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It is sublimely declared in the christian Scriptures, that God is Love. In truth, to figure to ourselves under any other cha racter a Being of infinite wisdom to conceive, and Power to execute his designs, would appal the mind of his dependent creatures. Neither can we find, in reasoning à priori, any foundation for believing that the the isery rather than the happiness of those dependent creatures can be desired by a or devised ( being who cannot possibly be actuated by 1/ any of the motives from which we know that injustice proceeds as ignorance, selfishness, or partiality and who can have entertained, as we are able so far to discover, tr no other object in creating man, except the intention of finally proportion a communi- "tra cating larger of happiness than misery.

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These are the principles from which is deduced the of justice and benevolence in necessity/ the Creator. Arguments of this nature will 14 Par or ¶ have more or less effect, according to the 21 stet constitution of the mind to which they are 15

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presented/t the same time it must be con- Off A ceded, that the works of God, generally 22. considered, form the best criterion of his intentions; and that, however indisputable the Zeternal truths may be which render goodness inseperable from power and wisdom, there will still remain, a reasonable inquiry, how far the actual appearance the world justifies this conclusion.

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CORRECTING STONE. The stone on which the compositor imposes and corrects his forms.-M. It is now called Imposing Stone, which see.

CORRECTIONS. The letters marked in a proof are called Corrections.-M. At the present time, the right words or letters that are to replace the wrong ones are understood by the word; thus a compositor, when he collects the right letters for the purpose of correcting a form, is said to Gather the Corrections.

CORRECTOR. Moxon uses this word to designate the person whom we now call a Reader. The word is not now used. See READER, COUNTING OFF COPY. See CASTING OFF COPY.

COWPER, EDWARD. See MACHINES.

CRAMPED. In composing, when it is necessary to get in a given quantity of matter into a certain number of pages, which are hardly sufficient to contain it, whites are used sparingly, short pages are avoided, and the matter is spaced closer than common; it is then said to be cramped. A compositor is also said to cramp his matter when he does not put whites proportionate to the openness of the work, or to the size of the letter when there is no restriction.

CRAMP IRONS. Short pieces of iron, polished on their face, fastened to the under side of the plank, to run the carriage in and out upon the long ribs. They are frequently called the Short Ribs. The two at each end are turned again at the outer ends, to guide the carriage, and prevent any lateral motion, and are called Guide Cramps. I have seen them made of bell metal, as having less friction than iron running upon iron.

CROSS. Long Cross and Short Cross; two bars of iron crossing each other at right angles and dovetailed into the rim of the chase, dividing it into four quarters. The short cross is the broadest, and has a groove for the points to fall in, for the purpose of making holes in the sheet to work the reiteration in register.

CROTCHETS or Brackets [] serve to enclose a word or sentence, which is to be explained in a note, or the explanation itself, or a word or a sentence which is intended to supply some deficiency, or to rectify some mistake. Murray.

CUFIC. See KOOFEE.

CULL PAPER. To examine the cording quires, and select the best sheets out from those that are so much damaged as to be unfit for use. M.

CURRYING IRON. A square bar of iron, bent so as to make the middle part of it project from the post or upright to which the ends are fastened; the ends are flatted out, turned again at right angles, with screw holes, and the middle of the projecting part is twisted. Its use is to curry pelts. CURRYING THE PELT. Putting it half round the currying iron, or a post, and taking hold of both ends, drawing it backwards and forwards to make it more supple, and to take part of the moisture out. See BALLS.

CURVILINEAR PRINTING. In the year 1805, a Mr. Zach. Allnutt published proposals for "a New Mode of Universal Linear Printing, named by me Curvilinear Printing, being a neat, expeditious, and cheap Method of printing Plans of Rivers, Canals, Roads, Estates, Encampments, Mathematical Figures, and all other Sketches required to illustrate any Subject."

"The Time required in executing such Plans, and on which a Calculation of their Expence may be easily made, would be,

"For an Octavo Plan of Demy or Foolscap paper not very much crouded, Time one person one day.

For a Quarto Demy or Foolscap paper not much crouded, or for an Octavo much crouded, Time two days.

"For a Folio Foolscap not much crouded, or Quarto much crouded, Time three days."

He then proceeds to say, that he had published a small pamphlet, in which he had inserted some specimens of Maps of Rivers and Canals, and a Plan of a Building; and executed various Plans of Estates; and of Military Positions (but not with Soldier or Tent Types purposely cast), and a Sketch of a Machine, &c.; and that these specimens were composed with common printing types (except the Trees, Houses, Churches, and Compass, which were cast so as to be moveable,) and printed with a common letter-press.

He proposed to "discover and explain" "the precise Method of such Curvilinear Printing, with a full and particular Description," "if a sufficient Number of Persons, to answer his Expectations, engage as Subscribers of Ten Guineas each." "But if there should not be a sufficient Number of Subscribers hereto according to the Inventor's Expectations, He will be ready to treat with any Person, or Persons collectively, for the sole Use of this New Method or Invention."

I never knew of any person subscribing, or of any printer practising this particular manner of printing; and I believe that Mr. Allnutt's discovery would have sunk into utter oblivion, but for a few of his Proposals, one of which is now lying before me.

CUT-IN NOTES. Side notes that are not arranged in the front margin down the side of the page, but are inserted in the text, the lines of which are shortened to admit the note, as if a piece of the text were cut out, and the note inserted in the vacancy.

CUTTING THE FRISKET. Cutting those parts of the paper away so as to allow the types to print on its own paper, and to keep the margin clean. — M.

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DANISH. The Danish alphabet consists of twenty-seven letters.

Remarks on the Alphabet.

Q, q, (Ku, pronounced coo) is here omitted, being not merely superfluous and useless, but even prejudicial to a faithful representation of the language, by observing the origin and affinity of words, for instance, Kvinde, woman, is derived from Kone, wife, bekvem, convenient, from komme, to come (Fr. venir); Kvartér, a quarter of an hour, is also called Kortér; Kvast, tuft, is originally the same word as Kóst, broom; and kvæle, suffocate, the same as the English kill. The Q is therefore justly rejected by the celebrated grammarian P. Syv, as also by the learned Prof. S. N. J. Bloch in his Danske Sproglære, Odense 1817. It is how

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ever still used by some, but always followed by v, never by u in any Danish book, as, Qvinde, beqvem, Quarter, &c.

Z, z, (Zet, pronounced sett) has crept from the German orthography into a few words, which should be written by s, according to the true pronunciation; as, Zobel, sable; Zire, to adorn; better Sobel, sire.

Å has been, till the beginning of this century, commonly represented by aa, according to the old Low German orthography, but å is found in ancient Danish and Norwegian manuscripts: it's reintroduction, proposed by the celebrated Danish grammarian Höjsgård 1743, later by Schlegel, Baden, Nyerup, Schrejber, Thonboe, &c. has, in the last decennium, been realized in about thirty separate books or pamphlets by Prof. A. Gamborg, Mr. H. J. Hansen, Mr. N. M. Petersen, and also by E. Rask, and several anonymous writers. At all events the sound is simple, and continually interchanging with other simple vowels (a, c, o,) in the inflection and derivation of words, for instance, tæller, to count, in the past tense talde or tålde, counted; gå, to go, Gang, gait, gængse, current, common; from Får, sheep, is derived Færperne, the Farroe islands. Thus even in kindred dialects; as, Vingård, vineyard; Tåre, tear, German Zähre; Måned, month, German Monath; åben, open, &c. Whereas aa is sometimes long a, sometimes even to be read in two syllables as: Haarlem, Aaron, Kanaan, Knud Danaast, the name of a Danish prince. The learner however will find aa for å in most printed books hitherto published.

Æ, like Å, represents a simple vowel sound, and must never be separated or resolved into ae, which make distinct syllables, for instance, bejae (be-ya-e), affirm.

and Ö are commonly confounded, so that is used for both sounds in books printed in the Gothic type, Ö in those in the Roman cha

racter.

There are no diphthongs in Danish, but aj, ej, oj, uj, öj, even though written by some ai, ei, oi, ui, öï, are pronounced with the open sound of the vowels and a distinct y consonant following, never like ai, ei, French oi, ui or the like, for instance, ej, not, sounds like English eye or I; Konvoj, a convoy, like the verb to convoy, &c.

In like manner av, ev, iv, ov, æv, qv are pronounced as clear vowels followed by a distinct v consonant or rather w, for the v also is softer after the vowels than at the beginning, for instance, tav, was silent; Brev, letter; stiv, stiff; Tov, cable; Ræv, fox; dov, deaf. The sound of wis particularly observable, when another consonant follows, for instance, tavs, silent; Evropa, Europe; stivne, to stiffen; hovne, to swell; Hævn, revenge; søvnig, sleepy, drowsy.

As to the division of words into syllables, j is always referred to the preceding vowel, which is in these cases constantly pronounced short and sharp, for instance, Vej-e, ways, not Ve-je. The other consonants are usually referred to the vowel following, when single; or divided between the preceding and succeeding vowel, when more than one, no care being taken to distinguish the radical parts from the accessories, but in compound words, for instance, Da-ge, days, from Dag, day, but for-ud-si-ge, foretell, from for-ud, beforehand, and sige, tell, say.

It is a great advantage in the Danish orthography, that every noun substantive is written with a capital letter at the beginning, as numbers of words, else perfectly alike, are thereby easily distinguished at the first view. Ex.

(en) Tale, a speech,

(at) tale, to speak,

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