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after office hours that he suffered a ner of one of these big panels. On the basis vous breakdown. When he recovered of the scientific knowledge of the period from that illness the business depression and animals to be portrayed several attending the panic of 1893 was felt, and sketches are made as the first step in one of the first to be affected was the the work. Dr. Henry Fairfield Osborn, stained glass window business.

president of the museum, and other scienForced to do other work, he tried his tists of the museum staff give the benefit hand at drawing and magazine illustrat- of their wide scientific knowledge during

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Courtesy of the American Museum of Natural History
A WOOLLY MAMMOTY OF PREHISTORIC TIMES
From a picture made by Mr. Knight for the American Museum of Natural History. He says that in re-
creating these extinct beasts he is merely looking backward on evolution, and to be able to restore this

animal he had to know the modern species, the elephant.

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ing, and he sold one of his first drawings the stages of polishing and revising the to S. S. McClure, who was just then sketches, and only when the final sketches starting McClure's Magazine. A few are made is work started on the big panel. years later he started drawing his prehis By that time four fifths of the work has toric animals, some as magazine illus been done. There remains only the trations and others for the American transfer of the smaller drawing to the Museum of Natural History. Some of the vast panel. If that is made in two or walls of the American Museum of Natural more pieces the artist has the vexatious History are literally covered with these problem of blending the colors and in small paintings and drawings of prehis- making the parts fit.

making the parts fit. Several of these toric animals, varying from the small pictures have been reproduced in the drawings of thirty years ago to the new World's Work in other issues. murals fifty feet long and ten feet high. His study of the prehistoric animals Some of the new dinosaur and other led him to study prehistoric man, and paintings in the new halls of the Museum one of his artistic works is the restoration will be even larger.

of the Neanderthal man in conformance Months are required for the painting with the measurement of the bones dis

504

A Permanent Record of Prehistoric Animals

covered by the scientists. Telling of this the world, and it is not probable that they work, he points out the scientific fact that will be removed unless scientists suddenly every man, every canine of the smallest discover some vast store of new knowledge size, and the tallest giraffe have various that would alter the entire present-day common principles of body construction conception of the animals of past ages. For instance, giraffe, man, and dog have In addition, he has done much work for the same number of vertebræ in the neck the United States Government and the -seven.

Carnegie Institution. At fifty, he has still It is likely that Mr. Knight will be con- many more years of work ahead of him. sidered by future generations as one of the One of the most remarkable facts outstanding artists of our time. He about him is that he has done all this work has more square feet of canvas and a with eyes not particularly good. In fact, larger number of pictures in the American one eye was badly injured while he was a Museum of Natural History than any child and it is not of much use to him in other artist has in any other museum in his work as an artist.

Charles R. Knight
A FLORIDA ALLIGATOR

A drawing from life.

Walter S. Gifford, Executive
A Young Man Who Is Quiet and Non-Explosive

T

RIVIAL incidents are frequently "Well, yes,” replied Mr. Gifford, pleas-
more revealing of the true ele- antly but dubiously.
ments of character or personality The speaker then launched into his

than studied, deliberate confes- conversation about business which was sions. Therefore, one insignificant incident not handled in the office of the executive may tell more of the real character and vice-president of the world's largest public personality of Walter S. Gifford than the utility, but in the office of another official reams written about him since he became of similar name. President of the American Telephone and Patiently the executive listened until a Telegraph Company at the early age of convenient break in the conversation arforty.

rived, and then he "flashed" the operator On a torrid summer day during a hot and helped his perturbed caller to find the spell that had frayed the nerves of a city's man he wanted. Pleasantly and quietly millions the telephone in Mr. Gifford's accomplished! not-too-cool office rang sharply--not in Again in a few minutes the bell rang inthat steady drone that does not alarm, sistently. The same not-too-pleasant but in that nervous, jerky fashion which voice of the not-too-cool caller, finished spells trouble. (This being a sketch of a with his first piece of business, was back telephone man those fine points can be with another, and making the same misnoted):

take in names. "Hello, Mr. ?” queried a not-too- Then a steady, unbreakable drone of pleasant voice, slurring the name of the details on business that could not have man he sought.

been interesting to the executive vice

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506

From Clerk's Desk to the Presidency

president of a corporation with the mani- need not be written in volumes. What fold, brain-torturing problems arising out seemed unusual to the caller, who inof a few hundred thousand miles of wire, quired the name of the helpful man, was 340,000 employees, and 16,000,000 sub- only Mr. Gifford's usual method. It was scribers, to say nothing of a couple of bil- that quiet, discerning manner that won lion dollars in assets.

Theodore N. Vail, who, while head of It was a hot day, too.

But this young

the corporation, frequently called upon man in the not-too-cool office did not Gifford for figures which, when produced, explosively demand

sometimes altered why he was annoyed

the entire policy a second time with THE YOUNG MAN'S DAY? of the company. the same mistake.

For Gifford is of Two schools of philosophy have generalized With a quiet laugh in recent years upon the young man's chances of

the new school of he explained the success in business, politics, art, literature, and business. He cre

science. similarity of the

ated for the teleOne school contends that this is a "young names, as if it were man's world," that all fields seek youth and reject

phone company a good joke, and age, and that the pace of modern life quickly that system of ac

eliminates the man of years. helped his puzzled Another school contends that modern life in

counting and staand not - too - cool all its branches has become so complex and

tistics now so essencaller back to the specialized that the chances of an early success

tial to every busiswitchboard, and

are diminished They cite the usual examples
-Hannibal, Clive, Napoleon, the younger Pitt,

ness, a system thence to his man. Alexander Hamilton.

substituting accuNor did he call Yet, it would seem that there is just as much

rate charts of busichance of early success now as in other ages and his switchboard op- generations, and while general conditions may

ness knowledge for erator back then have their effects, the man himself has much to groping and guessand ask her what in do with his own success, or lack of it. A few

work. He innoexamples: the name of the Walter S. Gifford, the subject of this sketch,

vated the idea great, extended tel- is President of the American Telephone and Tele- of selling bond

graph Company at 40. ephone wires of the Owen D. Young was Chairman of the Board of

issues to subscripuniverse she meant the General Electric Company at 43.

ers, thereby creatin twice ringing in

S. Parker Gilbert was Assistant Secretary of the Treasury at 27.

ing good will. the same not-too

Eugene O'Neill was winning Pulitzer prizes So, his figures and cool mistake on the with his plays when he was 30, and many other his philosophy of wire of the execuyoung men and women have had similar successes

being helpful to all, in art and literature. tive vice-president A long list of forty-year-old bank presidents

from his superior —who was slated

and financiers could be made up. But so, too, officers toa not-too

could a long list of men of years be compiled, to be president--of headed by the name of E. H. Gary, chairman of

cool, not-too-pleasthe world's greatest the United States Steel Corporation, Andrew ant telephone caller, public utility. It W. Mellon, Secretary of the Treasury, and have carried him, at

George F. Baker, who, at 85, is still Chairman of was a hot day; the Board of the First National Bank of New

what is now considsomebody had to York, and one of the country's active financiers. ered a tender age in be cool, however. It does not seem particularly a young man's

the business world, world or, in view of the more and more active In those few sec- part taken by the women, a man's world at all. to the presidency of onds of fleeting time

the world's largest this non-explosive

public utility. gentleman had flung his friendly voice Twenty years

ago a lad who had over miles of blistering wire, into a finished his Harvard course in three years, sweltering telephone booth, ar.d had taking a clerical job with the Western turned a hot, tired, irritable human Electric Company; now head of the telebeing into a friend. He soon firgot it, phone business, not only because of abilibut his new friend did not, which is the ties and qualities, but also because of a way of such friendships.

personality, which, though dynamic, is And that is the story of Gifford. It also non-explosive.

III.

ST. LOUIS--THE DRY SOUTH-WASHINGTON

BY ROLLIN LYNDE HARTT

A

FIGHTING anti-prohibi- classes-the politicians, the doctors, the
tionist, Mr. James C. Espey, druggists, the bootleggers, and the Prot-
came to luncheon with me in estant clergy."
St. Louis and told of a thrill Speaking of the doctors' affection for

he had enjoyed while local the Volstead Act, he said: “This is the secretary of the Association Against the first law that has ever underwritten a Prohibition Amendment. As narrated profession. A young doctor is sure of before a House committee at Washington $1,200 a year from his prescription and recorded in a Federal document, the business, and there are young doctors story runs thus:

in St. Louis who do nothing but write

prescriptions; they hang around poolOur Association found a drugstore in St.

rooms looking for customers. Louis which was selling a good deal of booze

“How can the manufacture of liquor and narcotics and was doing a good deal of

be stopped when it is so easy? You can harm. We therefore appealed to the local prohibition enforcement officers. We got

take an ordinary coffee percolator, attach no help. We then appealed to the Attorney

a rubber tube, and behold! the apparatus General of Missouri. He lent us some de

will produce pure alcohol. tectives. One of them went into that drug “Think how we used to fear the Federal store and stayed for some time, and then

Government! It could take away our later they pretended that they wanted to buy sugar or make us endure heatless Monthe place, so that they might get some in- days and we were afraid to rebel. Since formation for the law-enforcing officers, and prohibition, who is there who really they got an option on the place. They found

stands in awe of the Federal Governthat the bootleg stuff and the narcotics were

ment?” being sold by the head of the Anti-Saloon League of Missouri, and he is the man that

As we were finishing our luncheon, I gave the option on the property, and he had

asked why I had seen no drunkenness in to run away to avoid prosecution.

St. Louis. “Because you haven't been

down in Market Street," he answered. The Anti-Saloon League has vindicated But I had, and now I told him so, adding, itself by installing as his successor a "All the way from the Atlantic seaboard clergyman, the Rev. Dr. H. H. Post, but to Kansas and then here, I have been Mr. Espey mentioned certain oddities counting drunken men. They haven't of prohibition that cannot be so readily averaged one a day, even in the roughest discounted.

parts of big cities. I haven't seen “In the main,” he said, “prohibition drunken men in trains. Before prohibienforcement is entrusted to the same tion every smoking car seemed to have police officials who were unable or unwill the same drunken man in a back seat, ing to enforce the liquor laws which it singing. He is gone." supplanted. If they failed to enforce "Come down to Market Street right mild laws, how can we expect them to now," he replied, "and I'll show you enforce this drastic law? When you some." So we prowled all though that agitate for a modification of this drastic street of “flop-houses,” labor agencies, and law, you are opposed by five whole grogshops. Turning back, we tramped

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