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fingers. He is a powerful, handsome man four thousand men, women, and some leaning over a little painted lady who children. They go in at five o'clock and whispers to him and gazes at his left hand after getting a bowl of soup are locked up like a bird fascinated by a serpent's eyes. in the dormitories until six next morning, The man's fingers glitter with points of when they are turned into the streets again light. There are seven rings on three to find work if they can—which they can't. fingers, with large lustrous diamonds. I stood at the door of these dormitories, Down the winding

with the director of the passage between the

Nacht Asyl, who was a crowded tea-tables

man with a good brain comes a line of manne

and a big heart. Each quins, each girl moving

of those long bare rooms in a rhythmic way, with

was lined with rows of extended arms. They

iron bedsteads without are wearing furs, mar

mattresses or blankets. velous and magnificent

No need of blankets befurs, brought from Rus

cause of central heating. sia, I suppose, and

The rooms were overworth something like

warm-suffocating. their weight in gold. In

The smell of human a little room beyond the

bodies and of damp, tea lounge, up a flight of

steaming clothes, made stairs, good business is

an atmosphere which being done. “You must

struck me in the face buy me a coat like that,

and turned me sick. says the little painted

Not a window open to lady to the man with

let out the foul vapors. the diamond rings. He

The men lay on their fingers one of the fur

beds, or sat talking in

UNCHANGED coats, smiling at the girl

groups. As I stood in inside it. "How much?" The peace and beauty of Berlin's gardens

the doorways they In American money it

and pleasances remain unchanged amid the
molten forces of revolution and repub-

stared at me, wondering is five hundred dollars. licanism. Like the class of rich Germans what I wanted. Many In the Adlon Hotel who have prospered during the last six

of them were young men lean years, they are untouched by the life is very costly, and general condition of want and suffering. -boys-with good faces it is crowded by people

and thoughtful eyes; who are not frightened by its cost. Here just the type of lad I had seen in thouare wealth, luxury, beauty, splendor. The sands in Flanders and the Somme country English do not stay at the Adlon now. in time of war. Others were bearded The prices have scared them away. men, emaciated, haggard, hollow-eyed.

"Who are they?" I asked the director. WHERE MISERY STALKS

"From what class do they come?” HAT is one end of life in Berlin. He told me outside the door, which he

Here is another. It is at the north locked again. They belonged to every end of the city, in the poor quarters, where class-university students, old professors, there is an immense block of buildings of doctors, lawyers, clerks, mechanics, lasolid stone, with many windows, like a borers, poets, artists, thieves, and aristohospital. It is called the Nacht Asyl or crats. Aristocrats? Yes, now and then. Night Asylum, supported by the City of Some time ago they had had a “Freiherr," Berlin for homeless and workless people. whom we should call a nobleman. He I went there at six o'clock one evening was also a thief, and beyond help. Others and the building had already been filled were honest-caught between the wheels for an hour by a population of nearly of life. Out of work through no fault of


T the

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their own. Just unlucky in a cruel world. value paid to English laborers of the same

. . The young lads were most to be pitied. class. An unskilled laborer gets about

. The director did his best to help them, five marks a day. So did the elevator kept them separate, as far as possible, boy in my hotel. My midday meal in a

, from the bad crowd.

second class restaurant cost me 6.50 I went to room after room, each with marks—for soup, meat, cheese, and coffee. two or three hundred bed-fellows, each On five marks a day I should have starved

stifling in that dank, foul warmth, each to death in Germany. Somehow the crowded with misery, disease, despair. German laborer lives on it, but it is his In one long room were family groups, secret, and he doesn't get fat. men, women, and children sleeping to- In Berlin and other big cities rent is a gether. They were Poles who in summer heavy item for working families. They time work in the fields. In other rooms crowd into cellars, damp and without were the women-poor old hags, combing light. You can look into them through their hair, young girls derelict in a great the gratings below Fruchtstrasse and city. Then rooms full of babies born into Blumenstrasse, on the east side of Berlin. tragic life, out of tragedy.

It's not good for the children, who get I did not see the worst rooms of all, tuberculosis like many little sufferers 1 where disease-stricken girls taken off the saw in an open air school, where even in streets weep and tear their clothes and winter time they learn their lessons with cry out in hysteria. I would not go there. the cold mist about them, and get dosed

It is well organized, this Nacht Asyl. with ultra-violet rays between their classes. The kitchens are splendid, and I tasted The out-of-work dole in Germany is the soup which is given as an evening not generous and it lasts only for twentymeal to all who come. Like gruel, and six weeks of the year. I met two young quite good, but not very satisfying to brothers whose father had been killed in hungry stomachs, without bread. There

the War and whose mother had died. are baths for those who wish to wash, and The older brother was still wearing his furnaces for verminous clothes—as most old green tunic of war-time--six years of them are and to a terrible and shocking after the Armistice. He had been out of degree.

work for five months, and was getting Into this shelter for homeless folk comes 6.90 marks a week. He looked like it.

. every night a population of poor wretches The younger brother was getting 6 marks who have nothing between them and

a week as an orphan. Their faces had a death but a bowl of soup and this house of

putty look and there were red rims round pity. It is the other end from the Adlon

their eyes. They were “Orphans of the Hotel.

Storm” of Germany to-day.

The German workmen, especially in the AMONG THE WORKERS

factories, complain bitterly of the long

hours they have to work for wages not average of German life, through sufficient to maintain their physical many grades of hard-working poverty, strength. In the Ruhr many of them are decent respectability, comfortable home working eleven or twelve hours and some life, fair prosperity, without much margin as long as fourteen hours a day. In for luxury, often without quite enough Dortmund the furnace workers are emfor proper nourishment. The working ployed for twelve hours in exhausting classes in Berlin and other great cities are conditions. I heard of one case in Berlin enormously better off now than in the where a man had to work nine hours a time of inflation. At least they are paid day for a wage of 15 marks a week and, real money which does not lose its value going to the only lodging he could find, , before they turn it into food and clothes. had to spend two hours in a tramcar in But they are not high wages. I reckon order to get to his job. Then two hours they are a little more than half the wage

back again.




There is a rapid increase of child em The middle classes of Germany are ployment in the factories and mines, in making both ends meet. The revival of order to supplement the wages of the trade is helping them. But they were parents. The whole of German industry hardest hit by the period of bad money, is based on sweated labor, and yet, owing and the professional classes especially to the present scarcity of capital and bad have not yet recovered from that robbery conditions of trade, prices, both of food of their savings and investments. The and manufactured articles, remain very Civil Service is miserably underpaid. high.

Here is a family budget I obtained from

an average family. It reveals, more than BERLIN BEHIND PARIS

many words, the actual state of affairs in NE need not be astonished that the thousands, perhaps millions, of German

birth rate in Germany is not as high households. It is the budget of a small as it used to be. The French will be glad government official with his wife, two of that. Berlin, always lower than the boys, and a mother-in-law who lost all rest of Germany, has dropped from 20 her savings in the inflation period. The per thousand to 9. It has the lowest monthly salary of the head of the family birth rate of any capital in Europe, not is 348 marks. This is how his expenses excepting Paris. I went around some of work out: the schools with a lady doctor who, at my

Physician and dentist

6 marks request, asked many of the children how

Contribution for professional ormany brothers and sisters they had. The

ganization answer came from each child, smartly, Clothing for father

15 with a look of amusement, as much as to Clothing for mother (no allowance) say: What queer questions grown-up Clothing for boys .

43 people ask!

For back payments “Two!

Tickets “One!


15 “None!”

Light and gas

3 The average seemed to be one, and I


54 was surprised. It reveals a good deal

Postage .

3 about the cost of life in Berlin. Big

Insurance families are going out of fashion among Taxes the working folk.


8 But the German hausfrau, even in the Household (food, etc.)

172 working classes, keeps her children neat Books

3 and clean. Last year I went with a boat Miscellaneous

14 load of German children to a little island

TOTAL in the Wannsee. It was a school treat in the working quarters. They were It will be seen that there is a deficit of like fairy-tale children, with their flaxen 57 marks. This must be made up by odd hair and blue eyes, and one would not jobs from the various members of the have guessed the poverty of their homes. family, such as needlework by the two In the English slums there are rags and women and occasional errands by the tatters. Nor did I see any sign of star- boys. vation or misery, when I went around the It is from the sons of this class of small schools of Berlin a few weeks ago. The official, civil service clerk, doctor, lawyer, children stripped for a medical examina- and literary man, that the universities, tion. Some of them were undersized for and especially Berlin University, receive their age, but on the whole they looked most of their students. After the family healthy. Somehow, on the miserable budget I have given as a typical example, wages of their parents they get enough to it will be easily seen that in Germany toeat now.

day many students—the majority-do not









405 marks

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receive luxurious allowances from their actual learning these German students parents. On the contrary, the largest would be contemptuous of our own. number are rather poverty-stricken, and There is only one reason for university some of them would starve were it not life amongst most of them, and for the for a good deal of help they receive from acquisition of knowledge they “eschew well-to-do people who have established delight and live laborious days.” cheap feeding centers.

During the time of inflation many forIt must be counted unto the late Hugo eigners went to the University of Berlin, Stinnes for righteousness (and he may which then comprised more than 14,000 need it) that he subsidized a system of students. They took advantage of the free meals for needy students in his group exchange in foreign currencies. Now, of hotels, including the magnificent after the stabilization of the mark, these Esplanade, in Berlin. In many cases, Poles, Czechs, and Austrians have fled, however, it is seen that the pride of the and the number of students has been restudents makes them hesitate to line up duced to about 7,000. for this cheap food which, after all, is a

A CLASS THAT PROSPERS humiliating form of charity to young


sional classes, the small officials, STUDENTS IN RAGS

and the clerical class, who just scrape GOT into touch with some of these Ger- along with extreme difficulty, is the shop

man students and found them ex- keeping, merchant, and industrial class, tremely intelligent and very friendly. I who seem to be doing rather well, and went to one of their lectures and was more here and there extremely well. They interested in the audience than in the form the well-to-do bourgeoisie of the lecture, though it was not at all dull. It great cities. A good many of them are was attended by a mixed class of young the “new rich” who came up in the time of men and women. Most of them were so inflation by lucky gambling with foreign poorly and shabbily dressed that it was exchange, and by acquiring businesses impossible to imagine them in an English and plants for very little money in a deor an American university. The sleeves preciated currency. At the present time of their jackets were frayed, their trousers they seem to have plenty to spend, and looked as if they had slept in them, and I they spend it freely, having lost the old pitied the girls especially because of their spirit of thrift which used to be the trapoor worn garments without a touch of dition of their class. finery, or any little sign of girlish vanity. One has only to go into restaurants like

It was the same when I found my way Kempinsky's in the Leipsigerstrasse to an old barracks behind the slummy end an enormous eating-house of bourgeois of the Friedrichstrasse, where, in one of reputation—to see that normal times have the long, bare rooms the students have returned in Germany for at least a solid their “mensa,” or mid-day meal, which block of the nation. Floor after floor is costs them a little less than a mark. The crowded with middle-class men and lucky young men of Oxford and Cam- women, eating largely, drinking good bridge, Harvard and Yale, would have wine or beer, enjoying the food, the little in common with young German men lights, the music, the heavy decorations, and women who came hurrying in to get without anxiety about the cost, which is their bowls of soup and plates of meat. higher than in London or Paris. In Among the whole crowd of them I doubt Düsseldorf, Cologne, Bonn, and in many if there was one who had any margin of other German cities, there is this fairly money for the little comforts and graces prosperous middle-class, determined upon which give charm to university life in having a good time after the lean years, more fortunate countries. nd yet I and having it. have not the slightest doubt that in I do not blame them. They have had

a narrow escape from black ruin. I do rank, but formerly the most comfortable, not blame those crowds of tourists who the most leisured, the most secure and throng into Genoa, Venice, and other conservative class in the nation. pleasure cities of the south, enjoying I went to the house of one such family themselves rather noisily, like most tour not long ago, and I think it was typical ists, eating and drinking rather elabo- of many others. The husband had been rately. For years, during the war and

the governor of a provincial state. The after the war, they were shut up in their wife had had an estate in Russia in the own frontiers. The blockade kept them time of the Czarist régime and had been prisoners on "ersatz" food, which was the lady bountiful of her district when filth. During the time of inflation their she stayed there with her own family. money was worthless out

They had traveled all side of their own country.

over Europe, collecting Now they feel a desperate

many treasures of art, need of escape. If they have

and establishing friendmoney they want to spend

ship with the most culit, to grab at joys and liber

tured and intellectual ties long denied them.

people of many nations, One wishes only that there

including France. They were more equality in Ger

were patrons of art and many as well as in other

letters, and international


IN BERLIN A city of magnificent monuments and structures, Berlin combines the extremes of wealth and poverty. Beneath the surface of everyday life, however, there is being waged a bitter fight by many families for life

and bread. The foreigner sees only the glitter.

countries, less profiteering at the expense in spirit and opinions—which is rare among of underpaid labor and all that mass of Germans of their class and tradition. hard-working folk who have to scrape and Now, when I met them they had lost all, stint in little households where the wolf or nearly all, of their fortune. They could still stands at the door.

not afford to travel abroad. They could There is one class in German life hard keep in touch with the outside world only hit by recent history and uncertain of its by gifts of books from old friends. They future. They had no genius for high were helping to organize a home for underfinance and could not profit like the nourished children from industrial towns "Valuta hounds" when there was gamb- of Germany, and lived next door, with ling in paper marks. They put their in some of the relics of their former state in herited wealth into government securi- their private rooms—a bust by Rodin, ties which were wiped out, or bought some eighteenth-century miniatures of the industrial shares which, at present any- husband's ancestors, several good pichow, are paying no dividends. They are tures.

Not a tragedy, compared the old aristocracy and country gentry of with the Nacht Asyl, perhaps, but just a Germany, not enormously exalted in little revelation of the changed state in

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