Imágenes de páginas

He inquires of the proper person whether the furniture is to be tied up, or put into the drawers; if the latter, he assorts it side and foot sticks, gutters, broads, narrows, reglets, and scale boards, and puts each into its separate drawer; if it be to be tied up, he puts the scale board into its proper drawer, and arranges the others neatly and ties them firmly together with old page cord, and delivers them and the chases to the proper person, who may be either the overseer, or some person appointed to take care of the materials.

CLEARING PIE. To separate from each other in the confused mass, and assort the different kinds and sizes of types, and to distribute them into their respective cases; if there be a large quantity of any particular fount, or founts, it is usual to compose them into pages, and, if the letter be not wanted, to paper it up; when that fount is brought into use, a proportionate quantity of pie is given to each compositor to distribute.

This is generally the work of the apprentices during any slackness of business. A quantity of pie is placed on the imposing stone, or, if that cannot be spared for the purpose, on a letter board upon a bulk, and each fount is separated from the other; they are then composed into lines, and either distributed or papered up: although it may appear a roundabout way to compose it, it in reality saves time, as the composed matter is distributed with greater facility. In large establishments the reading boys assort pie at their leisure time.

CLEARING STONE. It is a general rule that every person shall, under a penalty, after imposing or correcting, leave a clear stone; that is, the mallet, shooting-stick, furniture, quoins, saw, sawblock, and shears, are to be put in their proper places; any good letters that may be scattered about, distributed; and the bad letters put into the shoe, so that there shall be no impediment to the next person using it. Any of the articles used, or two letters, left on it will render him liable to the fine.

CLICKER. The compositor who, in a companionship, receives the copy from the overseer or other person, gives it out to compose, receives the matter back when composed, keeps an account of what each person does, sets the head and direction lines, and the notes if any, makes up the pages, lays them down on the imposing stone, and makes out the account, apportioning to each his proper share; his own share of the bill being always equal with the highest: this refers to working on lines. In other companionships he receives the copy from the overseer, distributes it to his companions, and receives instructions how the work is to be done.

CLOSE MATTER. Matter with few breaks or whites.-M. The term is now understood of works that are not leaded. See BAD WORK. CLOSE SPACING. This term is used when only a middling space is put between words, and sometimes a thin space; for some authors will not allow words to have much space between them, but only just enough to separate them from each other, in which case a thick space is never exceeded.

CLOSE WORK. See CLOSE MATTER. CLYMER'S PRESS. Mr. George Clymer, of Philadelphia, first began to turn his attention to the improvement of the printing press in the year 1797. Having completed his object, he came to England in 1817, and introduced his improved press under the name of the Columbian Press: he established a manufactory in London, and the first press he constructed here was completed in 1818, and I believe went to Russia. It is an iron press; there is no screw; the head is a large and powerful lever, which is

acted on by other levers to which the bar is attached, and produces the pressure; the platen is attached to the head by a square bar of iron, and the descent is preserved steadily and regularly by two projecting guides, one from each cheek; the platen is raised from the form by a lever with a weight

[graphic][subsumed][ocr errors][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed]

at one end, attached to and above the head, which acts when the pull is eased and the bar flies back. The power of this press is very great, and I have not heard of any failing or breaking, which is an important fact in its favour. It ranks in the opinion of practical men, generally, as the next in estimation to the Stanhope press. The only objection I have

heard to this press, was the length that the pressmen had to reach, and the disadvantage in the pull, by the bar being attached to the off cheek; but Mr. Clymer remedied this by attaching it to the near cheek, which not only facilitates the pull, but also enables the pressman to exert his strength more advantageously and with more ease. Mr. Clymer died in 1834, but the manufactory is still continued in Finsbury Street under the firm of Clymer and Dixon. I believe the representative of Mr. Clymer is Mr. A. R. Shaw, who married one of his daughters.

COCK-UP LETTER. It is not unusual to begin a work, and the divisions of it, as Parts, or Books, with the first word set in capitals, and the first letter a larger capital, justified to range at the foot with the others, and bearing about the same proportion to them that capitals bear to their own small capitals; whatever proportion there may be between the first letter and the other part of the word, if it be justified to range at the foot, it is styled a Cock-up Letter.

COFFIN. That part of a wooden press, in which the stone is bedded. Type Founders usually send small quantities of sorts in brown paper made into a cone, and twisted at the small end, similar in shape to what grocers use for small articles; where there are no fount cases, or where they are full, compositors do the same with superfluous sorts; these conical papers are called Coffins.

The frame and bottom of a slice galley, into which the slice slides, is also called the coffin. See GALLEY.

COGGER'S PRESS. The cheeks of this press are of wrought iron, the head is of cast iron, very strong, and secured in its place by screws and nuts, and appears sufficient to bear the greatest power that can be applied in the ordinary process of printing, without injury. The pressure is obtained by a spindle with a screw working in the head, and at the bottom of it is a collar in which are fixed two studs of case-hardened iron with convex faces, which act upon two inclined planes of unequal degree of inclination; so that, when the platen first begins to descend, the descent is quick, but as the platen reaches the point of pressure, the velocity is diminished and the power proportionably increased, till arriving at a part of the plane nearly horizontal, and the levers taking the most advantageous positions, the highest degree of pressure is obtained. The inclined planes are of hard steel, dovetailed in the bottom of a circular brass box resting on the centre of the top of the platen; it contains oil, so that the studs dip into it every pull. The power is obtained by the bar being attached to a multiplied cross arm lever. Should the inclined planes break, or be injured, they can easily be taken out and replaced with new ones.

COLLATE. To examine the signatures in each gathering, to see that they are right and perfect. Moxon styles it Collation Books.

The person who has to collate, (generally the Warehouseman, as he is answerable for the correctness of the delivery of books,) takes a heap of a gathering and places the first or signature page uppermost, towards his right hand, and with the point of sharp bodkin, or a penknife, picks up the corner of each sheet, in order to see that each signature is right, passing his thumb under them as they rise, to keep what he examines separate from the heap, and thus proceeds till he has examined one gathering; he then slips this gathering a little back on the heap, and proceeds with another, till he has gone through eight or ten, which he turns over to his left hand upon the table, where they are ready to fold; and he thus proceeds till he has collated a sufficient number for his delivery, or the whole number of the work, as the case may require.

In the course of his progress he will find some sheets laid the wrong way, these he puts right; in some cases the boys will have taken two sheets of the same signature up, he takes one of these out; in other cases, there may be duplicate signatures, and the right one in order wanting; he calls out to the gathering boys to give him the right sheet, and draws out the duplicate as before, and sometimes a signature is wanting, which he also calls for. In these cases the wrong sheets that are taken out of the gathering are called Drawn Sheets, and are laid down on their respective heaps, to be re-gathered.

Although not customary, I have known a warehouseman use neither a bodkin nor a penknife, but slip up the corner of the sheet with the end of his forefinger, in order to examine the signatures: any one who adopts this practice should be particularly careful to have clean fingers, or he will soil the corners of many sheets, and disfigure his work.


COLOURS. In Hayter's "Introduction to Perspective Drawing and Painting," is a diagram of the three primitive colours, with their combinations, which show the best contrasts. He says, this is highly useful for a painter to understand: and I think it is highly useful for a printer also to understand; for it will enable him to make the best disposition of colours in printing so as always to produce a superior effect to what could be done without the guidance of a correct principle. I shall give the passage.

"You may try another experiment in proof of the primitive superiority of red, yellow, and blue, over all other colours. First draw a circle; then, with the same opening of the compasses, set one foot on the circumferent line, and draw a second circle; and again, with one foot of the compasses on the point where the two circles bisect, draw a third; cover one whole circle with yellow, another with red, and another with blue (letting each dry before you lay the next); the colours intermixing by the

equilateral intersection of the three circles, will produce green, orange, and purple; and the central portion, taking all the three colours, will be neutral of the black class, and nearly black, according to the strength of the three separate lays of the primitive colours. By this diagram you will have a certain proof of the colours which are most adapted to oppose each other, from which the knowledge of their harmonizing properties may be derived. You will find a primitive colour always opposite to a compound one; as, BLUE will be opposite orange, RED opposite green, and YELLOW opposite purple; which must determine them to be the natural opposites: this is highly useful for a painter to understand." COLUMBIAN PRESS. See CLYMER'S PRESS.

COMB WOOL. The same as Card Wool, which see.

COME DOWN. The toe of the spindle is said to come down by pulling the bar: so is the bar when it is pulled near the hither cheek: also, the Pressman is said to come down the form with his balls.-M.

COME DOWN THE FORM. Beating from the off side to the near side of the form is termed Coming down the form.

COMES OFF. A form that receives a good impression, Comes off well, if a bad impression, it Comes off ill, or it Comes not well off. Also a phrase used in gathering of books; for a heap that is gathered off is said to come off.



COMMON PRAYER. For the allowance of the duty on paper used in the printing of Books of Common Prayer, see PAPER.


COMPANION. Two pressmen working at the same press call one another Companions.-M. Two or more compositors employed on the same piece of work also call each other Companions. Both parties frequently abbreviate the word, and call each other Comp.

COMPANIONSHIP. When more than one compositor is employed upon any work it is styled a companionship.

There are different ways of working in companionships: one is, for each to work on his own account, to write his own bill, charging what he has done, and correct his own matter. At other times all the individuals work is charged and received in gross in the name of the companionship, and the division into the respective earning of each is made by the clicker.

In this case, to prevent unfairness, arising from any of the companions taking an undue advantage over the others, the copy should be strictly kept from their inspection, and a stated quantity invariably given out for each when any of them are out of copy, and not before; by this means each of them will have an equal chance for any fat that may occur. have found in practice this method to be the fairest for all the individuals.


Another method is working on time or in pocket, where each individual exerts himself to further the work in any way that appears to the clicker the best, either composing or correcting, as the case requires. In this form of companionship the whole of what is done is written in one bill, and equally divided among the companions, provided they have been punctual in their attendance, and have not taken more than the prescribed time for their meals, &c. ; otherwise they are subject to fines for infraction of the rules agreed to for their guidance.

As it often happens that a work is required to be printed with the greatest possible despatch, the plan of working upon Lines is frequently adopted, which is found in practice to be the most expeditious method of facilitating the work at case.

As soon as a work that requires despatch is put in hand, the overseer selects such men as are able to complete a great quantity of work in a given time, and appoints one of them who thoroughly understands his business, and is in other respects qualified, to undertake the management of the work, and to do every thing which would interfere with the regular business of distributing, composing and correcting. This person is styled the clicker.

While the companionship proceeds to the distribution of letter, the clicker applies to the overseer for the copy, receives instructions respecting it, and procures leads and every other necessary sort. He then draws out a table in the following form, or something similar.

In the first column he sets down the name of each compositor when he takes copy; and in the second the folio of the copy, that he may be able to ascertain instantly in whose hands it lies. In the third column he notes down the number of lines each man has composed opposite to his name, as fast as the galleys are brought to him. In the fourth he

« AnteriorContinuar »