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At the meeting of the British Association for the Advance ment of Science, held at Oxford in 1860, I read an abstract of the physiological argument contained in this work respecting the mental progress of Europe, reserving the historical evidence for subsequent publication.

This work contains that evidence. It is intended as the completion of my treatise on Human Physiology, in which man was considered as an individual. In this he is considered in his social relation.

But the reader will also find, I think, that it is a history of the progress of ideas and opinions from a point of view heretofore almost entirely neglected. There are two methods of dealing with philosophical questions—the literary and the scientific. Many things which in a purely literary treatment of the subject remain in the background, spontaneously assume a more striking position when their scientific relations are considered. It is the latter method that I have used.

Social advancement is as completely under the control of natural law as is bodily growth. The life of an individual is a miniature of the life of a nation. These propositions it is the special object of this book to demonstrate.

No one, I believe, has hitherto undertaken the labour of arranging the evidence offered by the intellectual history of Europe in accordance with physiological principles,

80 as to illustrate the orderly progress of civilization, or collected the facts furnished by other branches of science with a view of enabling us to recognize clearly the conditions under which that progress takes place. This philosophical deficiency I have endeavoured in the following pages to supply.

Seen thus through the medium of physiology, history presents a new aspect to us. We gain a more just and thorough appreciation of the thoughts and motives of men

in successive ages of the world. . In the Preface to the second edition of my Physiology,

published in 1858, it was mentioned that this work was at that time written. The changes that have been since made in it have been chiefly with a view of condensing it. The discussion of several scientific questions, such as that of the origin of species, which have recently attracted public attention so strongly, has, however remained untouched, the principles offered being the same as presented in the former work in 1856.

New York, 1861.

PREFACE TO THE REVISED EDITION. Many reprints of this work having been issued, and translations published in various foreign languages, French, German, Russian, Polish, Servian, &c., I have been induced to revise it carefully, and to make additions wherever they seemed to be desirable. I therefore hope that it will commend itself to the continued approval of the public.

November, 1875.

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER I.

ON THE GOVERNMENT OF NATURE BY LAW. The subject of this work proposed.--Its difficulty. Gradual Acquisition of the Idea of Natural Government by Law.

Eventually sustained by Astronomical, Meteorological, and Physiological Discoveries.Illustrations from Kepler's Laws, the Tradewinds, Migrations of Birds, Balancing of Vegetuble and Animal Life,

Variation of Species and their Permanence. Individual Man is an Emblem of Communities, Nations, and Universal

Humanity.They exhibit Epochs of Life like his, and, like him, are

under the Control of Physical Conditions, and therefore of Law. Plan of this work. The Intellectual History of Greece.--Its Five

characteristic Ages.-European Intellectual History. Grandeur of the Doctrine that the World is governed by Law . Page 1

CHAPTER IL

OF EUROPE: ITS TOPOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY.
ITS PRIMITIVE MODES OF THOUGHT, AND THEIR PROGRESSIVE VARIATIONS.

MANIFESTED IN THE GREEK AGE OF CREDULITY.
Description of Europe : its Topography, Meteorology, and secular

Geological Movements. Their Efect on its Inhabitants. Its Ethnology determined through its Vocabularies. Comparative Theology of Greece; the Stage of Sorcery, the Anthro

pocentric Stage.- Becomes connected with false Geography and Astronomy. - Heaven, the Earth, the Under World.- Origin, coniinuous Variation and Progress of Greek Theology.-It introduces Ionio Philosophy.

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