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fluous edges of the skin. The linings ought to be large enough to be nailed to the ball stock equal with the skin. Then he makes another ball, exactly the same as the first; and if both have a full even face, with no hillocks or dales, he has got a pair of good Balls.

"After having knocked up his Balls, he washes both them and the stocks well, and lets them lie out of the water a quarter of an hour; then placing one edge of the face upon the edge of the bank, the coffin of the press, or upon any other convenient place, and the end of the ball stock against his breast, he takes the handle of a sharp table knife in one hand and the end of the blade in the other, and scrapes it regularly and rather strongly from the plaits to the face of the Ball, at every scrape turning round the Ball, which brings out such a quantity of grease and moisture, as obliges him at the first to wipe his knife at every scrape; he thus proceeds, till he can scarcely bring any more out of the skin. He then places a sheet or sheets of paper on the face of the Ball, and rubs it well with his hands, till the Ball is thoroughly dry, his companion doing the same to the other Ball: they then begin to work the form.

"If a pressman has to execute fine work with strong ink, he stuffs the Balls harder with wool than he does for weak ink; because strong ink lugs or stretches the skin very fast, and soon slackens the Balls, if not hard stuffed.

I was several years employed on fine work and strong ink, in an office where it was not allowed to tread a skin; this circumstance caused me to try the above-mentioned plan, and experience has taught me that it is by far the most preferable method.

"I also know by experience that a greasy skin is the best for strong ink, if treated in this manner; because it always keeps mellow until the balls are worn out, and there is less trouble in capping them.


Making Balls is a nasty job: there is an old proverb in the trade, that The devil would have been a pressman, if there were no Balls to make;' that is, the printer's devil." See PELTS.

Tanned sheep's skins, dressed with oil, have been used, to avoid smell, and for durability: they were more durable than pelts; but they were not calculated for producing fine impressions, not being soft; and, in consequence, not retaining dirt or other extraneous matter on their surface; this occasioned picks, and rendered them unsuitable for printing small letter or fine engravings with neatness.

When the pressmen leave work at night, the pelt balls are capped; that is, they are wrapped up, each in a blanket steeped in urine; and this is always done when they are not in use: it keeps them soft, and in working condition; but they are to be scraped, and dried with paper, to get rid of the moisture, each time they are wanted. There have been many attempts to supersede the use of urine, on account of its disagreeableness and smell; but no substitute, to my knowledge, has answered the purpose so well with pelts.

Composition Balls and composition rollers have, as I previously observed, superseded the use of pelt balls in the metropolis, and nearly so in the country. This has arisen from their superior cleanliness and sweetness, and being equal to pelts in producing good work. They can also be procured, generally, at the moment they are wanted, in the best working state; since their introduction the manufacture of them has become a new business, and they are supplied at so moderate a rate, (either per week or quarter,) and may be renewed as often as required, that scarcely a printing office in London at the present day troubles itself to make Balls; and hence no pressman need ever complain of having bad Balls as an excuse for bad workmanship.

These Balls will be found peculiarly convenient in small offices, where even one press is not in constant employment; for they may be kept for any length of time without injury to them; and if they be preserved in a proper temperament, will be always ready for use at the moment required. If they should become a little too dry, they may be restored to a proper state for working in a very short time by sponging them over with water, and distributing them; or, if there be time, by placing them in a damp situation, in order that they may imbibe moisture.

They may be easily made in an office at a distance from town, where it may be both inconvenient and expensive to have them removed backwards and forwards, by having a shallow dish formed of tin, &c. pouring the melted composition in it, and before it is cold attaching a piece of canvass to it sufficiently large to form a Ball of the size wanted. The facing will be thus thicker in the middle and taper off to the edge, which will be quite thin; and the edge of the composition should be continued well over the rounding of the Ball, to prevent it ever touching the form in beating, and thus avoiding any ill effects from portions of ink or dirt that would lodge at the extremity of the composition, and come in contact with the types or engraving. See COMPOSITION.

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BALL STOCKS. Turned of Alder or Maple. They are about seven inches in diameter, and have their under side turned hollow, to contain the greater quantity of wool or hair, to keep the ball leathers plump the longer. M. They are now made of Elm, and the handles are Beech: but an improvement has been made in this article of late years, although it has not been generally adopted, viz. turning the bowl and handle in one piece, instead of having the handle fitted into the bowl, which frequently came loose, and was troublesome to the Pressman, often catching the skin of his hand, and pinching it. The usual size of the bowl for bookwork, is five inches and a quarter in diameter.

BANK. A deal table, on which the Pressmen have the paper when printing. It was called a Horse in Moxon's time. See HORSE. It is useful to have a small drawer in the front of it, in which the Pressmen may put their thin paper for overlays, their paste points, and many other articles that would otherwise be lying upon the shelf or platen.

BANK NOTES. On the 13th of January, 1819, Mr. James Fergusson, of Newman Street, Oxford Street, printer, sent to the Commissioners for inquiring into the Prevention of Forgery of Bank Notes, his plan for that purpose, of which the following is his published description.

"My plan is reared upon the solid foundation of putting it in the power of every individual to be certain whether a Bank-note is genuine or spurious by inspection. I propose, in order to form the ground-work of Bank-notes, to cast a fount, or several founts, of types, formed of such a peculiar shape, that, when printed from, the impression would appear, at first sight, like a line engraving; while, at the same time, when examined more closely, every part of it might be easily read. Although it is not in my power, without going to considerable expence, to produce a specimen of such types as ought to be made for this purpose, yet no one will deny that they may be obtained by means of punch-cutters and letterfounders. This being granted, let me suppose that I have got such types; I should then proceed to compose a page with them of the size of a Banknote, consisting of such subject-matter as may be deemed advisable, probably, an explanation of the way by which forgery could be detected. From this page of moveable types, I should make a stereotype plate; and I should then, by stamping or engraving upon the stereotype plate, put the promissory words of the Bank-note, with the addition of whatever

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ornamental lines might be thought proper. This stereotype plate, so formed, would give, by one pull at the letter-press, a completed Banknote, unless it might be deemed requisite to add the numbering; and a signature or signatures, in writing. Having got one stereotype plate in the way I describe, I should use it for no other purpose than to obtain others; and from them I could easily make plates to any amount that may be necessary, all which would yield impressions obviously alike. As the promissory and ornamental parts of the note, in white, will purposely be made to intersect the words printed in black all over the surface of the note, the intersections will prove an infallible guide to distinguish a spurious note from a genuine one. This contrivance of intersections being the leading feature in my plan, I have denominated it The Intersection Plan.

"Individuals, when familiarized to notes issued upon this principle, would naturally select some portion to which they might easily refer, to ascertain the genuineness of a note. And, for further security, if necessary, the Bank might print what I may call Standards, for the use of the public, to be sold for a trifle, merely to insure their preservation. The Standards to be printed from the same plates as the notes themselves, but on paper quite of another texture and colour from the note paper, for the purpose of proving the correctness of the intersections." See FORGERY.

BANKRUPTS, Scotland. 2 & 3 Vict. c. 41. tration of the Estates of Bankrupts in Scotland.

"An Act for regulating the Seques

s. 143. "And be it enacted, That from and after the Commencement of this Act the Keeper of the Edinburgh Gazette shall on each Day of Publication furnish a Copy thereof to the Keeper of Edictal Citations and to the Bill Chamber Clerks, who shall keep the same regularly filed, and make the said Gazettes on all Occasions patent to the Lieges at Office Hours, on Payment of a Fee of Sixpence and no more.

s. 144. "And be it enacted, That no Advertisement inserted in the London Gazette or in the Edinburgh Gazette by virtue of this Act, or the said recited Act of the Fiftyfourth Year of the Reign of His Majesty King George the Third, intituled An Act for rendering the Payment of Creditors more equal and expeditious in Scotland, or an Act of the Sixth and Seventh Year of His late Majesty, intituled An Act for regulating the Process of Cessio bonorum in the Court of Session, and for extending the Jurisdiction of Sheriffs in Scotland to such Cases, shall be charged by the Keepers of the said Gazettes for Publication therein at a higher Price, nor shall a higher Price be paid for such Publication, than the Sums specified in the Schedule (L.) hereunto annexed.

s. 145. "And be it enacted, That from and after the Commencement of this Act all Conveyances, Assignations, Instruments, Discharges, Writings, or Deeds relating solely to the Estate belonging to any Bankrupt against whom Sequestration has been or may be awarded either under this or any former Act, and which Estate, after the Execution of such Conveyances, Assignations, Instruments, Discharges, Writings, or Deeds, shall be and remain the Property of such Bankrupt for the Benefit of his Creditors, or the Trustee appointed or chosen under or by virtue of such Sequestration, and all Discharges to the said Bankrupt, and all Deeds, Assignations, Instruments, or Writings for reinvesting the said Bankrupt in the Estate, and all Powers of Attorney, Commissions, Factories, Oaths, Affidavits, Articles of Roup or Sale, Submissions, Decrees Arbitral, and all other Instruments and Writings whatsoever relating solely to the Estate of any Bankrupt sequestrated as aforesaid, and all other Deeds or Writings forming a Part of the Proceedings ordered under such Sequestration, and all Notices or Advertisements inserted in the London and Edinburgh Gazettes relative thereto, shall be exempt from all Stamp Duties or other Government Duty."


"Table of Prices payable for Advertisements in the London or Edinburgh Gazettes.

£ 8. d.

"For Six Lines and under

6 0

"For more than Six Lines and not exceeding Ten Lines
"For more than Ten Lines and not exceeding Fifteen Lines
"For more than Fifteen Lines and not exceeding Twenty Lines
"For more than Twenty Lines and not exceeding Twenty-five Lines
"For more than Twenty-five Lines and not more than Thirty Lines

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BASKET. In printing offices where there are large founts of letter, and the fount cases of any particular fount are not sufficient to hold the superfluous sorts, the surplus is put in coffins, and deposited in round baskets, till wanted.

BATTER. When the face of any letters gets injured in a form, it is termed a Batter.

This accident frequently occurs: - in the course of working at press a letter or letters will draw out in beating, and occasionally be left on the form without being perceived; this, when the next impression is pulled, injures the page on which it was left; —a pin, needle, or bodkin, used as pickers, will sometimes be laid on a page and forgot-and other small articles, which produce the same injury. It also happens with forms reared up at the ends of frames, where the faces of the letter in the forms are put to each other, with a quoin, or a piece of furniture, to prevent them touching, which being accidentally displaced, the letter gets injured. The only thing to be done when these accidents occur, is to replace the letters; this however is too frequently done without showing a revise to the Reader or Overseer; and thus errors creep into a work, which no care on the part of a Reader can prevent. To steady careful men these accidents seldom happen; and they ought to be guarded against, in as much as they cause loss of time to the workmen, and expense of materials to the master printer; and when letters or words must be replaced, the work should never be proceeded with at press, previously to its being examined.

When a fine engraving on wood is at press, the workman should be most particularly careful, as an accident might thus spoil an expensive work of art, which it might be impossible to replace.

When a Batter unfortunately happens at press in working stereotype plates, it is too frequently overlooked by the pressmen, and the work proceeds in a deteriorated state; while, generally speaking, if the same accident had happened to a form of moveable types it would have been set right. The reason is, that while in the latter case the accident could be remedied in a few minutes, the stereotype plate on the other hand would have to be taken out of the form and sent to the founders, and would not be repaired in less than five or six hours, during which time the pressmen would be unemployed, to their loss. This is one cause that operates against the more general use of stereotype plates.

BEARD OF A LETTER, is the outer angle of the square shoulder of the shank, which reaches almost up to the bottom of the face of the letter; and is commonly scraped off by the Founder. — M.

BEARER. A piece of reglet pasted on the frisket to ease any particular part in a form that has too much pressure on it from the platen of the press. - M.

Double Pica reglet is used for this purpose, as its thickness is equal to the difference between the height of the types and the furniture; and this application of it makes this sized reglet in general a scarce article in a printing office.

Where any parts of the impression of a form come off hard, which from various causes occasionally happens, particularly at the edges of the pages, and at the foot of a short page, a bearer is applied to ease that part; but some care however is required in its application it must not bear upon any printed matter at the back of it, for if it does, it will smear and deface that part, nor is it necessary to place it close to the part, but it may be put at some distance, and if convenient near the

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outer edge of the paper, and made to rest on the flat part of the furniture.

After selecting a piece of reglet of the proper length, paste one side of it, and place it with the pasted side uppermost upon the furniture where it is required, then turn down the tympans and frisket and rub that part with the hand to make it adhere to the frisket; or, as is usually done, after the form is beat, when the next pull will make it adhere; if it be not quite sufficient, a thickness or two of a wrapper pasted on it will ease the pull sufficiently on that part.

High Bearers, are pieces of furniture made barely letter height; they are used where separate wood cuts are printed, or very small forms; they are placed on the press stone, usually pasted down, but at such a distance from the printed matter that neither the halls nor the rollers touch them in inking the form; they lighten the pressure on the extremities, and tend to equalize the pull if the carriage be not run in exactly to its place, by the platen bearing upon them. If they be not sufficiently high, they may be added to by overlays pasted upon them.

BEAT. To cover the surface of the types with ink by means of the balls.-M. See FINE PRESSWORK.

BEAT FAT. If a Pressman takes too much ink with his balls, he beats fat. The black English faced letter is generally beaten fat.-M. At the present day we understand by Fat Beating, that a pressman beating carefully, goes gradually two or three times over the form, so that every part of the surface of the type is touched six or seven times by the face of the balls; and is thus uniformly covered with a proper quantity of ink.

BEAT LEAN. Is to take but little ink, and often: all small letter must be beaten lean. M. This and the preceding term Beat Fat, have changed their meaning since the days of Moxon; to beat lean now, is to beat lightly, and quickly make a riddance of work, without much regard to its quality.

BED. To bed or lay the press stone in the coffin, so that it shall lie firm and solid in all parts.-M. There are different ways of bedding a press stone: some bed it in bran; some in plaster; but the general way is with paper. To effect this the paper ought not to have any large knots in it, and should be cut to the size of the coffin, and if there be any inequalities in the bottom of the stone, there must be additional pieces of paper placed under it to fill them up. When it is supposed there is sufficient paper in the coffin to raise the stone high enough, it is slung in on two pieces of cord, and a trial made of its firmness; if it rocks, it is lifted out again, and additional paper placed in those parts where the stone did not rest firmly. When it is properly bedded, the ends of the cords are tucked in at the sides of the stone so as to be easily picked out again with a bodkin. When the stone has got to lie solid with working, the upper side should be about a Brevier higher than the coffin.

Although I have mentioned cord, as being generally used for slinging the stone into the coffin, and lifting it out again, yet strong flat tape is decidedly superior; the stone lies more solid with it than with cord, and is not so liable to break.

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BENGALESE. The following article is extracted from Nathaniel Brassey Halhed's Grammar of the Bengal Language.

"Exclusive of the Shanscrit, there are three different dialects applied (tho' not with equal currency) in the kingdom of Bengal: Viz. the Persian, the Hindostanic and the proper Bengalese; each of which has

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