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Sectional Control in American Government


which, among other things, frames tariff his post in the same way as the Dean of bills; that Senator Warren, of Wyoming, the Diplomatic Corps—by length of one of the least affluent and least populous service. Occasionally a revolution may commonwealths, should lead the com- take place, such as the fight made on mittee that handles appropriation bills, Senator Cummins by the radicals, but these facts may seem somewhat incon- that is so exceptional that it does not gruous to the rich communities of the affect the general rule. Some day reason Atlantic region, though probably the may control committee chairmanships, states so honored see nothing strange or and men may be selected because of unfitting in the new dispensation. Only fitness; until that time comes, however, two important Senate chairmanships are these important positions will be of no held by Easterners, Military Affairs consequence in estimating the regional (Wadsworth of New York) and Naval shiftings of political power. Affairs (Hale of Maine), while the only Southern state that bulks large is South A Plan to Keep Out Illegal Carolina, whose Senator, Smith, is Chair

Immigrants man of the Committee on Interstate Commerce.

YEAR'S experiment with the new There is no significance in this last immigration law has sufficiently appointment, for South Carolina owes

called attention to one of its its present importance chiefly to the defects. So long as immigrants land at activities of Senator La Follette and his the regular stations, from steamships, Senatorial sympathizers, who brought there is little difficulty in keeping out about his selection in order to forestall the illegal aliens. In the matter of the Cananatural choice-Senator Cummins of dian border there is not much trouble, Iowa. But there is little more significance for the Canadian laws are fairly restricin the chairmanships that superficially tive and admit few immigrants that would indicate a shifting of political power to

be excluded from the United States. the great region west of the Mississippi Doubtless there is some smuggling across River. Under the Wilson Administra- the Canadian line, and there may be a tion, most of the great chairmanships developing industry in “immigrant runwere occupied by Senators from the ning" fleets along the Atlantic and the Southern states, hence the cry generally Pacific, but the great problem is the raised that "the South is in the saddle." Mexican boundary. But the South owed this preëminence This is a stretch of more than a thouto two circumstances: the administration sand miles which is almost impossible was Democratic, and the South had to patrol. Thousands of Mexicans cross developed the habit of reëlecting its every year whom the immigration laws Senators.

would exclude, for very few could pass the Nor does this present situation mean literacy test—with the result that slums that the “West is in the saddle” in the of Mexican peons are developing in most sense that the West, because of its greater cities west of the Mississippi River. It statesmanship or political skill, has suc- is the belief of the immigration authorities ceeded in absorbing undue power. So that large numbers of prohibited Eurolong as the seniority rule prevails in the peans find their way into this country by promotion to chairmanships, the particu- the same route. Cuba forms a convenlar persons who hold them mean nothing ient half-way station for this kind of except that the man who lives longest, "bootlegging" as it does for violations and is most regularly reëlected, will of the Eighteenth Amendment. ultimately rise to supreme position. It is difficult, some authorities say Talent has nothing to do with committee impossible, to stop this illegal traffic by chairmanships, either in the lower or ordinary methods—inspection, patrol, upper chamber. The chairman obtains and the like. Yet, until it is stopped, the

immigration question can hardly be re- to the "humanities" as the chief essentials garded as well in hand. For this reason, to the completely rounded and cultivated sentiment is rapidly focussing upon the American, and inevitably the episode of one effective and comparatively simple the two Bakers at Harvard has started manner of checking the evil: by the reg- the discussion of the question anew. istration of all aliens.

But the two proceedings are entirely Americans who travel in foreign coun- unrelated. Whether a great educational tries will understand what this means. institution wishes to maintain a school Practically all Europe registers its alien of dramatic writing as part of its academic residents, merely as a precaution for work is a question that it can presumthe public safety. The more easy-going ably decide on its merits. Journalists United States neglects to do so, even are not unanimous in regarding schools of when it has a more compelling reason journalism as unqualifiedly successful than any European country. If every in turningout journalists, and a university alien were required to appear at regular may abandon such work as instruction in intervals, explain his reason for being in play-writing without necessarily surthis country, and prove his right to rendering its heritage of intellect and the American residence, the business of smug- arts. Similarly, it is not entirely clear gling immigrants would soon come to an that a separate school, devoted to teachend. Representative Aswell has intro- ing the principles and practice of modern duced a bill providing for such registra- business, is an abandonment of the purtion. It will probably be opposed by poses for which a university exists. That the forces that invariably unite against purpose is to enrich American life and all attempts to improve the quality of make its contribution to promoting welour citizenship, but it should receive the fare on democratic lines. serious attention of Congress.

A university that includes modern

business within its scope might properly Commercialization" of the be regarded as widening rather than American University

narrowing its activities. It indicates at

least that it is marching with its age and WO coincident happenings have placing itself immediately in touch with

brought upon Harvard University the largest concerns that make up the | the criticism of many of her most fabric known as civilization. In the devoted sons. Mr. George F. Baker, the Middle Ages, the chief concern of the great New York banker and capitalist, university was the church and religion; has given the University $5,000,000 for as late as the seventeenth century Yale the endowment of the School of Business and Harvard were established largely for Administration. On the other hand, the purpose of training clergymen-in Professor George P. Baker, for many its way almost as “practical" an end as years the successful conductor of a course the development of business men. The in the drama and dramatic writing, has organization of schools of medicine and resigned from the faculty, to accept a law, to say nothing of engineering deprofessorship in his chosen subject at partments, was also a concession to the

, Yale, which has obtained a fund of useful, as distinguished from the purely $1,000,000 as an endowment for his work. intellectual and cultural.” The purpose

“ Here the lovers of contrast have two of these schools is to teach men definite George Bakers-one a great capitalist, trades, by which they may earn a livingthe other a man who has devoted his life sometimes a very good one-and incito the arts! The commercialization of dentally serve society. Their existence American education, the disappearance causes no cry of “commercialization." of the classics as required subjects, and But "business" also is an important the dominance of utilitarianism are element in American life. favorite themes with those who still cling Whether the university can appropri

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A Living Phrase from Tammany

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ately include this in its efforts depends It was an electric flash of literary genius entirely upon the practical question because it enshrined in two fine old Anglowhether it can be taught. If the univer- Saxon words a phase of American munisity can train business executives as it cipal politics for which more scholarly trains preachers, lawyers, and physicians writers had long sought a name and a and surgeons, there is every reason why description. “Graft,” a word borrowed it should do so.

from the argot of thieves, for decades used The fact of the matter is, of course, by them as a synonym for loot, had lately that Harvard College, as well as Yale been popularized by Josiah Flint's book College and Princeton College, hold their “The World of Graft,” a classic descripold place as the foundation of the univer- tion of the achievements and lives of sity structure, that they grow year by pickpockets and burglars. This word, year in resources, material and spiritual, after the publication of Flint's book, was that their main purpose is general educa- taken over by political writers to describe tion, and that four years in the "arts" the sordid profits certain thrifty gentleis a desirable, almost an essential preparaa

men derived from political activity. It tion to that specialized training which the was an appropriate adaptation, but technical schools provide theology, law, Plunkitt resented it as applied to his own medicine, and now business. Why should winnings in the great municipal game. not“ business men” have the foundation He had made a fortune as a Tammany of a liberal education, like doctors and district leader—that he did not denylawyers?

but not through graft!

When a man exacts tribute from gamThe Great Prophet of “Honest Graft” blers, saloon-keepers, street walkers, and

the like for the privilege of breaking the HE immortality that will attach law, or dips his fingers in the municipal to the name of George Washington till—that, said this namesake of George

Plunkitt, the latest of the old Washington, was “graft.” Not that sort time Tammany leaders to depart for the of thing for him! But suppose that the eternal wigwam, promises to be far city is going to build a new public school. more indelible than the fame of Tweed, Obviously the building must rest on a Croker, and especially of his dull and certain piece of ground. Some one tells colorless chief, Charles Francis Murphy. Mr. Plunkitt where the site is likely to Mr. Plunkitt did something far greater be, and that diligent gentleman quietly than his predecessors and associates. He buys it at a low price; when the time has created a living phrase. Previous Tam- arrived for building operations, naturally many bosses merely robbed the city the city is forced to acquire Mr. Plunkitt's treasury and blackmailed the vicious char- plot, at a price much higher than it cost acters that are a part of metropolitan life; him. Such a transaction is "honest but Plunkitt is the only Tammany satrap graft,” and in that way, Mr. Plunkitt who made a contribution to literature and explained, he and many other Tammany permanently enriched the English lan- men had made great fortunes. It is a guage. “Honest graft!” Few modern phrase that will live as long as the thing Shakespeares have ever done anything it describes. It was a bad thing for better than that. Emitted one confi- Tammany Hall at the moment, however, dential morning from his office-a boot- for Mr. Plunkitt was unfortunate enough black stand in the cellar of the Tweed to take mankind into his confidence in the court house-to an old time reporter of course of a hot municipal campaign. the New York Evening Post, the magic Tammany lost at the polls; Seth Low words took wing to all quarters of the became Mayor of New York, and the exearth and thenceforth became a perma- perts declared that those two words, nent part of the American political vo- "Honest Graft,” had caused the great cabulary.



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The Beginning of an "Era of Good Feeling" Gives the
New National Administration a Favorable Opportunity
for the Solution of Great Problems Which Lie Ahead




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S CALVIN COOLIDGE becomes That Roosevelt was not renominated in

President of the United States 1908, although he could have been by in his own right by virtue merely saying the word, that he lived up to of one of the most impres- the pledge, does not matter. If Coolidge

, sive pluralities ever given a now should repeat the pledge made by Presidential candidate, the thought nat. Roosevelt, cynical critics would merely urally arising in the minds of many repeat the doubts of its good faith. politicians is: “Will he, like Roosevelt, Moreover, the circumstances in the cases seek a third term?"

of Roosevelt and Coolidge are somewhat "I am no longer a political accident," different. Roosevelt had served three Roosevelt was quoted as saying when he and a half years, or nearly a full Presibecame President in 1905 by virtue of a dential term, before he was elected Presisimilar victory and under analogous cir- dent in his own right. Coolidge served cumstances.

nineteen months of the unexpired term, President Coolidge might say the same less than half a full term. thing with more aptness, because he became the Republican Vice-Presidential PASSING OF THE THIRD TERM BOGEY Candidate in 1920 when machine plans

, went awry, and an Oregon delegate was F against there is not now the feeling

against a third term that there was quick to sweep the convention for him

twenty years ago. Twenty years ago before the bosses could act. Roosevelt there was still current, in the very deeps became the Vice-Presidential candidate in

of American political instinct, that ap1900 because the Republican bosses prehension about kings and dynasties wanted to force him into the political that had existed at the birth of the Recloister of the Vice-Presidency. Boss public, and had caused Washington to Platt of New York was quoted as saying make the first of the declarations against that they wanted Roosevelt "to take the

a third term, and thus start the tradition. veil."

Just why our apprehension has become If the reticent Coolidge has made any dissipated it would be difficult to say posiremark about "political accidents” the tively. Probably the fact that things public does not know of it yet. Certainly have gone so badly with kings and dynashe has made no declaration like that made

ties during recent years, the clear fact by Roosevelt after he had learned of his that they are a passing institution, may own victory at the polls:

be the cause for our having so little ap

prehension about one arising in our own On the Fourth of March next I shall have

country. served three and a half years, and this three

In any event, the suspicion against a and a half years constitutes my first term.

third term-whether a third full term of The wise custom which limits the President to two terms regards the substance and

four years, or a third term in the sense not the form. Under no circumstances

that Coolidge's would be after 1929, if he will I be a candidate for or accept another should have one that has largely gone nomination.

out of American politics. The nomina


Democratic Differences Help the Administration



tion of Roosevelt in 1912, although that considering a conference which would have nomination did not happen to lead to his reflected the “old guard” spirit of a more election, was sufficient evidence of the or less conservative group of leaders; while passing of the third term bogey. And in another group, led from the South and 1920, if Wilson had happened to be in West, was laying plans to hold a congood health, there need be little doubt ference, the avowed purpose of which was that he would have been nominated for a to drive the Northern and Eastern leaders third term.

of the Democratic party into the Atlantic

Ocean. These factional conferences of STRONGER THAN ROOSEVELT

Democrats were decried by those who said, OOLIDGE begins his term with quite accurately, that conferences at that

more willing support from his own time, or any time in the near future, would party, and with weaker opposition, than be sure to think and act in terms of the Roosevelt had. It is true that Roose

recent past, in terms of the New York velt's election in 1904, when Missouri convention of last summer; and could went Republican for the first time, marked have no other result than to deepen the high tide for the Republican party and low cleavages that there arose. The counsel tide for the Democrats, at least in the that deplored this said, in effect: "Wait; period between the Civil War and 1904. let new conditions emerge as they may; But the weakness of the opposition to let new issues arise; and perhaps we can Coolidge and the division within it, causes keep the party united." him to be more strongly entrenched than Roosevelt was in 1905.

POLITICAL GOOD LUCK Some one ought to have the in- HAT, of course, was the wiser coungenuity to coin some phrase to fit sel, for the preservation of the Coolidge's situation. Doubtless, before Democratic party and for such hope of long, some one will. It is a definite future power as it may contain. And situation, and lends itself to definiteness yet, the cleavage is there, too angry to be of description. One person, attempting kept silent. In the Senate debates during to picture it, has said it is like the “era of the winter, again and again, Democratic good feeling” of an earlier generation of Senators not only separated into opposing American history. That isn't quite it; groups as respects their voting; but actubut in any event the practical facts are ally fell into the public recrimination that as Coolidge begins his term the op- which was the expression, too ardent to be position to him—one might express the kept silent, of fundamentally different spirit of it more accurately by calling it points of view. the dissent from him- consists, all told, For example, the Democrat, Walsh of of a minority of the voters; and that Montana, reproving the Democrat, Bruce minority, so far as concerns organization of Maryland; the Democrat, Harrison and leadership, is divided into three of Mississippi, reproving the Democrat, parts, practically equal—with two, at Dial of South Carolina; the Democrat, least, of the three parts, and possibly all Robinson of Arkansas, reproving even a of them, opposing each other more Republican, Norris, of Nebraska, because strongly than they oppose Coolidge. the latter had used unjustified terms in

During January there were pending referring to President Coolidge—all that three projects which, though two of them was merely the irrepressible evidence of were headed off for reasons of emollient the existence of two different types of expediency, were accurate symbols of the mind within the Democratic party, types divisions among the opposition to Cool- of mind rather more distant from one idge. One third of it, the La Follette another than either of them is from anyparty, was about to hold a conference at thing that can be called a typical ReChicago. And within the Democratic publican mind. All of which constitutes party, one group, led from New York, was a very considerable contribution to the

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