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SECTION. A section, marked thus §, is the division of a discourse, or chapter, into less parts or portions. Murray. It is also used in printing as a reference to notes.


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SERVIEN. "The alphabets of the nations descended from the Scythians established in Europe, namely, the Servien, the Russian, the Sclavonian, and the Bulgarian, are all derived from the Greek. The Servien letters are called the Cyrillitan characters, from St. Cyril, who converted the Moravians to Christianity; smaller characters were afterwards introduced, called Glogolitici. The Russian letters are immediately derived from those used by St. Cyril."— Astle.

SET AT RANDOM. When compositors cannot make up their matter into pages as they compose it, either by reason of their working in companionship, or from other causes, they put it in galleys till they can make up; this is termed Setting at Random. When a compositor is obliged to set a great quantity at random, so that it becomes inconvenient, on account of the number of galleys it occupies, and the room it takes up on the cases, he ties it up in moderate-sized pieces and puts it on page papers under his frame, with a bit of paper stuck in each with a number, to mark the order; if it be a work in quarto or folio, too large for page papers, he ties a cord round the matter in each galley and keeps it on the slices of his slice galley under his frame, till he makes up.

SET MATTER. Matter that is composed, but not worked off, whether it be made up into pages or at random, is called set matter, to distinguish it from matter for distribution.

SET-OFF SHEETS. Sheets of waste paper that are used upon the tympan sheet, to prevent the ink setting-off on the sheets that are successively printed when the reiteration is working; they are changed as soon as any setting-off is perceptible. They are slipped under the points at their edges, and are quickly changed, or turned, which is always done to economize the use of paper.

Set-off Sheets are also used upon the cylinders of machines that perfect, for the same purpose.

A sheet of thin paper is interleaved between every impression of fine work, particularly if it be large heavy paper and large type, to prevent setting-off in the heap; the work is hung up to dry with these sheets in, which are taken out by the warehouseman before the work is piled away, who then knocks them up, folds them in quires, and takes care of them till they are wanted again by the Pressmen.

Paper for these purposes is supplied by the warehouseman, who gives for the first waste or spoiled impressions; for the other tissue paper is generally used, and with care it will last a long time.

SET OUT PAPER. Counting out the proper quantity by the warehouseman, to wet.-M. We now term it Giving out Paper, which



SETS CLOSE. See GET IN.-M. The phrase is now used for close spacing.



SETS OFF. Work that is newly wrought off at the press often sets off, especially if it be fat beaten with soft ink: for when it comes to be

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beaten, or sometimes only hard pressed, by the Bookbinder, the moist ink spreads and delates itself round about the face of every letter, and sullies and stains the whole white paper. -M. We do not now include this spreading and delating of the ink in the meaning of setting off, but use the term only when one printed sheet parts with some of its ink to the sheet on which it is laid, or in the press, or in the process of binding, which it will do with large letter, which requires much ink, or when a book is pressed, or bound, before the ink is sufficiently dry: the Bookbinder's hammer is a severe test; and where a book is required to be bound as soon as printed, the best plan, perhaps, is to have it cold pressed, which flattens the impression of the types, and renders it unnecessary to beat so much as when this mode of proceeding is not adopted. In printing fine work at press set-off sheets are used to prevent one sheet defacing another.- See SET-OFF SHEETS.

SET THE ROUNCE. Fixing the girts so that the Rounce stand in the most advantageous position to run the carriage in easily. — M.

SETS UP TO HIMSELF. When a compositor has received the making-up from a companion, and has composed the intermediate matter, he has set up to himself; that is, he has composed the matter that followed his companion's last page and preceded the part he commenced with, and has joined the two parts, so as to enable him to make up. See JOIN, and MAKING-Up, to give the.

SETS WIDE. See DRIVE OUT.-. -M. We now use the term for wide spacing.

SET UP CLOSE. When two or more companions are on the same piece of work, and when any one of them composes all his copy, so that there is none intermediate between the close of his and the beginning of the companion's that follows him, it is said, he has set up close, or, he has set close up.

SEVENTY-TWOMO. A sheet of paper folded into seventy-two leaves or one hundred and forty-four pages is termed seventy-twos or seventy-twomo.

SHANK. The square metal the face of a letter stands on, is called the Shank of a Letter.-M.

SHARP IMPRESSION. This expression is used two ways by printers some say it is a sharp impression when much blanket is used, and the impression of the types on the paper is deep: others hold, and I am of the opinion, that it is a sharp impression when no more than the face of the types appears on the paper, with the lines clear and smooth, and of a full colour, with as little indention as possible on the paper. Pressmen and their employers should know in which sense they each use the term, otherwise it may cause a serious mistake in work, as the two meanings embrace the best as well as the commonest work.

SHEARS. Something similar to those used by tailors; they are employed to cut brass rule, scale board, thin reglet, &c. to proper lengths. The shears best adapted to this purpose have blades short in proportion to their handles.

SHEEP'S FOOT. Is all made of iron, with an hammer head at one end, to drive the ball nails into the ball stocks, and a claw at the other end, to draw the ball nails out of the ball stocks.-M. It is customary to have one for each press, which in a wooden press is suspended by the head from two nails driven into the near cheek of the press, just below the cap. It is a very useful article to the pressman; but is often applied instead of the mallet and shooting stick, to tighten or to looseu

quoins, though it occasionally makes a batter by slipping; I do not like to see it used for this purpose.



SHERWIN AND COPE'S PRESS. The Imperial Press. Dr. Lardner thus describes this press:-In this beautiful and compact machine, the works upon which the power depends are almost wholly concealed within the head of the press, and are in themselves extremely few and simple. The leverage connected with the bar is similar in principle to that of the Stanhope press; and the distinguishing peculiarity of this press consists in the manner in which the lever, called the chill, is made


to act upon the piston, as represented in the engraving of the working parts. The stout cast-iron lever or chill terminates in a sort of polished toe or point. This last-mentioned projection of the lever is made to act on a cup or knuckle acting upon the head of a stout iron bolt, which simply drops down a perforation of the piston, so as to rest upon the uppermost of two steel wedges, one of which, by its connexion with a screw in the front, admits of being pushed forward or drawn back, so as to elevate or lower the bolt, and thus regulate, by altering the length of the piston, the bearing of the platen upon the types. The head-bolt passes through a hole perforated somewhat obliquely; by which ingenious contrivance, a side twist, which would otherwise be occasioned by the motion of the head gear is avoided. It will now easily be perceived

how, by the operation of the bar, the toe is made to act upon the inside bolt, and thus force down the piston, which, after the impression has been taken, is carried back again, by means of two stout steel springs attached to the insides of the cheeks of the press, and thus on the return of the bar lift the platen from the face of the types and allow the carriage with the form to be run out. These springs, operating uniformly, cause the action of the piston to be very smooth. The Imperial press, is, I believe, in high estimation for easiness in the pull, which gives it speed in working, and for evenness of impression.

On the first introduction of this press the toe of the lever or chill worked on a flat surface on the top of the bolt; the introduction of the cup or knuckle is a subsequent improvement.

They are made of different sizes, from foolscap folio to double royal. Figure showing the Works which produce the Power.

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An old shoe with the hind quarter cut away, hung upon a nail through the heel at the end of the imposing stone, into which to put bad letters when correcting. When full, the person who has the care of the materials empties it into the old metal box.

SHOOTING STICK. Is a perfect wedge about six inches long, and its thicker end two inches broad, and an inch and an half thick; and its thin end about an inch and an half broad, and half an inch thick ; made of box wood.-M. They are not now made so thick.

The use of a shooting stick is to drive the quoins with a mallet, both in locking-up and unlocking a form; they are 8 inches long.

As the thin end of a wooden shooting stick always wears down rapidly, or splits, some houses have adopted metal ones, made of brass, well secured in a strong wooden handle, with a square piece cut out of the

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