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reference to co-education as attractive “public schools” and the universities chiefly for matrimonial purposes. His are intended to turn the youth of British main contentions, however, merely echo wealth and aristocracy into cultivated beliefs which many American educators “gentlemen.” Only a small minority of have recently expressed. Mr. Fisher
Mr. Fisher English boys ever have the opportunity thinks that American primary education to attend them. The whole educational is the strongest part of our system. system can therefore be adjusted to the Neither England nor any other country capacities of this selected class. The has anything comparable to it. In the American theory is that it is the business main, he finds our secondary schools and of the state to furnish the higher educaour universities rather superficial. He tion to any boy or girl who wants it. Our does not believe that the work they do high schools take in thousands where the ranks in the same class with that done in English secondary schools take in dozens; his own country.
our state universities absorb hundreds With certain qualifications, most Amer where the British universities absorb one ican educators have accepted these gen or two. eralizations as fairly justified. One im Instead of a small group, representing portant omission is Mr. Fisher's failure essentially the same social environment, to make any reference to the contributions the same race, and a reasonably uniform of American universities to technical mental capacity, as is the case in England, and professional education. On this American universities receive a miscelground the United States certainly can laneous horde, representing all social stand comparison with any other country. classes, all kinds of social surroundings, Our great technical and scientific schools all races, all religions, and all grades of have few, if any, counterparts in England native intelligence. Their attempts to or on the European continent. Our adjust their efforts to this miscellaneous medical and law schools, and our scientific student body produce those incongruities laboratories are institutions of which this that impress observers like Mr. Fisher. country need not feel ashamed. The time The courses must be so arranged as to has passed when Americans find it neces accommodate the least able, which necessary to seek a medical education in Ger- sarily results in a general lowering of many.
standards. This is the great evil of our When it comes to the specific points secondary schools, and it exists also in which Mr. Fisher raises, however, there our colleges, especially since the great seems little ground for disagreement. stampede of American youth for univerThe product of the American primary sity education began after the European school, in intelligence, knowledge, and War. fitness for citizenship, is vastly superior
What is the remedy? The educational to the product of public education in conceptions of our first great American Great Britain. The product of the educator and our first great democrat American college and university, in in are worthy of consideration at this crisis. tellectual attainments and the thing Thomas Jefferson insisted in education usually referred to as “culture,” is in at public expense, and, as early as 1779, ferior to that of Oxford and of Cam- drew up a comprehensive plan for Virbridge.
ginia-a plan which, unfortunately for Not only is this so, but it is inevitable his state, was not adopted. This prothat it should be so. So long as the vided for the education, at public exUnited States maintains its present theory pense, of all boys and girls in the priof higher education, so long will the mary branches. Jefferson's outline also average product of our university be provided for secondary and university rather raw and unfinished. The theory education, but to these higher branches of British education is that it is something every one was not to be admitted free. set aside for a selected class. The great Selected pupils of the common schools,
ľ amendment. How much this fail464
A Rigid Constitution That Has Become Flexible who demonstrated "genius" and "good no legislature will adopt an amendment disposition,” irrespective of birth and against which the state has voted its social standing, were to be sent to the disapproval. secondary schools and trained at the cost The belief is still general that the presof the taxpayer. From this group the ent prohibition law would never have most promising were to be chosen for been passed if the question had been subeducation at the university—again at mitted to a popular vote. Acting on this public expense.
cue, the enemies of the most recently sugThe scheme was democratic in the best gested change in the Constitution brought sense; not democratic in admitting every about a referendum in Massachusetts. one to the advantages of the higher educa- The popular vote was 695,119 against and tion, but democratic in its selection for
247,221 in favor. Though this method this purpose of the “best minds,” whether of testing public sentiment can be dethey were found in the plantation mansion fended, this Massachusetts proceeding or in the mountain hovel. It was his was not entirely creditable. It is hard conception that the state owed a primary to believe that the question was fairly education to every boy and girl, and a discussed. The opponents of the measure, secondary and university education to led by the National Association of Manuevery boy who was exceptionally qualified facturers, had plenty of money to spend, to receive it. The application of this while the advocates had practically formula to our educational system would nothing. Tons of "literature" against solve many of the problems, not only of the amendment flooded the state, full the educational system itself, but also of page advertisements were published in the social and industrial structure. the newspapers, the radio was used
three times a week. There seems ground A New Way to Defeat Constitutional for the charge that misrepresentations Amendments
were spread broadcast. The enemy as
serted that the amendment originated in RESENT indications point strongly Soviet Russia. They assailed it as a plan to the defeat of the child labor to “nationalize the children”-to take
them from their parents and to place them, ure is due to the inherent weaknesses of for all purposes, under government conthe measure itself, and how much to trol, thus adopting a well-known item in the extremely capable campaign waged the socialistic program. They made a against it, is not yet apparent. Yet its particular appeal to farmers; under the enemies, though they seem likely to de- amendment they declared that boys feat this latest attempt to change the would not be permitted to milk the cows Constitution, have themselves really or girls to help the mothers with the added an amendment of their own-not broom and dishes. They informed Rothe less effective because unwritten. The man Catholics, who cast 40 per cent. of Constitution provides its own system of the vote in Massachusetts, that the real growth. After Congress has passed the intention of the amendment was to take amendment, then two thirds of the state the control of education from the states legislatures, or of conventions called and give Congress the right to destroy for this particular purpose, must ratify. parochial schools. The fact that Father
There is no provision for a popular John A. Ryan, Professor at the Catholic vote. But why not take such a popular University of America, assisted in drafting vote merely for the sake of sounding the amendment and is to-day one of its public opinion, and of informing legisla- strongest advocates, discloses the absurdtors of the popular will? Such a vote, ity of this latter contention. however, is purely informal; it has no There are rational arguments against binding force on the legislature; yet the giving Congress power to “limit, regulate, conviction is unquestionably justified that and prohibit the labor of persons under
eighteen" years of age. It is another American can have some satisfaction, as
of eighteen, with undue boldness, that even in a matwhen “persons” are hardly children, has ter so characteristically middle age as alienated many who might otherwise cathedrals, they can teach the old masters have endorsed the change. The critics a few tricks. Perhaps not in delicacy of of the amendment who urge these points detail, in lace-like carvings, in rose winof view are entitled to respect, and it is dows, in all that fineness of execution unfortunate that the measure cannot be that comes from the skilled hand of the argued on its merits.
individual craftsman and artist, but cerThe one evident fact, however, is that tainly in outline. The mediaval archireferenda, in future, will probably play tects were limited by the stone and wood an important part in all attempts to and mortar that formed their materials. change the Constitution. The impression But the moderns have a new materialthat the Constitution, as it stands, is steel. With this they can form arches difficult to amend, is clearly a fallacy. and curves and other new and beautiful The Constitution has been amended four architectural groupings entirely beyond times in the last ten years. One way to the scope of the old-timers. After all, make sure that changes should not be the first requisite of a cathedral is that it hastily made is perhaps the practice shall stand, but this is by no means the of a popular vote as a guidance to the problem to American architects that it ratifying bodies.
was to Michelangelo.
Structural shapes," as catalogued by Modernism and the Middle Ages the United States Steel Company, have Meet
an ugly sound and are usually forbidding,
but, designed by an artist, and hidden in OSSIBLY East and West shall a building by stone, they can become never meet, but that it is entirely things of great beauty. Three great
possible for modernism and the cathedrals are now under way in this Middle Ages to touch elbows, recent country-one in New York, one in Washevents in New York have clearly shown. ington, and one, for the Roman Catholic Ruskin pointed with scorn at America Church, in Baltimore. Their artistic because it had no ruins; this may be one worth will not be apparent until they are reason why this country is at least de- finished. The extent to which their termined that it shall have cathedrals, architects have used the new resources certainly the next best things. Moreover, in designing them likewise will not be we are going to have some fine ones. known until then. But what the mediæAmerica has developed one art that makes valists could have done, by combining us the envy of Europe the art of build- American building devices and materials ing; up to the present time, however, this with their unparalleled gift for beauty, has been directed chiefly to commercial dazzles the imagination. ends.
But some of these utilitarian buildings Poison Gas and the Rules of Warfare are things of great and delicate beauty. That form of aspiration inherent in
NEW interest has been aroused in American business is as majestically
poison gas as a consequence of symbolized in the Woolworth Building as
less indefinite but exis the unquestioning faith of the Middle tremely alarming reports of the secret Ages in Amiens Cathedral. And the activities of many nations in developing
Butchering Citizens in the Sixteenth and Twentieth Centuries
this new engine of warfare. The day is because the armies were much larger and foreseen when a few airplanes, settling war itself had become more of a science. over New York and London, can destroy This fact introduces no new principle the larger number of the inhabitants. The into its practice; there is no better use of gas against civilian populations, reason why non-combatants should be indeed, is its most frightful aspect. In massacred now than in the time of Grant the next war, according to these prophets, and Lee. To insist on their sacrifice is non-combatants will be unknown; under merely another way of saying that civilimodern conditions, every woman, man, zation has retrogressed and that the emoor child is an actual or a potential con- tion of pity, which in itself is one of the tributor to military power, and thus most effective ways of testing human is legitimate game for shot, shell, or gas. advancement, has suffered an eclipse. The wiping out of these lives, previously The possibility of destroying a civilian regarded as immune to attack, is not only population by gas attack does not necesjustifiable, but, because of the develop- sitate a revision of the rules of warfare. ment of gas as a weapon, entirely possible. There has never been a time in history
Yet it is not at once apparent, even when an enemy army could not destroy granting the terrible possibilities of gas
the inhabitants of a city, once it had got attack-a point upon which scientists that city in its power. In the days of are not agreed—that the principles of Alva in the Netherlands, this was the warfare are greatly changed. The course regular procedure. Once the Spanish of war, a horrid incongruity at its armies had reduced a stronghold by best, has developed along the most para- starvation, or captured it by assault, men, doxical lines. When its weapons were women, children, and babes in arms were least dangerous the extremest barbarity indiscriminately put to the sword. prevailed in its conduct. As the instru- The right of surrender, however, is now ments of warfare became more horrible generally recognized; that is one of the and destructive, the rules governing its "rules of civilized warfare” which it has practitioners have become more humane. taken ages to evolve. If a fleet of battleIn the days of bows and arrows, civilian ships should approach New York it populations, once in the clutch of the would first be necessary to meet the deenemy, were massacred or sold into fending American fleets and the shore slavery. With the invention of gun- batteries. Once these had been vanpowder, muskets, artillery, and shrapnel, a quished, the city would be at its mercy, code of so-called "civilized warfare" won and would surrender. Is it conceivable its way into general acceptance. It that any en ny now known would refuse seems hardly logical that the mere dis- to accept this surrender, but continue covery of a new form of killing human bombarding the defenseless port until it beings should cause the modern world to was laid in ashes and all its inhabitants relapse into the wartime morals of the killed? Yet that is the new martial code caveman, or even of the Roman generals. which the present alarmists foresee. An
The value of civilian populations as attack by airplanes armed with gas would auxiliaries to the fighting forces is nothing follow precisely the same program. Benew. Doubtless old men, women, and fore the aërial navy could assail New York children, ages ago, helped their absent it would first have to give battle to our warriors by making their bows and arrows. own air fleet. If victorious, then New Certainly the civilian populations, both York would accept the inevitable, surNorth and South, were indispensable to render, the foe would hold its gas in munitioning, clothing, and provisioning reserve and take possession. The object the armies that fought our own Civil of a gas attack, like a navy attack, would War. Doubtless the “home front” was be to accomplish a definite objective better organized in the World War than destroy enemy resistance and gain posin any of its predecessors, but that was session of the enemy's resources and
territory, and there is little reason to States, but “the far more than a hundred believe that the present condition of years of peace and friendship and abunhumanity has retrograded to the point dant good will." where unnecessary destruction of innocent Mr. Houghton won additional prestige non-combatants will again become the as an ambassador by his comprehensive accepted rule.
knowledge of the present European probIf gas
is destined to be as dangerous a lem which, in its details, is certainly weapon as its advocates now foresee, enough to tax the ablest business brains it is the business of the United States to developed by this country. Bismarck develop its air forces and thus make once said that only two men in Europe certain that no hostile air navy can ever had ever understood the Schleswigget near enough to bombard our coast Holstein question-himself and a discities and force their surrender. That, tinguished German at that time in a and the preparation of gas defense and lunatic asylum. How many persons have gas attack of our own, are the chief profits gone crazy studying the present comto be derived from the present discussion. plexities of Europe is not recorded, yet
every day the details are getting more A New Type of American Ambassador numerous, and it certainly needs a patient in London
and perceiving mind to grasp them in
logical sequence. Mr. Houghton is reHE tradition that the American garded as one of the greatest authorities Ambassador to the Court of St. on this problem. His grasp of treaties,
James's shall represent American agreements, reparations, and the ecoletters or the highest phases of American nomic facts that underlie the European professional life is broken by the selection situation is said to be one of the marvels of Mr. Alanson Bigelow Houghton for of diplomacy. that post. Mr. Houghton is not a poet This knowledge enabled him to render or literary critic or historian or journalist great service in the devising of the Dawes or distinguished lawyer, as most of his plan, and is chiefly responsible for his predecessors have been; he is that promotion to the London Embassy. It is
. peculiarly native product of this country a time when his experience in business -a successful business man.
Yet he is a and finance, built upon the basis of a business man of the type of the late J. P. liberal education, should prove most useMorgan rather than of the type of the ful to a groping world, and in itself exunschooled, uncultivated, dominant Amer- plains why his appointment to the Court icans who have played so influential a rôle of St. James's has met with such general in the industrial history of this country. approbation. The preparation for Mr. Houghton's career as a glass maker was a four years'
The West in the Saddle? course at Harvard, followed by graduate work at Göttingen, Berlin, and Paris.
HE newspapers have not overThis equipment naturally proved a looked the fact that the most imgreat advantage in Germany, where Mr. portant committees of the Senate, Houghton has been ambassador for the under the present Republican régime, last three years. His problems there are held by gentlemen from states west were largely business problems, for the of the Mississippi. That Senator Borah,
, immediate future in Europe is necessarily from a state so distant from Europe as one of industrial recuperation. He suc- Idaho, should succeed Senator Lodge as ceeded in establishing congenial relations Chairman of the Committee on Foreign with the German people by his remark, on Relations; that Senator Smoot, of the his arrival in 1921, that he should keep agricultural state of Utah, should lead in his mind, not the eighteen months of the committee most interesting to the warfare between Germany and the United manufacturing regions, that on finance,