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The Cabinet Before Congress

BY ANDREW J. MONTAGUE
Member of Congress, 3rd District of Virginia; formerly Governor of Virginia

O

N APRIL 7, 1913, and each nearly complete fusion, of executive and legis

session since then, the writer lative powers.
introduced a bill in the House

In commenting upon the extinction of of Representatives providing the separation practice in this country, that the members of the

Professor Henry J. Ford truly says that Cabinet should have seats in the two houses of Congress, with the right of Everywhere else in the world the principle debate in matters relating to their re

upon which constitutional government

founded is the connection of the powers, and spective departments, and with the duty to respond to inquiries propounded by

not the separation of the powers, of the govern

ment. either house, or the members thereof, under proper rules of procedure.

Our written constitution, with its The bill is a copy of a measure twice in

prescribed coöperation of executive and troduced in Congress, and twice unani- legislative powers in several vital parmously reported, namely, on April 6, 1864,

ticulars, refutes the rigid “separation” by a select committee of the House, and

theory, and thereby recognizes that the on February 4, 1881, by a similar com

connection and coördination of legismittee from the Senate.

lative and executive powers is at once the Several bills of more or less similar

necessity and the excellence of modern character have been introduced in the

political institutions. House and Senate in the last ten years.

Montesquieu, the eighteenth-century The general purpose of the legislation and

French jurist who argued in favor of the procedure was favored by President Taft,

"separation" theory, made a philosophMr. Root, Mr. Hughes, and others. Presi

ical observation when he said that in a dent Wilson advocated this reform, and democracy the citizens may not be camany years since contributed an illumin- pable of knowing politics, but what is of

— ating discussion of the general subject.

more importance-they are capable of The chief opposition to the measure is becoming interested in politics. Do our the contention that such a reform is a

institutions as now administered excite or violation of the separation of the three

hold this interest?

Bagehot remarked that the American powers of our government-executive, legislative, and judicial. No discussion

Cabinet "does not educate the nation," of this "separation” theory is possible

but "may corrupt it." We should emhere, save to bear in mind the observation

ploy common sense in working our inof Justice Story, a careful student of our

stitutions. The executive or his repConstitution, that its

resentatives should be brought face to

face with the representatives of the True meaning is that the whole power of these legislature in a common public forum, departments should not be exercised by the thereby substituting publicity for prisame hands which possess the whole powers vacy, and direct for indirect coöperation, of either of the other departments.

educating the Cabinet, the Congress, Walter Bagehot, the English historian and

and the people, evolving leadership, and economist, thus interpreted the relations dissipating abuse and suspicion. The of the executive and legislature:

atmosphere of government would be

cleared, and the legislature and adminisThe efficient secret of the English Constitu

tration would move upon a higher and tion may be described as the close union, the nobler plane.

Tragic Europe

I. THE REALITIES OF FRENCH LIFE

BY SIR PHILIP GIBBS

STOOD with a young Frenchman of Montmartre, that one sees the realities some time after midnight on the ter- of French social life or gets one glimpse race below Sacré Cæur, that great behind the scenes of that daily drama of white basilica on the heights of Mont- work, economy, and small cares which

martre. Below us lay the whole of form the character of the French people. Paris under a red glare, through which to the foreign tourist it still appears the clusters of lights showed brighter than “Gay City” of old tradition.

" Watching stars. In the foreground the black

the black the pageant of Parisian life from the pointed roofs of old houses older than terrasse of the Café de la Paix or from a the French Revolu

table in Ciro's, it tion of 1789—were

seems to him a city like a shadow picSir Philip Gibbs, most famous of

of frivolity and luxture with that red

ury.

The motor war correspondents, was asked by the curtain as its back

horns of the Paris WORLD'S WORK to write the real story ground. The music

taxis sound to him of a circus down of everyday life in Europe six years

like the blowing of there in the Bouleafter the close of the Great War. This

bugles in a chase of vard de Clichy article is the first of his seriesa series pleasure. The shop blared up to us, and which promises to be as noteworthy as windows dazzle him from afar, like elfin were his brilliant dispatches from the with a display of horns, came the battlefronts of Flanders and France. every treasure of “honk honk" of Nobody has yet told, as Sir Philip

fashion and art pronow tells the story of those vast changes

duced by a nation “Paris!" I said. which have brought new thoughts, new

supreme in taste, “Down there is the

devoted to beauty, manners, new sufferings, an entirely same old drama of

audaciously defiant life- unchanging. new life, to the present generation on

of narrow moraliThe spirit of Paris the European continent.

ties. The Eternal is the same as be

Feminine wafts an fore the War.”

aroma of Ambre The young Frenchman laughed, rather Antique to the senses of the male animal gloomily.

in this city of seduction. Theaters, hotels, "It has all changed,” he said. “It is gilded restaurants, amusing side-shows, not the same Paris as before the War. give to the visitor an illusion of gaiety, The problems are different. The trage- wealth, lightness of spirit, in which he dies are greater. The old gaiety has finds relief, maybe, from his own normal gone.

routine of duty and drudgery. I knew it was true to some extent, “After all,” he thinks, as he catches the though I argued with him.

roving eyes of a painted little lady, or Paris, and France, have different prob- watches the tide of traffic rushing to the lems, sharper anxieties. They are not rendezvous of expensive gaiety, “Paris apparent to the tourist who comes to is the most amusing city in the world! Paris for a week or two. It is not on the : France has recovered from the War. The Grands Boulevards, nor in the night clubs · shadow has been lifted from the spirit of

many taxis.

360

Americans Are the Gay Ones

the French people. They are making lady of the old régime, recited some of he pots of money-in American dollars, own poetry in French. I heard her story, English pounds-and they know how to which was tragic because of former ‘rook' the foreigner. It's a fine art with luxury and present poverty. An old man them!—Well, it's good to see France so who looked like the last survivor of "la gay again, after the years of sacrifice and vie de Bohème" sang songs in the argot of slaughter.”

Paris. There was an illusion of the past, Not wonderfully gay, I find, and not all but it was only that. wallowing in wealth, in spite of a great “It's another fake for the foreigner," recovery from the wounds of war, and said the young Frenchman by my side. that art of fleecing the foreigner. Pene- “The students of the Latin Quarter do not trating into the minds of Frenchmen by faire la bombe over here, or anywhere. sympathetic questions, and looking They are all too poor-and desperately around France as well as Paris, I find the serious.” same wit but more melancholy, much It is strange, that new gravity of stuprosperity but more financial anxiety in dent life in Paris. I remember their revmany classes. The cost of life, it seems, els at the Rotonde and the Dôme in the is hard on the average man and woman. old days of Montparnasse. That spirit The future of France is uncertain in their passed in the War when Youth marched minds. Enormous problems bear down out of Paris to the shambles of the Marne, on them.

the Somme, Verdun, and a thousand All that gaiety of the Grands Boule- places where Youth was mown down like vards, that night life in Montmartre, is grass before the scythe. During the War but a circus show for the foreigners with the Dôme was the rendezvous of neutrals, leisure and money to waste. We went decadents, “defeatists,” and spies. It into a Russian cabaret in the Avenue de had to be closed by the police. Now, like Clichy, and paid 110 francs for a bottle the Rotonde and other places, it has been of bad champagne. The company was made more elegant, charges higher prices, made up of Americans, English, Argen- caters for the American colony, with clean tines. In Ciro's it was the same.

tables and jazz bands. hard to hear a word of French. Ameri It is the American colony of students can ladies in French toilettes greeted each which has the most gaiety, as well as the other across the tables. It was an over most money, and the exuberance and flow meeting from the Plaza in New York. self-conscious pose-of Youth.

-Young

Americans from New York, Chicago, ONLY FOR STRANGERS TO SEE

Kansas City, with handsome allowances, ET'S go to one of the old haunts," I wear big black hats and long black ties,

said. "Surely the students font la and play the part of the traditional bombe now and then?”

French student according to “Trilby" We went to a little old house like a and the “Vie de Bohème." Young French cottage, in a back street of Mont- American girls abandon the Puritan tradimartre far above the Place Pigalle. In tions and make laughing parties in the the old days it was a Bohemian haunt Boule Miche, and drink too many cockknown only to the Latin Quarter from the tails-some of them and feel restless and other side of the river. Painters and exiled when they have to go home again poets came here to hang their coats below after this life of adventure and artistic a life-size figure of Christ from some old liberty. church gazing down on their revels with The French students retain their wit, pitiful eyes. It was still there, surrounded their zest for knowledge, their incurable by old paintings and caricatures and bits desire for the adventures of art, their gift of sculpture, in a low, dim room. By the of satire, some of their dreams; but the fire crouched some men and women in economy of life is hard on them, and the Russian dress. One of them, a Russian rather grim realities which lurk beneath

It was

LET

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the apparent prosperity of France touch beauty. So I found it lately in the Salon their spirit, I think. I have seen them

I have seen them d'Automne. For their pictures of the lately sitting in the smaller cafés with nude they had chosen models of extreme their sweethearts—there is always love, grossness-fat old women, coarse old poor boys!—and they were shabby young fishwives, whom they represented with a men, rather pinched-looking, rather lean brutality that was quite obscene. All and sharp-featured. They do not come their pictures were a kind of savage defrom the rich merchant class-les mercan struction of the loveliness of life, and I tis, as those folk are

found a cult of uglicalled in French

ness, a lack of form, slang - but are

a worship of mostly the sons of

“strength" diprofessional men

vorced from spiritand civil servants

ual ideals. who cannot afford

The housing quesmuch in the way of

tion and the cost an allowance.

of lodging - is Things have altered

acute, not only in since the War.

Paris but also in Prices have gone

many cities, and is up-abominably.

the cause of the "In the old days,"

most frightful peril I was told by a

to France the deFrench professor,

crease of popula"I paid 30 francs a

tion--and a hidden month for my room.

bitterness in the It wasn't very large

spirit of the French or very grand, but I

people. had a table, a chair,

"How is it posTHE CHURCH OF THE SACRÉ CEUR a bookcase, and This famous resort of pilgrims looks benignly upon

sible," I was asked even found room for

Paris from the heights of Montmartre. It has seen by a Frenchman, an armchair Paris at the height of its genuine ecstasy of pleasure “for our young men

and at its lowest depth of discouragement during which was luxury! the War. The sounds of revelry rise to it to-day

and women to set Nowa student must

but is it revelry?

up home-life, and pay 300 francs a

to rear families, month for a miserable lodging and is lucky when they cannot afford the rent of the if he gets one, because every apartment is most modest apartment, or find accomsnapped up by foreigners or married folk modation even for themselves, without who are desperate for house-room." the additional space for a baby and a

In the old days the students I knew nurse?" used to go to a creamery and have an In that way the foreigners are a curse excellent breakfast, including an egg, for to Paris, in spite of the money they bring 50 centimes. Now it costs them 3 francs. there, because they seize upon the only They could live comfortably with a mar available lodgings and raise the price of gin for the fun of life on 10 francs a day. rents. The rise in the rent of houses and Now crowds of them are living miserably, flats, the steady and frightening increase without the barest margin, on 20 francs a in the cost of living, and additional taxaday. Three of them died of starvation tion of small incomes, were the main during recent months.

causes of the political change which threw Perhaps it is this hard life, or some Poincaré out of office and brought in spiritual aftermath of war, which gives to Herriot and his Government of the Left. their art a hardness and crudity which Poincaré's “rigid” policy in foreign afseems like a deliberate revolt against fairs, his failure to get reparations from

362

“Rascals and Honest Men"

TH

Germany, even by the occupation of the of them. They were the men who had Ruhr, made the French people desire a saved France. Now they came silently change. They were afraid of the future, to present their claims for an increase as many of them told me, because of the of pensions which would enable them to new hate being stirred up in Germany and live in some better way than halfthe estrangement with England.

starvation and miserable poverty. The But it was that internal problem which walls of Paris, the villages in the devastated swung the scales heavily in favor of the areas, were placarded, as I saw, with this Left. For a long time it had criticized appeal by the mutilated men, and by M. Poincaré's régime fiercely because of the widows and orphans of the heroic its failure to restrict rising prices and dead. All is not well with France when secure a decent standard of life for the her heroes suffer while contractors grow salaried classes. France gave the Social- rich and fat out of the reconstruction of ist Left a chance to do something under the ruined regions and out of the profits the leadership of Herriot. They did of the rising prices of life's necessities. nothing to redeem their promises. There

SPECULATION AFTER DEVASTATION was no more house-room. The cost of life increased. They tried to cover their HOSE devastated regions! The failure by stirring up religious trouble center and south of France do not feel and raising the old bogey of “clericalism." the same emotion about the sufferings of

As a Frenchman explained to me, “As the victims of that ravaged land up north. long as the anticlericals can devour a The enormous cost of reconstruction curé they forget the price of artichokes.” paralyses national finance, causes an im

But there were people who could not mense deficit in the annual budget, deforget, and who will not forgive the preciates the value of French money in Herriot Government for neglecting the in- foreign exchange, and necessitates heavy terests of the small wage earning people taxation. --the people who made the greatest sacri- “They are making a fine thing out of fice in the War-while granting amnesties their devastated regions,” says the cynito men like Caillaux and Malvy and cal Frenchman of Paris and the Midi. others accused of political crimes when “Would to Heaven I had a destroyed France was fighting for its life.

house up there!" When one of Herriot's ministers was It has been a happy hunting ground of making an eloquent speech he was in- corruption and scandal. Speculators terrupted by an elderly workman. bought up the claims of private indi

“Monsieur,” said the man simply, viduals, exploited them at the expense of “it is all very fine, what you are saying the state, putting in claims for enormous about that amnesty for all the rascals of damages admitted by Government ofFrance. It is generous and Christian, ficials and local authorities, all in the without a doubt. But when are you game together. Les camarades, they are going to do something for honest men?" called by the cynics. Contractors grow

“I confess,” said the Vice-President of fat with wealth out of the supply of the Senate, who told me this story, good- building materials and those swollen humoredly, "that I could find nothing to claims. There was a phantom glass facsay for the moment—Gascon as I am!” tory which had never been destroyed by

On the last Armistice Day through the German bombardment, because it never streets of Paris came a tragic procession, existed. There were masses of steel which brought tears to the eyes of all who plates sent from Germany under the repwatched-so painful that many had not arations account and transported, not to the courage to watch but turned their the devastated regions, but to Japan-at eyes away. It was a procession of blind a fabulous profit after the earthquake and mutilated men from the little homes in Tokio, to the great benefit of a group where they hide their infirmities—20,000 of camarades.

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