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N HIS messages and in his Chicago unity, destined to stand or fall as such.” speeches, President Coolidge lays Again, “We cannot hope indefinitely to chief emphasis on domestic issues. maintain our country as a specially favYet it is already apparent that the ored community, an isle of contentment,
most important work of the next four lifted above the general level of the averyears will be concerned with foreign age of the standards of humanity.” policy. The rapidly improving state of These statements might well be taken the farmer will inevitably simplify the as the “keynote" of his new administraagricultural problem, and the rebuke ad- tion. As a formal Presidential announceministered in the election, even by the ment of a more intimate participation in agricultural states themselves, to the dis- the affairs of Europe, as a sign that the cordant elements in both political parties, much discussed but long deferred “conwill give Congress more time to concern tinuous foreign policy” is at last to be itself with the pressing questions pre- instituted, these sentences are not to be sented by our foreign relations. Reduced taken too seriously. They sound a helptaxation, its distribution in ways most ful note, however, and, used by a Presilikely to loose the purse-strings of the dent so careful of weighing his words as rich, economy in expenditures, reorganiza- Mr. Coolidge, are full of meaning. tion of the Federal departments—these For these reasons the resignation of are probably the most important of the Mr. Hughes is deplorable. Viewed from domestic issues before Congress.
the standpoint of accomplishment, his adMany questions are looming in foreign ministration must be regarded as one of relations, however, which cannot be much the most successful since the Civil War. longer postponed. In a measure Presi- That Mr. Hughes, despite his persondent Coolidge has officially recognized ally expressed desire for American memthis. One of his most noteworthy declar- bership in the League, had not accomations is found in his recent Chicago plished this miracle, is a patent fact, yet in speech. “I am profoundly impressed four years he had succeeded in establishwith the fact,” he said, “that the struc- ing a foreign policy. His problem, which ture of modern society is essentially a he handled with a skill that is widely recog
nized in Europe if it is not entirely obvious So far as navies are concerned, each to his critics in this country, was to make nation is permitted to have just so many the United States a leading influence in ships, and no more, as an association of the reëstablishment of Europe, work- naval powers assigns it. That the Washing outside the machinery provided by ington Conference fixed this principle Geneva.
only in the matter of capital, or first line Like a wise statesman, Mr. Hughes has ships, does not affect the principle innot spent his time chasing illusions, but volved: that it will be extended to ships has contented himself with the attainable. of all types is inevitable, and, indeed, That is, he has not exhausted his energies demands for the limitation of subsidiary in an attempt--which would have been vessels are already in the air and will entirely useless—to enroll the United soon become realities. It is not unlikely States in the League, but he has concen- that the same principle may be extended trated his energies on obtaining results to land armaments, though it is clear that with such agencies as have been placed this question involves much greater comat his disposal. The nation, by two un- plexities than that of sea warfare. precedented majorities, has voted against League membership; under the circum- The Triumph of the Dawes Plan stances, there was nothing to do but to accept this as final, and to exert the in
HE forces that govern the world fluence of the country as beneficently as are new ideas, attitudes, ways of possible by other means. And the ac
I thinking, and to have established complishments, under these limitations, in the consciousness of mankind this new will affect the history of the world for conception—that each nation shall have, centuries to come.
on land and sea, precisely the armament
which its fellow nations, after completely A New Principle in International considering all the necessities of the case, Relationships
decide is its due portion—is an achieve
ment of great magnitude. So far this HE greatest calamity of the forty principle has become effective only in the | the European War was the race years' history of Europe preceding matter of battleships, but its extension to
armaments of all kinds is among the for armament; it was the thing, indeed, probabilities of the future. It is democthat made the war itself inevitable. The racy working on an international scale. statesmen who had sought the solution It is the most certain guarantee of peace of that problem had ignominiously failed. which modern history has brought forth. Yet in this great work Mr. Hughes But this is not the only achievement of achieved a vast measure of success. It is the State Department under Mr. Hughes. easy to criticize the results of the Wash. He is the first Secretary of State who has ington Conference-such criticism, in- found a practicable method of dealing deed, is widespread; yet, leaving aside all with Mexico. Had he not withheld arms points of detail, this conference estab- from the Mexican revolutionists a year lished one precedent new in international ago, and supplied them to the established relationships, the effect of which can government, Mexico would have plunged hardly be exaggerated. This is that the into another ten years' orgy of blood and armament of an individual nation is not rapine. Instead of that, a Mexican its own exclusive affair, but is a matter President has recently obtained his office in which its neighbors, and possible an- by legal means-almost the only one in tagonists, have a right to be consulted. the nation's history who has succeeded This conception is so new and revolution- in ways other than by the murder of his ary that it is perhaps not yet properly predecessor. The Hughes policy was
. estimated as the greatest achievement of widely criticised at the time, but its wisthe conference,
dom is now apparent and will become
more so in the next twenty years. A pressing is unquestionably that of the minor item is Mr. Hughes's part in the Allied debts. This is something in which reorganization of the State Department this country has an immediate interest and the establishment of the embassies and in which it can render great service. and legations on some basis that resem The several European governments bles dignity.
owe the United States not far from But probably the greatest achievement $12,000,000,000. Of the larger creditors, and the one to which attention has most Great Britain is the only one that has recently been directed, is the Dawes plan. adjusted its obligations and that is paying This scheme is now regarded in Europe as them. Just what France and Italy will a workable, and, on the whole, a satisfac do is a question that is now occupying tory and equitable solution of the repara much public attention. President Cooltions problem. The success in floating idge, in his message, declares that the the $200,000,000 loan for the stabiliza- cancellation of these debts is not a matter tion of German currency has given it a to be discussed, and that may now be brilliant start. The nation on which it taken as the national policy. Yet the rests with especial severity, Germany it fact remains that, for some time to come, self, has recently made it the issue in a there is little likelihood that France and popular election and decided in its favor. Italy will consent to a settlement on the The problem to which the statesmen of British model; it is also clear that the Europe had devoted more than twenty payment Great Britain must annually “conferences” and “congresses,” without make-about $165,000,000—is a frightful definite accomplishment, has at last been load on British taxpayers and an influence solved, mainly by American assistance. Seriously disorganizing British industry A great tribute was recently extended in and finance. Economists and bankers New York to Mr. Owen D. Young, the agree that, even with the Dawes plan, man who, above all others, is responsible there can be no solution of European ills for this reorganization.
until this question is settled. Indeed, “The plan,” said Mr. Young, in his the readjustment of the national debts, speech on this occasion, “could not have especially the debts owing to the United been created or adopted without America. States, is regarded as an indispensable The present government of the United corollary of the Dawes plan. States justly claims credit for this new advance in international affairs. The Why Not a Dawes Plan for Allied original suggestion of our Experts Com
Debts? mittee came from our distinguished Secretary of State.” Mr. Young was merely
EREIN is another opportunity repeating the words that all the statesmen
for the American State Departand publicists of Europe have recently
ment. This question will doubtused in even more emphatic terms; the less be the leading item in our “foreign plan that has made the beginning of a policy” for the next year. And does not new day in Europe was based upon Mr. the method for accomplishing the Dawes Hughes's speech at New Haven in De- plan in itself point the way? A Dawes cember, 1922.
plan for Germany and reparations has
proved a great success; why not a Dawes What Can the Allies Pay?
plan for Europe and for Allied indebted
ness? The essential step would be the UT the Dawes plan does not settle appointment of a new "commission of
the European problem; there are experts," on which the United States
still great stumbling blocks in the would necessarily have the chairmanship way of European peace and prosperity. and the largest representation, for the These present the new problem for the collection of all the facts on European Coolidge Administration. The most finance and European indebtedness and