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indebted for more than half its corruptions, all its hypocrisy, and more than half its sins. It is they who infuse into it falsehood as respects the past, imposture as respects the present, fraud as respects the future; who teach it by example that the course of a man's life ought to be determined upon principles of selfishness; that gratitude and affection are well enough if displayed for effect, but that they should never be felt; that men are to be looked upon not as men, but as things to be used; that knowledge and integrity, patriotism anil virtue, are the delusions of simpletons; and that wealth is the only object which is really worthy of the homage of man.

It now only remains in this chapter to speak of the later Platonism. The Old Academy, of which Plato was the founder, limited its labours to the illustra- The Middle tion and defence of his doctrines. The Middle Academy of Academy, originating with Arcesilaus, born Arcesile B.C. 316, maintained a warfare with the Stoics, developed the doctrine of the uncertainty of sensual impressions and the nothingness of human knowledge. The Then

The New New Academy was founded by Carneades, born Academy of B.C. 213, and participated with the preceding Carneades. in many of its fundamental positions. On the one side Carneades leans to scepticism, on the other he accepts probability as his guide. This school so rapidly degenerated that at last it occupied itself with rhetoric alone. The gradual increase of scepticism and indifference throughout this period is obvious enough; thus Arcesilaus said that he knew nothing, not even his own ignorance, and denied both intellectual and sensuous knowledge. Carneades, obtaining his views from the old philosophy, found therein arguments suitable for his purpose against necessity, God, soothsaying; he did not admit that there is any such thing as justice in the abstract, declaring that it is a purely conventional thing; indeed, it The doo was his rhetorical display, alternately in praise of the later of justice and against it, on the occasion of his Academicians, visit to Rome, that led Cato to have him expelled from the city. Though Plato had been the representative of an age of faith, a secondary analysis of all his works, iinplying an exposition of their contradictions, ended in

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scepticism. If we may undertake to determine the precise aim of a philosophy whose representatives stood in such an attitude of rhetorical duplicity, it may be said to be the demonstration that there is no criterion of truth in this world. Persuaded thus of the impossibility of philosophy, Carneades was led to recommend his theory of the probable. “That which has been most perfectly analyzed and examined, and found to be devoid of improbability, is the most probable idea.” The degeneration of philosophy now became truly complete, the labours of so many great men being degraded to rhetorical and artistic purposes. It was seen by all that Plato had

troyed all trust in the indications of the senses, and substituted for it the Ideal theory. Aristotle had de

urth stroyed that, and there was nothing left to the The fourth und fifth world but scepticism. A fourth Academy was Academies. founded by Pħilo of Larissa, a fifth by Antiochus of Ascalon. It was reserved for this teacher to attach the Porch to the Academy, and to merge the doctrines of Plato in those of the Stoics. Such a heterogeneous mixture demonstrates the pass to which speculative philosophy had come, and shows us clearly that her disciples had abandoned her in despair.

So ends the Greek age of Faith. How strikingly does

of the its history recall the corresponding period of Greek age of individual life — the trusting spirit and the

aith. disappointment of youth. We enter on it full of confidence in things and men, never suspecting that the one may disappoint, the other deceive. Our early experiences, if considered at all, afford only matter of surprise that we could ever have been seriously occupied in such folly, or actuated by motives now seemiug so inadequate. It never occurs to us that, in our present state, though the pursuits may have changed, they are none the less vain, the objects none the less delusive.

The second age of Greek philosophy ended in sophism, the third in scepticism. Speculative philosophy strikes at last upon a limit which it can not ov, rpass. This is its state even in our own times. It reverberates against the wall that confines it without the least chance of making its way through.




The MACEDONIAN CAMPAIGN.Disastrous in its political Effects to

(treece, but ushering in the Age of Reason. ARISTOTLE founds the Inductive Philosophy.His Method the Inverse of

that of Plato.Its great power.-In his own hands it fails for wart

of Knowledge, but is carried out by the Alexandrians. Zeno.- His Philosophical Aim is the Cultivation of Virtue and Know

leilge. He is in the Ethical Branch the Counterpart of Aristotle in

the Physical FOUNDATION OF THE MUSEUM OF ALEXANDRIA.The great Libraries,

Observatories, Butanical Gardens, Menageries, Dissecting Houses.-- Its Effect on the rapid Development of exact Knowledge. - Influence of

Euclid, Archimeiles, Eratosthenes, Apollonius, Ptolemy, Hipparchus, . on Geometry, Natural Philosophy, Astronomy, Chronology, Geography. Decline of the Greek Age of Reason.

The conquest of Persia by Alexander the Great is a most important event in European history. That adventurer, carrying out the intentions of his father Philip, commenced his attack with apparently very The Creek insignificant means, having, it is said, at the invasion of most, only thirty-four thousand infantry, four Perola. thousand cavalry, and seventy talents in money. The result of his expedition was the ruin of the Persian empire, and also the ruin of Greece. It was not without reason that his memory was cursed in his native country. Her life-blood was drained away by his successes. In view of the splendid fortunes to be made in Asia, Greece ceased to be the place for an enterprising man. To such an extent did military emigration go, that Greek recruits were settled all over the Persian empire; their number was sufficient to injure irreparably the country from which they had parted, but not sufficient to Hellenize the dense and antique populations among whom they had settled.

Not only was it thus by the drain of men that the Macedonian expedition was so dreadfully disastrous to

Greece, the political consequences following Its ruinous effect on those successful campaigns added to the baneful Greece result. Alexander could not have more efectually ruined Athens had he treated her as he did Thebes, which he levelled with the ground, massacring six thousand of her citizens, and selling thirty thousand for slaves. The founding of Alexandria was the commercial end of Athens, the finishing stroke to her old colonial system. It might have been well for her had he stopped short in his projects with the downfall of Tyre, destroyed, Injury to

not from any vindictive reasons, as is sometimes Athens from said, but because he discovered that that city the foundin of Alexan" was an essential part of the Persian system. It dria

was never his intention that Athens should derive advantage from the annihilation of her Phænician competitor; his object was effectually carried out by the building and prosperity of Alexandria.

Though the military celebrity of this great soldier may be diminished by the history of the last hundred years, which shows a uniform result of victory when European armies are brought in contact with Asiatic, even under the most extraordinary disadvantages, there cannot be denied to him a profound sagacity and statesmanship excelled by no other conqueror. Before he became intoxicated with success, and, unfortunately, too frequently intoxicated with wine, there was much that was noble in his character. He had been under the instruction of Aristotle for several years, and, on setting out on his expedition, took with him so many learned men as Scientific almost to justify the remark applied to it, thai tendency of it was as much a scientific as a military donian cam- undertaking. Among those who thus accompaignis. panied him was Callisthenes, a relative and pupil of Aristotle, destined for an evil end. Perhaps the assertion

the Mace

that Alexander furnished to his master 250,0001. and the services of several thousand men, for the purpose of obtaining and examining the specimens required in the composition of his work on the “ History of Animals ” may be an exaggeration, but there can be no doubt that in these transactions was the real beginning of that policy which soon led to the institution of the Museum at Alexandria. The importance of this event, Origin of the though hitherto little understood, admits of no influence of exaggeration, so far as the intellectual progress through of Europe is concerned. It gave to the works Alexander. of Aristotle their wonderful duration; it imparted to them not only a Grecian celebrity, but led to their translation into Syriac by the Nestorians in the fifth century, and from Syriac by the Arabs into their tongue four hundred years later. They exercised a living influence over Christians and Mohammedans indifferently, from Spain to Mesopotamia..

If the letter quoted by Plutarch as having been written by Alexander to Aristotle be authentic, it not only shows how thoroughly the pupil had been indoctrinated into the wisdom of the master, but warns us how liable we are to be led astray in the exposition we are presently to give of the Aristotelian philosophy. There was then, as unfortunately there has been too often since, a private as well as a public doctrine. Alexander upbraids the philosopher for his indiscretion in revealing things that it was understood should be concealed. Aristotle defends himself by asserting that the desired concealment had not been broken. By many other incidents of a trifling kind the attachment of the conqueror to philosophy is indicated; thus Harpalus and Nearchus, the companions of his youth, were the agents employed in some of his scientific traning and undertakings, the latter being engaged in sea undertakings

of Alexander, explorations, doubtless having in the main a "** political object, yet full of interest to science. Had Alexander lived, Nearchus was to have repeated the circumnavigation of Africa. Harpalus, while governor of Babylon, was occupied in the attempt to exchange the vegetation of Europe and Asia : he intertransplanted the productions of Persia and Greece, succeeding, as is related,


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