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Derline of Greek Theology, occasioned by the Advance of Geography and

Philosophical Criticism. - Secession of Poets, Philosophers, Historians. -Abortive public Attempts to sustain it.Duration of its Decline.Its Fall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 23

CHAPTER III. DIGRESSION ON HINDU THEOLOGY AND EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATION. Comparative Theology of India ; its Phase of Sorcery; its Anthropa

centric Phase. VEDAISM the Contemplation of Matter, or Adoration of Nature, set

forth in the Vedas and Institutes of Menu.The Universe is God.Transmutation of the World.-Doctrine of Emanation.-Transmigration. Absorption. Penitential Services. Happiness in Absolute

Quietude. BUDDHISM the Contemplation of ForceThe supreme impersonal Power.

-Nature of the Worldof Man.The Passage of every thing to Nonentity.- Development of Buddhism into a vast monastic System marked by intense Selfishness. Its practical Gorllessne88. EGYPT a mysterious Country to the old Europeans. Its History, great public Works, and foreign Relations.Antiquity of its Civilization and

Art.-Its Philosophy, hieroglyphic Literature, and peculiar Agriculture. Rise of Civilization in rainless Countries.- Geography, Geology, and

Topography of Egypt. The Inundations of the Nile lead to

Astronomy. Comparative Theology of Egypt.-Animal Worship, Star Worship.

Impersonation of Divine AttributesPantheism.The Trinities of Egypt. Incarnation. Redemption. Future Judgment. Trial of the Dead.-Rituals and Ceremonies . . . . . . . . 56

CHAPTER IV.

GREEK AGE OF INQUIRY.

RISE AND DECLINE OF PHYSICAL SPECULATION. IONIAN PHILOSOPHY, commencing from Egyptian Ideas, identifies in

Water, or Air, or Fire, the First Principle.- Emerging from the Stage of Sorcery, it founds Psychology, Biology, Cosmogony, Astronomy, and ends in doubting whether there is any Criterion of Truth.

ITALIAN PHILOSOPHY depends on Numbers and Harmonies. It

reproduces the Egyptian and Hindu Doctrine of Transmigration. ELEATIC PHILOSOPHY presents a greut Advance, indicating a rapid

Approach to Oriental Ideas.-It assumes a Pantheistic Aspect. RISE OF PHILOSOPHY IN EUROPEAN GREECE.Relations and Influence of

the Mediterranean Commercial and Colonial System.Athens attains to commercial Supremacy.Her vast Progress in Intelligence and Art. -Her Demoralization.-She becomes the Intellectual Centre of the

Mediterranean. Commencement of the Athenian higher Analysis.-It is conducted by THE

SOPHISTS, who reject Philosophy, Religion, and even Morality, and end

in Atheism. Political Dangers of the higher Analysis. Illustration from the Middle Ages . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . Page 94

CHAPTER V.

THE GREEK AGE OF FAITH.

RISE AND DECLINE OF ETHICAL PHILOSOPHY. SOCRATES rejects Physical and Mathematical Speculations, and asserts

the Importance of Virtue and Morality, thereby inaugurating an Age of Faith.His Life and Death.The schools originating from his

Movement teach the Pursuit of Pleasure and Gratification of Self. Plato founds the Academy.His three primal Principles.The Ex

istence of a personal God.-Nature of the World and the Soul. - The ideal Theory, Generals or Types.Reminiscence.Transmigration.Plato's political Institutions. His Republic. His Proofs of the

Immortality of the Soul.-Criticism on his Doctrines. RISE OF THE SCEPTICS, who conduct the higher Analysis of Ethical

Philosophy.Pyrrho demonstrates the Uncertainty of Knowledge.Inevitable Passage into tranquil Indifference, Quietude, and Irreligion, as recommended by Epicurus.Decomposition of the Socratic and Platonic Systems in the later Academies.Their Errors and Duplicities, -End of the Greek Age of Faith . . . . . . . . . 143

OF THE

INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

OF

EUROPE.

BY JOHN WILLIAM DRAPER, M.D., LL.D., Professor of Chemistry in the University of New York, Author of a “Treatise on Human Physiology,” “Civil Policy of America,”

“History of the American Civil War,” &c.

REVISED EDITION, IN TWO VOLUMES.

VOL. I.

NEW YORK AND LONDON :

HARPER & BROTHERS, PUBLISHERS,

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Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1876, by

HARPER & BROTHERS, In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington

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