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OF 193

ISTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

EUROPE.

Pn WH WILLIAM DRAPER. V.D, LLD.. Eustomar Cronistry is the triturit of Ser Tork, Asther of s M ars Thomas Payasing, Patrya Amaica,'

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NEW YORK AND LONDON :
HARPER & BROTHERS, PUBLISHERS,

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Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1876, by

HARPER & BROTHERS, In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.

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80 as to illustrate the orderly progress of civilization, or collected the facts furnished by other branches of science with a view of enabling us to recognize clearly the conditions under which that progress takes place. This philosophical deficiency I have endeavoured in the following pages to supply.

Seen thus through the medium of physiology, history presents a new aspect to us. We gain a more just and thorough appreciation of the thoughts and motives of men

in successive ages of the world. - In the Preface to the second edition of my Physiology,

published in 1858, it was mentioned that this work was at that time written. The changes that have been sinco made in it have been chiefly with a view of condensing it.

The discussion of several scientific questions, such as that of the origin of species, which have recently attracted public attention so strongly, has, however remained untouched, the principles offered being the same as presented in the former work in 1856.

New York, 1861.

PREFACE TO THE REVISED EDITION. MANY reprints of this work having been issued, and translations published in various foreign languages, French, German, Russian, Polish, Servian, &c., I have been induced to revise it carefully, and to make additions wherever they seemed to be desirable. I therefore hope that it will commend itself to the continued approval of the public.

November, 1875.

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER I. . ON THE GOVERNMENT OF NATURE BY LAW. The subject of this work proposed.--Its difficulty. Gradual Acquisition of the Idea of Natural Government by Law.

Eventually sustained by Astronomical, Meteorological, and Physiological Discoveries.-Illustrations from Kepler's Laws, the Tradewinds, Migrations of Birds, Balancing of Vegetuble and Animal Life,

Variation of Species and their Permanence. Individual Man is an Emblem of Communities, Nations, and Universal

Humanity.They exhibit Epochs of Life like his, and, like him, are

under the Control of Physical Conditions, and therefore of Law. Plan of this Work.The Intellectual History of Greece.-Its Five

characteristic Ages. European Intellectual History. Grandeur of the Doctrine that the World is governed by Law . Page 1

CHAPTER IL

OF EUROPE: ITS TOPOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY.
ITS PRIMITIVE MODES OF THOUGHT, AND THEIR PROGRESSIVE VARIATIONS,

MANIFESTED IN THE GREEK AGE OF CREDULITY.
Description of Europe : its Topography, Meteorology, and secular

Geological Movements. Their Effect on its Inhabitants. Its Ethnology determined through its Vocabularies. Comparative Theology of Greece ; the Stage of Sorcery, the Anthro

pocentric Stage.- Becomes connected with false Geography and Astronomy.Heaven, the Earth, the Under World.Origin, continuous Variation and Progress of Greek Theology.-It introduces Tonio Philosophy.

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