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Derline of Greek Theology, occasioned by the Advanre of Geography and
Philosophical Criticism. - Secession of Poets, Philosophers, Historians. -Abortive public Attempts to sustain it.- Duration of its Decline.-Its Fall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 23
CHAPTER III. DIGRESSION ON HINDU THEOLOGY AND EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATION. Comparative Theology of India ; its Phase of Sorcery; its Anthropo
centric Phase. VEDAISM the Contemplation of Matter, or Adoration of Nature, set
forth in the Vedas and Institutes of Menu.—The Universe is God. Transmutation of the World.-Doctrine of Emanation.-Transmigrution. — Absorption. — Penitential Services. — Happiness in Absolute
Quietude. BUDDHISM the Contemplation of Force-The supreme impersonal Power.
-Nature of the World-of Man.—The Passage of every thing to Nonentity.- Development of Buddhism into a vast monastic System marked by intense Selfishness. Its practical Gorllessness. EGYPT a mysterious Country to the old Europeans.— Its History, great
public Works, and foreign Relations.— Antiquity of its Civilization and
Art.-Its Philosophy, hieroglyphic Literature, and peculiar Agriculture. Rise of Civilization in rainless Countries.- Geography, Geology, and
Topography of Egypt. — The Inundations of the Nile lead to
Astronomy. Comparative Theology of Egypt.-Animal Worship, Star Worship.
Impersonation of Divine Attribut's—Pantheism.—The Trinities of Egypt. — Incarnation.— Redemption. — Future Judgment. — Trial of the Dead.-Rituals and Ceremonies . . . . . . . . 56
GREEK AGE OF INQUIRY.
RISE AND DECLINE OF PHYSICAL SPECULATION. IONIAN PHILOSOPHY, commencing from Egyptian Ideas, identifies in
Water, or Air, or Fire, the First Principle.—Emerging from the Stage of Sorcery, it founds Psychology, Biology, Cosmogony, Astronomy, and ends in doubting whether there is any Criterion of Truth.
ITALIAN PHILOSOPHY depends on Numbers and Harmonies. — It
reproduces the Egyptian and Hindu Doctrine of Transmigration. ELEATIC PHILOSOPHY presents a greut Advance, indicating a rapid
Approach to Oriental Ideas.-It assumes a Pantheistic Aspect. RISE OF PHILOSOPHY IN EUROPEAN GREECE.- Relations and Influence of
the Mediterranean Commercial and Colonial System.-Athens attains to commercial Supremacy.—Her vast Progress in Intelligence and Art. -Her Demoralization. She becomes the Intellectual Centre of the
Mediterranean. Commencement of the Athenian higher Analysis. It is conducted by THE
SOPHISTS, who reject Philosophy, Religion, and even Morality, and end
in Atheism. Political Dangers of the higher Analysis.—Illustration from the Middle
Ages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 94
RISE AND DECLINE OF ETHICAL PHILOSOPHY.
the Importance of Virtue and Morality, thereby inaugurating an Age of Faith.—His Life and Death.—The schools originating from his Movement teach the- Pursuit of Pleasure and Gratification of Self. Plato founds the Academy.—His three primal Principles.—The Ex
istence of a personal God.--Nature of the World and the Soul.- The ideal Theory, Generals or Types.- Reminiscence.--Transmigration.Plato's political Institutions. — His Republic. — His Proofs of the
Immortality of the Soul.-Criticism on his Doctrines. RISE OF THE SCEPTICS, who conduct the higher Analysis of Ethical
Philosophy.-Pyrrho demonstrates the Uncertainty of Knowledge. Inevitable Passage into tranquil Indifference, Quietude, and Irreligion, as recommended by Epicurus.—Decomposition of the Socratic and Platonic Systems in the later Academies.—Their Errors and Duplicities, -End of the Greek Age of Faith . . . . . . . . . 143
Spread of Christianity from Syria.-Its Antagonism to Imperialism.
their Conflicts.-Position of Affairs under Diocletian.—The Policy of Constantine.—He avails himself of the Christian Party, and through it attains supreme Power.-His personal Relations to it. The Trinitarian Controversy.-Story of Arius.—The Council of Nicea. The Progress of the Bishop of Rome to Supremacy. — The Roman
Church ; its primitive subordinate Position.—Causes of its increasing Wealth, Influence, and Corruptions. — Stages of its Advancement through the Pelagian, Nestorian, and Eutychian Disputes.—Rivalry
of the Bishops of Constantinople, Alexandria, and Rome. Necessity of a Pontiff in the West and ecclesiastical Councils in the East.
-Nature of those Councils and of pontifical Power. The Period closes at the Capture and Sack of Rome by Alaric.—Defence
of that Event by St. Augustine.-Criticism on his Writings. Character of the Progress of Thought through this Period.- Destiny of
the three great Bishops . . . . . . . . . Page 266
AGE OF FAITH IN THE EAST.
State. The consequent Paganization of Religion and Persecution of
Philosophy. Political Necessity for the enforcement of Patristicism, or Science of the
Fathers.—Its peculiar Doctrines. Obliteration of the Vestiges of Greek Knowledge by Patristicism.- The
Libraries and Serapion of Alexandria.-Destruction of the latter by Theodosius.- Death of Hypatia.-E.ctinction of Learning in the East by Cyril, his Associates and Successors . . . . . . . 308
THE THREE ATTACKS, VANDAL, PERSIAN, ARAB.
Province by Justinian after great Calamities.