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A Second Naval Conference petition on this scale. For the same
reason they will meet this country in any HE matter of auxiliary ships pre- fair proposal to limit auxiliary ships. If sents the problem in a new phase. competition is demanded, the United
Though the Washington agree- States certainly has the means of particiment said nothing about these naval pating to any scale desired, and there is units, the spirit of that convention might little likelihood that either Great Britain easily be interpreted as including them. or Japan would repudiate American adThe old naval theory, concentrating the vances. The Coolidge plan for a second main strength in battleships, regarded naval conference, therefore, is sound auxiliary vessels merely as supports. It statesmanship and there should be no even arbitrarily stipulated the number of delay in calling it. destroyers and light cruisers that were regarded as essential to each battleship. Ridiculous Stories About Japan On this basis, the Washington treaty could be interpreted as permitting only a HE present excitement over Japan, sufficient number of lighter craft to round and the newspaper effort to picture out the Navy—to make it a complete and
that nation an immediate symmetrical fighting machine. Subma- enemy, plotting revenge on America for rines and aircraft presented problems that its exclusion act, is an unfortunate phase were peculiar to each country; moreover, of current journalism. To reach the the place they would occupy in naval truth in this matter it is not necessary to defense was not so clearly understood as possess all the secrets in the diplomatic it is perhaps now.
archives of the two nations, or the The United States is unquestionably thoughts of Japanese and American deficient in cruisers, submarines, and naval statesmen. The predominating facts lie aircraft—though it is extremely strong in upon the surface, and these must necesdestroyers. The belief is widespread that sarily control the statesmanship of the Great Britain and Japan are building ex two countries. tensively in ships of all these types and Japan is a poor nation, dependent for that in this particular regard, this coun her existence upon her foreign trade, try is left far behind. A naval compe- which is mainly with the United States. tition has been renewed—the situation is She is slowly recovering from the effects summed up in these words only the of the most awful earthquake recorded in competition has now taken the form of human annals. She has not the taxing auxiliary ships.
capacity which would make possible the If that is true, this country has the expenditures of such a vast enterprise as solution in its own hands. That is to would be a war with the United States, call a second conference to limit competi- and she has not the borrowing power in tion in these details. It is not too much the great money markets of the world, to say that the calling of such a conference even if these markets had capital available is entirely at our discretion, for there is for such a purpose. The greatest lending little doubt that Great Britain and Japan country, of course, is the United States, would accede to such a request. It is the supposed enemy. Japan has no iron enough to recall the events that brought of her own, and thus, assuming that the forth the first conference. This country suggested war breaks out, she would be had embarked on a naval program of compelled to import that commodity from huge proportions, one which, in a few foreign markets, such as-again leaving years, would have made it immeasurably out the United States, infinitely the the first naval power. Great Britain world's greatest producer-Great Britain, and Japan accepted the ratio proposed Germany, or France. by this government because they felt All these nations are under such great themselves unable to engage in a com and increasing obligations to this country
Practical Studies, Not the "Humanities"
and so dependent upon us for their re New Education for the New South habilitation that it is not credible that they would assist an Asiatic power with R. JAMES B. DUKE'S gift of exportations of steel, even though Japan
$40,000,000 for education, should have a cause for war that enlisted
charity, and religious purposes in their sympathy. But the only visible North Carolina sounds a modern note in cause, the exclusion of Japanese immi more senses than one. It is probably the grants, would almost certainly make first great gift for Southern education Great Britain our ally. The attitude of from a Southern man, whose fortune is the the great British Dominions, Canada, outcome of business activities in the South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand South. Nearly fifty years ago, Commois precisely the same on this point as our dore Cornelius Vanderbilt, the founder of own. Australia has displayed even more his line, at that time more than eighty earnestness on the subject and has gone years old, married a beautiful Southern to even greater extremes than has our widow who had just turned her thirtieth Congress. Japanese exclusion is a more year. This marriage to a Southern wovital issue with these outlying dominions man had important consequences for than the neutrality of Belgium was to Southern education. The Commodore Great Britain. The only things that
The only things that himself cared nothing for books or schoolprotect these areas from a mighty influx ing, and could not write half a dozen lines of Japanese settlers are the British and without outraging both English grammar the American fleets, and cooperation of and the spelling book, but, evidently as a Great Britain with Japan in such a war, testimonial to his young wife, he gave or even neutrality, is inconceivable. enough money to endow Vanderbilt
The course of an American-Japanese University at Nashville, now one of the war, should such a calamity take place, most flourishing educational institutions can be easily foreseen. The Japanese of the South. fleet could at once capture the Philippine Since then a large amount of Northern Islands and probably Guam. It could money has crossed the Mason and Dixon do this as easily as it seized the German line for educational purposes. Mr. Duke settlement of Tsing-Tau in the World has himself liberally helped Trinity, but War. But that would represent the limit this recent bequest does indeed herald of her warlike accomplishments. She the dawning of a new day—the day when could not take the Hawaiian Islands and the Southern states shall have so comof course, could not cross the ocean and pletely recovered from the calamities of wage hostilities against our Pacific coast. the Civil War that they will be able to The United States would simply play a finance their own colleges and universities. waiting game, spend years, if necessary, In still another way this gift indicates to construct a mighty offensive fleet, the growth of what may be called "modretake the Philippines at leisure and then ernism” in Southern education. Mr. proceed against the mainland of Japan. Duke lays emphasis upon the “practical," Long before this could happen, however, even the "technical,” side of university the Japanese people would be reduced to training. "I recognize," he says, “that destitution by the loss of American trade education, when conducted along sane and the huge expenditures that the war and practical lines, as opposed to dogwould demand. It is hardly necessary matic and theoretical lines, is, next to to carry such an imaginary story into religion, the greatest stabilizing influadditional details. The idea is prepos ence.” “I advise that the courses at this terous, and President Coolidge and institution be arranged first with special Secretary Hughes are wise in deprecat- reference to the training of preachers, ing the alarmists, and in extending a most teachers, lawyers, and physicians, because cordial hand to Japan and its new Am- these are most in the public eye and by bassador.
precept and example can do most to up
lift mankind. And secondly, to instruc The plan thus represents a unique system tion in chemistry, economics, and history, of utilizing natural resources. And it especially the lives of the great of the represents the final chapter in a wonderful earth, because I believe that such sub- story of educational improvement. It jects will most help to develop our re forms a splendid vindication for a famous sources, increase our wisdom, and promote group of North Carolinians who began a human happiness."
campaign, forty years ago, for freeing These words are perhaps inclusive the state of its stigma of illiteracy and enough to include academic work of reconstructing it along the lines of modern almost any scope, yet it is significant progress. Under the circumstances, Mr. that Mr. Duke says nothing about the Duke is wise in emphasizing practical so-called humanities-Greek, Latin, phi- training, especially as, even under the losophy, literature, the modern languages, terms of his own gift, there is no reason and the arts. That this has inspired no why polite learning should be ignored. emphatic protest from the South is as revealing as Mr. Duke's statement itself. Thomas Jefferson on Light Wines and It shows indeed that the South is chang
Beer ing, and changing in the modern sense. One can imagine the astonishment of the NY testimony from the past on antebellum educators at a plan that laid
present day problems always has a emphasis on the “practical” and said
certain value, and it is therefore nothing about traditional scholarship. strange that the advocates of “light wines It was on the "humanities" that Southern and beer" have not resurrected a letter education of the old type mainly prided written in 1818 by Thomas Jefferson to a itself. The old Southern colleges laid as French friend, M. de Neuville. At that much stress on Latin, Greek, and mathe- time, almost a prohibitive duty was matics as did the Universities of Oxford levied on the mild wines of the Continent. and Cambridge before the days of innova- Jefferson regarded this as a great mistake tion. It was the only training fit for and strongly supported the suggestion “gentlemen.” Southern orators took de that the tax be greatly reduced or relight in weaving Horatian quotations in moved entirely. Only in this way, he their speeches, and Southern revolution- believed, could genuine temperance be ary statesmen had the Latin and Greek promoted among the American people authors at their tongues' ends.
a virtue in which Americans of that day, The finest flower of this training was as practically all other peoples, were Basil L. Gildersleeve, really one of the sadly deficient. world's great classicists, who spent his life battling for the study of antiquity as the
I rejoice, as a moralist, at the prospect of a leading item in modern education. In
reduction of the duties on wine by our national 1890, Dr. John Bigelow, from the shades of liquor as merely a tax on the rich. It is a
legislature. It is an error to view a tax on that Harvard, published an essay assailing prohibition of its use to the middling class of Greek and Latin as undergraduate sub our citizens, and a condemnation of them to jects, to which Professor Gildersleeve the poison of whisky, which is desolating their made a famous rejoinder. But the houses. No nation is drunken where wine is moderns are conquering not only in New cheap; and none sober, where the dearness of England and the North and West, but also wine substitutes ardent spirits as the common in Professor Gildersleeve's own South.
beverage. It is, in truth, the only antidote to The new endowment is derived from the
the bane of whisky. Fix but the duty at the
rate of other merchandise, and we can drink development of water power-in itself
wine here as cheap as we do grog; and who will another evidence of modernization. The
not prefer it? Its extended use will carry energy that comes out of the state's rivers
health and comfort to a much enlarged circle. and streams and waterfalls is to flow back Every one in easy circumstances (as the bulk in the shape of energized human brains. of our citizens are) will prefer it to the poison
The Government's Responsibility for Poisonous Whisky
to which they are now driven by their govern- now before the President and before Conment. And the Treasury itself will find that a
gress. Is it to be taken seriously, as a penny apiece from the dozen is more than a
measure which there is to be a sincere groat from a single one. This reformation, however, will require time. Our merchants
attempt to force, or is it to be permitted
to fall into disuse and become a dead know nothing of the infinite variety of cheap and good wines to be had in Europe, and
letter? At present it cannot be said that particularly in France, in Italy, and in the
Congress is making any genuine effort to Grecian Isles.
enforce the Volstead Act. It may piously
proclaim its intention of doing so, but an It is true that Jefferson says nothing appropriation infinitely larger than that about beer, but he wrote before the
now set aside for the purpose will be Germans had so widely popularized their necessary. An army of agents, selected, favorite beverage in this country. Jeffer- not for political reasons, but for merit, son practiced what he preached, and the and paid decent living wages, will be cellars of Monticello, always abundantly needed. Until such an "army" is re
” stocked with light European wines cruited and put to work, prohibition enwould have shocked Mr. Bryan as much forcement will remain the farce which it as would his great democratic mentor's evidently is at this moment. Unless views on religion.
Congress does this and the people will
ingly pay the vast appropriation required, A Discouraging Situation the Eighteenth Amendment will gradually
take its place as one of those not unHE articles published in this maga- common and praiseworthy efforts to imzine by Mr. Rollin Lynde Hartt prove human nature which were doomed
make extremely discouraging read- to failure at their birth. ing. Of the straightforwardness and dis- The most suggestive analogy are the criminating character of these articles laws which exist in all Anglo-Saxon comthere can be no question. Mr. Hartt has munities against prostitution. That this simply made that first hand investigation form of prohibitory law is on the statute of the enforcement of the Volstead Act book every citizen knows; that it is everywhich any citizen, had he the time and where violated and is consequently everythe motive, could have made for himself. where a dead letter, is just as apparent.
There is, perhaps, no subject more col- Yet any attempt to repeal it would start ored by the preconceptions and prejudices a storm of protest. This protest would of the investigator than this. A vast be based, not on the assumption that such amount of literature, published by the legislation accomplished much in mitigatchampions and the enemies of the Eigh- ing the particular evil at which it was teenth Amendment, reaches the editorial aimed, but that its presence on the statute desk. None of it bears the impress of book represented a moral attitude on the careful research. One side conclusively part of the community as a whole-a kind proves the complete success of prohibi- of endorsement by the state of continent tion, another just as completely its total individual living and of domestic sanctity. failure. Mr. Hartt, however, views the At the present rate of disregard the situation from no professional standpoint, Eighteenth Amendment will soon fulfill other than the standpoint of the conscien- a similar rôle. That it can never be retious journalist whose business it is to pealed, is entirely clear; the mere suggesreport precisely what he sees. He sees tion would produce almost a convulsion. the open disregard of the Volstead Act But the time is perhaps not fardistant when on every hand. This disregard has its presence in the Constitution will be reached a point where it is a domestic merely an expression of national opinion issue of the utmost importance.
that addiction to alcohol is an evil and that What is the future of this prohibition all good citizens should abstain from it. Amendment to be? That is the question At the same time, the impossibility of en
forcement will be tacitly conceded. Be- available in any university. It will infore this time is reached, however, the clude not only international law and Eighteenth Amendment is entitled to at history, but unique studies in the fundaleast an honest and efficient effort at mental elements of international relationenforcement.
ships, such as the effects of different Some cynic has said that it is unfair to racial psychologies, variations in national call Christianity a failure, for it has really economic structure and economic aims, never been tried. The same can be said the influence of the geographical peculiof prohibition.
arities of modern states and their political
organization. The school will not aim A Memorial to Walter Hines Page to train men in the arts of diplomacy.
The purpose is the deeper one of studying EVERAL months ago, friends and the modern world, analyzing underlying admirers of the late Walter Hines causes of friction between nations, and
Page began quietly to plan a studying the common bonds between permanent memorial to his life and work. them that tend to keep relations friendly Discussion crystallized into the belief and stable. This new and systematic that the most appropriate form for such knowledge, as it is accumulated, will be a memorial would be a school of inter- published. national relations, to be erected within Its practical value to statesmen will be one of the great universities and devoted great, but will by no means be limited to to post-graduate research in the fields of them, for it will be useful to business men world affairs, where the crowning labors engaged in international trade, to farmers' of our war-time Ambassador to the Court organizations that are concerned with an of St. James's were performed.
exportable surplus of food products, and Johns Hopkins University was selected, to citizens generally who wish for more both because of its distinguished history exact facts about the world. in scientific inquiry and because Page The school will not be committed to was one of the original fellows when that any particular foreign policy. It will not university first opened its doors. The be its function to engage in controversies. authorities welcomed the proposal, and a Its function is purely scientific—dispascommittee of trustees was formed to sionate research, by trained men, for the undertake the task of raising $1,000,000 sole purpose of providing the now unavailto endow the school. The fund will pro- able information upon which to build a vide a yearly income sufficient to main- science of international relations. tain three professorships and six fellow Mr. Owen D. Young is the Chairman ships, to pay the traveling expenses of of the Board of Trustees. The list of his fellows engaged in research abroad, and associates on the board is printed among to defray the cost of publishing their the advertising pages at the front of this findings.
issue of this magazine, along with a stateThe scope of the school, as outlined by ment of its purposes and an invitation the committee, is wider than any course to the public to join in founding the of study or combination of courses now school.