizes these with more than common vividness, carry him into a negation of all things, and finally of there arises a thrill of joy, a glow of emotion. And God himself; but the term, atheist, is evidently the the expression of that thrill, that glow, is poetry. most intolerable of all to Mr. Shairp's sensibilities. The range of poetic emotion may thus be as wide as As a poet and a champion of poetry, nothing could the range of human thought, as existence. It does be more appropriate than to see Mr. Shairp ranging not follow from this that all objects are alike fit to himself against the encroachments of the materialists awaken poetry. The nobler the objects, the nobler and drawing his sword in defense of the ideal. Plato, will be the poetry they awaken when they fall on not Aristotle, is the camp for him.
the heart of a true poet. But though this be so, Agreeable and pleasant reading though it may be, yet poetry may be found springing up in the most there is nothing in this little work to prove the new unlikely places, among what seem the dryest efforts professor a man of much force. Ossian, for instance, of human thought, just as you may see the intense whose claims might have been urged with especial blue of the Alpine forget-me-not lighting up the fitness by a Scotchman, is passed over with an darkest crevices, or the most bare and inaccessible evasive paragraph or two, as if he were afraid to ledges of the mountain precipice." come to any conclusions of his own, either because Physical science, says Mr. Shairp, deals with the of inadequate consideration of the subject, or outward object alone. Poetry has to do with the -what is likelier-out of regard to his Lowland object plus the soul of man. From the meeting and audience. Indeed, one need not look for strong combined action of these two forces, the outward expressions of opinion or new theories on any of object and the soul, there arises a creation, or emathe numerous subjects that arise in the course of so nation, different from either, but partaking of the fruitful a theme, but only for a good presenting of nature of both. And it is the business of true well-known views. Canon Mozley, Ruskin, Stop- poetry to express this.
THE WORLD'S WORK.
New Method of Propagating Soft Plants.
Dairy Ventilation. The usual method of preparing cuttings of soft- A SYSTEM of under-ground air-pipes laid up and wooded plants is either to take the cuttings entirely down a hill from a dairy for the purpose of securing off the parent plant, or to cut them half-way through fresh air of a uniform temperature has been already and let them remain on the plant till the granula- described in this department. Another form of tions appear. An improvement on this is to snap ventilating-pipe adapted to dairies on level ground or break off the cutting so as to leave it hanging by employs a brick or stone pipe of a pointed arch a bit of the skin. This serves to hold the cutting section 37.7 centimeters (14 inches) high and 30.5 to the plant and to keep it from wilting, while it centimeters (1 foot) wide at the bottom, laid in a saves the plant from the severe check that would straight line in any direction for a distance of 15.78 follow its complete removal. In a short time the meters (150 feet). This air-duct is laid 2.74.5 "callous,” or granulations, appear and the hanging meters (9 feet) under ground, and rises by an easy cutting may then be removed and planted at once in curve to the surface at one end, and enters the bot. a pot, when, after a few days shading it takes root tom of the dairy at the other. The temperature of and begins to grow. The advantages of this method the earth at this depth is 480 Fahrenheit at all sea. are found in saving the parent plant, for the hang- sons of the year, and the air passing through the ing cutting still demands sustenance from the roots duct has this fixed temperature on entering the and thus stimulates and preserves the plant in dairy. In summer, the air of the dairy can be health. At the same time, new shoots break out lowered to any desired point above this by letting below the broken cutting, and these form new cut- the hot air escape from the top of the building, and tings in less time than by the old method when the in winter, the fresh air entering the dairy is raised plant is checked by the severe cutting back. Labor to this point by passing through the duct, whatever and time are also saved by omitting the work spent the outside temperature. A little fire heat in the in setting and tending the cuttings in a propagating dairy will set the air in the duct in motion, and thus tank.
the room is readily kept at any desired temperature VOL. XV.-30
at small expense. Another advantage reported for Mending Appliance for Sewing Machines. this system of ventilation is the freedom from danger
A New attachment for the sewing-machine has of souring in the milk during thunder-storms, as the been introduced that enables the machine to mend air taken from the duct is free from the germs of
or “darn” holes in any kind of fabric. It consists putrification. This under-ground air-duct might of a small steel ring having a hole in one side, and also be useful in supplying fresh air raised to 480 in having a delicate spiral spring affixed to the top of winter for a hot-air furnace at a material economy of the ring. To use the mending attachment the fuel.
thread is passed though the hole in the side of the The Alhydic Chain.
ring and downward. The ring is then slipped over This apparatus consists of a number of long, the needle of the machine with the spiral spring slender bags of canvas made air-tight and joined inclosing the needle. The thread is then passed together by means of short copper pipes. The chain through the eye of the needle as for sewing. In is designed to be used in raising sunken ships where placing the cloth with the hole to be closed on the the vessel is too deep to be conveniently reached by machine the fabric is fed up to the needle and divers. The first step in raising a ship is to lower
stitches are made through the cloth along one edge self-fastening grapnels to different parts of the ship, of the rent or hole. The stitch passes over the and by fastening buoys to these, to mark her posi- opening, leaving a knotted thread reaching from tion on the surface of the water. A steamer pro
side to side. This repeated, forward and backvided with powerful air-pumps, and having a large
ward and crosswise, or in any direction, till the number of the empty bags forming the chain, is crossing stitches make a close web over the hole. then brought up and a number of the bags are
By this simple device the sewing-machine becomes fastened together with a self-fastening grapnel at
a mending-machine, repairing and closing over the end and lowered overboard till the grapnel finds openings in any kind of fabric. The appliance is a strong hold on the ship. If divers can be em-specially useful in repairing table-linen, though it ployed to fasten the chain, or if the submarine mole
can be used for mending any fabric from sails or can be used, the work becomes the more simple. stockings.
New Portable Kitchen. Having, in either of these ways, secured the end of the canvas chain to the ship, the steamer moves This apparatus is designed for a traveling kitchen round and round the buoys, paying out the empty and consists of an upright stove or furnace, hung chain for one or two turns. The air-pump is then between a pair of wheels that it may be drawn by started, and the chain is blown up, causing it to one or two horses. The stove is, like some kinds swell and fit under the vessel. More chain is paid of portable steam-boilers, hung on pivots at the out till it is wound round the vessel several times, sides, so that it will accommodate itself to the and then it is charged with air to its fullest capacity. movements of the carriage. The stove has a fire. The displacement caused by the expanded bags box at the base, and a direct-draft chimney at the eventually causes them to float and lift the ship to top. Within the stove are two copper cylinders or the surface. This alhydic chain has the advantage boilers, placed one within the other; the outer over the single bag plan of making a continuous cylinder is fitted with pipes for the water and safety piece, so that if one bag fails to find a hold on the valves, and is practically a steam-boiler. The inner ship, it still exerts its lifting power through the cylinder is tinned on both sides, and has a lid that others. The fexible character of the chain also may be fitted on steam-tight; a short piece of pipe prevents injury from catching and tearing on sharp connects the two vessels at the top. In making points of the wreck. The same idea, carried out soups, and in cooking other food, the meat or other with a light rubber hose, might be useful in recover- material is placed in the inner cylinder, and the ing small objects from deep water.
cover is put on steam-tight. The fire circulating
about the outer boiler causes the water to boil, and Uniting Iron and Steel.
the steam passes over into the cooking vessel and In uniting cast-iron and cast-steel, as in iron car. cooks the meats by steaming and boiling. Such a wheels with steel tires, a new process in welding kitchen, drawn by two horses, can make, while on employs a thin sheet of iron so placed in the mold the march, soup for 250 men in three hours. The that it will separate the steel from the iron when both carriage also carries in the forward part all the are poured at the same instant into the mold. The cooking utensils, and the kitchen is thus complete aim of this diaphragm of sheet-iron is twofold,—first, in itself. The kitchen has been adopted by one of to keep the steel and iron from actual contact, and, the European armies. secondly, to serve as a weld to unite them. The
Compound Locomotives. thickness of this plate is a matter of careful adjust. ment. It must be sufficiently thick to resist the The compound type of engine, where one cylinder flow of the metals on each side, and thin enough to receives the steam direct from the boiler and after eventually weld them together. This device has using its expansion to a limited degree sends it on been used with success for some time, and has been to another and larger cylinder, is almost universally applied to a variety of forms where one part of the used for marine engines, and in part for stationary casting requires the tenacity of iron and another engines, and has recently been applied to locomopart demands the hardness of steel.
tives. Three engines for passenger service have convenient shape or size by a simple process that may be carried on in the building or at the plasterer's shop. A smooth, hard surface is prepared, and a sloping edge is set up to give the slabs a beveled edge, and on this is spread a layer of plaster of Paris. Upon this, and securely bedded in it, is spread a sheet of canvas or other heavy fabric, or a layer of some loose fibers; laths are then laid along two opposite sides of the slab, and over all is spread a thick layer of common plaster; before this sets it is brushed over with a coarse broom to give it a rough surface to make a key for the finishing coat of plaster. When the plaster has set, and the slab is hard and dry, it is raised to its place and fastened there by nails driven through the laths. The finishing coat is then applied in the usual way, covering the division between the slabs so that the surface is uniform. Such a system of plastering has the advantage of quick and cleanly work at a saving of labor, and making a wall covering that will not fall in masses when wet, nor take fire at the back as two laths are bedded in the plaster.
now made a united run of over 2,500 miles, and may be considered as something more than experiments. The engines have two cylinders, placed on the outside, that are fitted to the wheels in the usual manner, and one of these is somewhat larger than the other. When the locomotive is to be started, or when more draft is required in the fire, a new form of valve, called the undoing valve, is employed to turn the steam into both cylinders at once, and the exhaust is thrown into the stack to increase the draft. The undoing valve is the only addition to the engine, and excepting in this and the differing sizes of the cylinders, the locomotives do not depart from the common type. When the speed is attained, or when the draft is sufficient, the new valve is changed and the steam goes to the smaller, highpressure cylinder, the exhaust is taken to the larger cylinder on the other side of the engine, and after farther expansion the steam is finally thrown into the stack. It will be seen that the engine gives only half the number of “coughs" or ejections at the stack, and thus loses half the draft. The engines are reported to do continuous work in dragging heavy excursion trains over a sea-side road at a decided economy of fuel.
Shrinking on Tires by Hot Water. The uncertain and irregular results that follow from the use of direct fire heat in expanding tires has led to some experiments in the use of hot water. An iron tank of suitable size for car-wheels, and filled one-quarter full of water, is prepared and steam is turned into the water till it is raised to 212 Fahr. ; the tire is plunged into this by means of a crane, and is left submerged for fifteen minutes; it is then taken out and at once put on the wheel. By this method three men can set the tires on from 12 to 15 wheels in a day of eleven hours. The difference between the tires and wheels must be very small, being only 0.75 millimeter to a meter, and this is ascertained by gauges of great precision, as a very slight deviation will not allow the tire to go on or will leave it loose when cold. In practice it has been found that where on the same road 37 per cent. of the fire-heated wheels ran loose, and five per cent. were broken in a six-years' trial, only one per cent. of the water-heated tires became loose and only a single wheel was broken in a threeyears' trial. While tired car-wheels are not much used in this country, this plan of using hot water in expanding tires may be of value in setting wagonwheels. The water bath has the advantage of heating the tire uniformly and expanding it equally in every direction.
Proposed Change in the System of Gauging Wire.
The size of wires and thin plates of gold, copper, iron and other metals has been everywhere meas. ured by the use of various steel gauges. The measuring appliances are made in a great variety of forms, and the numbers upon them make the commercially recognized sizes of plate metal and wire. This numbering of the gauges is entirely arbitrary, and varies with the different makers of gauges, so that the name of the maker of the gauge must be known as well as the number of the gauge. More than this, all these gauges are subject to wear, and unless provided with compensating appliances become in time valueless as instruments of precision. A Committee of the American Institute of Mining Engineers having been appointed to examine this matter, recently reported that, in view of the confusion and uncertainty now found in the measurement of metals by wire gauges, the use of fixed gauges and the use of numbers to express the diameters of wires be abandoned. In place of these numbers the committee recommend the expression of commercial sizes in thousandths of an inch or the fractions of a millimeter; in place of the numbered gauges the millimeter screw gauge is recommended. This gauge is a steel frame fitted with a micrometer
The screw is accurately cut and fitted, and the great space through which the lever of the screw passes in comparison with the advance due to the pitch of the screw makes it a means of very minute measurements. The head of the screw is divided into equal parts so that a single movement of the screw head expresses extremely minute measure. ments between the end of the screw and the rest where the plate or wire to be measured is placed. These micrometer gauges are fitted with compen. sating appliances to recover the loss due to wearing, and will measure accurately till worn out. This change in the system of measuring wire recommends itself for simplicity and uniformity. The present
New Form of Plastering. A NEW style of wall and ceiling plastering has been introduced that offers some advantages in ease and speed in covering the walls and in securing the plaster against falling and fire. In place of spreading the plaster on laths fixed to the wall, it is prepared in solid blocks or slabs, and these are nailed to the rafters or joists. The slabs are made of any
confusion of gauges and sizes would be corrected by weight, of extract of walnut-peel dissolved in six by the use of actual measurements, and the microm- parts of boiling water. When the staining coat is eter gauge would make a standard for universal half dry it is brushed with a solution of one part of reference.
bichromate of potash in five parts of boiling water;
and after this has dried the wood is rubbed and pol. Memoranda.
ished. This stain is reported to be firm and of an A SOLUTION of calcium chloride in glycerine is
excellent color. proposed as a convenient substitute for the sand In a new style of ship's anchor, simplicity, cheapbath. It is said to be easily regulated, and to be ness and strength have been secured by making the useful for temperatures varying from 572 to 626 stock in two parts just alike, and fastened together Fahr.
by bolts at each end and near the center. Only one The cracks sometimes seen in common mortar
arm is used, and by making the two parts spread are attributed by M. Decourneau to the uncombined
apart near the end so that the arm hung on the bolt quicklime it may contain. To neutralize this he
that joins them may swing freely between them employs a fine siliceous powder, mixed with diluted
in either direction. The arm has a T shaped head nitric acid. The mortar thus made is said to be and by means of two projections on either side of free from this defect, and stone made from it resem
the head it is limited in its movements. When bles natural stones and may be cut, sawn or other
closed, the arm rests between the two parts of the wise treated.
stock, and in falling it takes the right position to
hold in the ground without regard to the way in To preserve the juices of lemons, currants,
which the anchor falls from the ship. An anchor oranges and other fruits, the juice, when fresh, is
of this pattern tested to destruction broke at a expressed and mixed with some kind of cooked
strain of 250 per cent. over proof. meal, either with or without the addition of sugar, and is then made up into cakes and baked. These past year in making glass from slag have been con
The experiments that have been going on for the cakes are then ground up into a kind of fruit farina. Juices thus prepared are said to keep their flavor made on a commercial scale. The slag is taken hot
cluded, and a glass suitable for bottles is now being indefinitely, and the farina may be used as a sub
from a blast-furnace in a ladle and poured into a stitute for fresh fruit.
Sieman's furnace; carbonate of soda and silica are Dr. Himly, of the University of Kiel, suggests then added in various proportions, according to the a simple test for flour adulterations. A small quan- quality of glass to be produced. A large manutity of the flour to be examined is placed in a com- facturing plant will soon be in operation in this line mon test-tube 3.2 centimeters (3-8 in.) in diameter, of glass-making.
and 13 centimeters (about 5 in.) long, and enough • chloroform is added to fill the tube three-quarters
In coating metals with tin and nickel, two new full. The mixture is then shaken and placed up processes are mentioned. Kayser melts together
one part of copper and five parts of pure Australian right at rest, and is kept thus till the various
tin. This alloy is granulated and mixed with water substances in the tube find the levels due to their
and cream of tartar into a pasty bath. To each 200 specific gravity. In time the clear flour will swim at the top, and the lime, chalk, plaster, bone-dust, nickel, and the articles to be plated are laid in this
parts of the alloy is added one part of oxide of marble and other impurities, will gather in layers bath and boiled for a short time. Articles of brass at the bottom, and thus indicating their proportion and copper are thus easily plated and given a hard and character. Unadulterated flour leaves a filmy surface resembling German silver. Articles of iron gray or brownish deposit, that is probably due to
must first be copper-plated. By adding carbonate the stone-dust from the grinding. But this is not
of nickel to the bath, boiling gives a coating richer easily mistaken for the white deposits from the
in nickel and varying in color from that of platinum adulterations.
to blue-black according to the amount of nickel salt The success attending the efforts to toughen glass used. Stobla adds to a solution of protochloride of have led to a number of processes for improving tin a small quantity of cream of tartar. The brass, the quality of glass, and among these is one for copper or iron articles to be tinned are moistened compressing glass under heavy metallic rolls. This with this and then rubbed hard with zinc powder. compressed glass is reported to be even tougher
The floating fire-works now used at sea in case of than the “ La Bastre glass” (already described shipwrecks have been made in the form of a bomb here), and has the advantage of greater freedom in that may be thrown from a mortar. The bomb is working, so that larger pisces can be produced.
thrown into the water at any distance from the ship The compressed glass has a fibrous texture, quite
or shore battery, and immediately takes fire on fall. unlike the crystalline structure of the tempered glass. ing in the water, and burns with an intense white By the use of engraved rolls, the glass may also be
flame. It is only necessary to make a small hole in ornamented at the same time that it is compressed. the shell to admit the water, and it flames the moment
A new process for making artificial black walnut it is wet. For this reason it cannot be extinguished, from red beech, alder and other woods, is announced. and the bomb floats and lights up the sea for a long The wood thoroughly dried and warmed is given distance around it, plainly showing the position of one or two coats of a liquid composed of one part, l hostile ships or boats.