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I. The Form of the Government of the United States.

1. It is democratic, limited, representative government

17

2. It is federal, co-ordinate government .

18

3. It is elective government

18

4. It is presidential government; the executive is independent of the

legislature as to his political policy;

19

and may defend his prerogatives against the legislature

Characterization of the United States Government.

II. The Form of the Government of France.

1. It is democratic, unlimited, representative government

2. It is centralized co-ordinated government .

3. It is elective government

4. It is parliamentary government .

23

History of the struggle to fix the political responsibility of the min-

istry to the Chamber of Deputies

Characterization of the French Government

27

III. The Form of the German Imperial Government.

1. It is limited, representative government

27

partly democratic, partly monarchic

28

2. It is federal government, with many elements of the confederate

system

28

Comparison with the government of the United States

29

It is co-ordinate government

29

3. It is partly elective and partly hereditary

29

4. It is presidential government

30

Characterization and criticism of the German Imperial Government

IV. The Form of the English Government.

1. It is immediate .

32

It is at once democratic, aristocratic, and monarchic

32, 33

2. It is centralized and co-ordinated

34

3. It is partly elective and partly hereditary

35

4. It is parliamentary government

35

Characterization of the English Government

V. Comparison of the Preceding Forms.

Tendencies of the modern world in respect to forms of government 37, 38

The form of the future

39. 40

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1. The General Principles of Legislative Organization

2. The Suffrage from which the Legislature proceeds.

A. Primary provisions of the Constitution .

41

The Federal territory has no representation .

42

B. Modification.

(a) Introduced by the XV Amendment

(6) Congress is authorized to regulate the time, place, and man-

ner of electing representatives, and the time and manner of
electing senators (Const. Art. I, Sec. 4, § 1) .

43

Statutory regulation of the time of holding elections

43

of the manner of electing representatives

44, 45

of electing senators

45

(c) Each house shall be the judge of the election of its own

members (Const. Art. I, Sec. 5, § 1).

3. The Principle of Representation in the Legislature

I. In the House of Representatives.

A. The Original Provision

B. Modifications introduced by

(a) The XIII Amendment

49

(6) The XIV Amendment

46, 47

Interpretation of this clause of the XIV Amendment 47

Statutory apportionment of Representatives .

Its constitutionality examined

48, 49

II. Principle of representation in the Senate

49, 50

The representation in both houses is uninstructed

50

4. The Qualifications of Members.

a. Constitutional qualifications .

The presence of those qualifications in a given case is decided by

each house

6. Additional qualifications

c. Constitutional disqualification

d. Additional disqualification

53

5. The Rights and Privileges of Members.

a. Right to a compensation; b. privilege from arrest

53

c. Freedom of speech and debate

54

6. The Assembly and Adjournment of the Legislature

54

7. The Principle of the Quorum

55

8. The Internal Organization of each house

Neither house possesses the general power to punish an outsider for

contempt

56, 57

9. Mode of Legislation .

57

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1. The General Principle of Legislative Organization

59

2. The sources from which the Legislature proceeds.

A. The House of Commons

59

Qualifications of the Suffrage holder; (a) The owner of an inter-

est in real estate

60

(6) The non-owner of such an interest

61

Disqualification for exercising the right of suffrage

62

Criticism of this system

62

B. The House of Lords.

(a) Inheritance

(6) Election

(c) Appointment

(d) Ecclesiastical office

Determination of questions of disputed elections

65

3. The Principle of Representation in Parliament.

A. The House of Commons.

Historical survey of the principle of representation

65

The present principle

66

Representation is uninstructed

67

B. The House of Lords

67, 68

Representation is uninstructed

68

4. Qualifications of Membership.

A. The House of Commons — positive and negative requirements

B. The House of Lords positive and negative requirements . 70

5. The Rights and Privileges of Members.

A. The House of Commons.

a. privilege from arrest

70

b. freedom of speech and debate .

71

B. The House of Lords.

a. privilege from arrest; b. freedom of speech and debate . 71

c. Privilege of access to the Crown

72

6. The Summons, Opening, Adjournment, Prorogation, and Dissolution

of the Parliament

72, 73

7. The Principle of the Quorum

73

8. The Internal Organization of the Houses of Parliament

74

9. The Mode of Legislation.

1. Initiation: 1. Ordinary public bills; 2. Revenue bills .

75

3. Private bills

II. Passage: 1. Ordinary public bills; 2. Revenue bills; 3. Private bills, 76

III. Approval by the Crown.

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