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A Ban on Old-Style Farm Hands
highest wages, and gives them a bonus factory trade. The revolutionary effect based on improved performance.
of this attitude upon the morale of the Engine repair men get a bonus for men can readily be imagined. It helps reducing the number of hours the engines to explain the unprecedented “per-man are idle for repairs. Engine drivers get production” of wheat on the Campbell a bonus for increased mileage in plowing ranches. and reaping, and so on. For this reason,
Manufacturers know that production, the men on the Campbell ranch regard however, is only one half the story of the business as their own, and give their success. Marketing is the rest. Indeed, best skill and effort to the work. They marketing is the most grievous failure have the inspiring leadership of the of American farming. It is probably "boss” himself, who knows every detail Mr. Campbell's most brilliant success. of every task better than any of the men Here he has carried business methods into and can do it better.
farming with exceptional skill. OperatSmall wonder, then, that records are ing on such a large scale as he does, he constantly being broken on the
has had to obtain financial Campbell ranches. Two were
capital adequate to that scale. smashed this last season. One
But he has not made the miswas the threshing record. With
take that most farmers make, an all-steel threshing outfit in
namely, of obtaining capital one of his fields, his men threshed
solely for production purposes, and cleaned 4,321 bushels of
with no thought of marketing. wheat in one day. The other
Mr. Campbell's seasonal was the plowing record. With
financing includes the procurthe fifteen tractor and gang
ing of capital not only to get plow outfit they plowed 640
the crop in and to get it out, acres in one day without stop
but capital also to carry the ping of the engines once.
finished product in storage un
til the best market price can CLEAN BUNKHOUSES
be obtained. He never conFURTHER development
fronts therefore, the almost of esprit de corps among
universal dilemma of the his men is provided by Mr.
farmer who ends the harvest Campbell. The old-fashioned
with exhausted funds and must "bunk house” is unknown on
sell his crop at once for whathis lands. Instead, neat,
ever ready cash it will bring. modern buildings, with hot and cold Campbell wheat is sold when the market shower baths, bedrooms furnished with is at its best, not when it is saturated. white iron beds and honest-to-goodness He also adopts the selling methods of sheets on them, provide living quarters other manufacturers, dealing direct, undreamed of in the old West and rare wherever possible, with customers, the enough in the new.
millers. Using modern methods and gradMr. Campbell insists that all his men ing his wheat carefully, he can guarantee shall shave every day, and encourages a standard quality, and, therefore, get a them to take a shower when the day's
better price. work is done and change their clothes. Mr. Campbell has not only achieved a These are not merely sanitary measures; great personal success-he owns(with his they are also psychological devices, de farm managers and principal skilled worksigned to prevent the old fashioned "farm
men as partners) his million-dollar plant hand" attitude from creeping into the outright and has a heavy cash surplusCampbell organization. Instead, every but he has demonstrated a new method man feels himself to be what he really is, of farming. The use of power on the land a self-respecting member of a skilled is not unique, but the application of fac
tory methods is—factory methods of even state governments have asked him power assembly, cost accounting, and to operate on their lands. He prefers, marketing
however, to maintain complete indeThe result of his success is that the pendence and continue as a private manuRussian Government has offered him all facturer of basic foods.
This last year the land he wants on his own terms, and he applied his methods to flax growing, many private owners of large tracts and with conspicuous success.
Dr. Reginald G. Harris, Biologist,
Tells Why Scientists Study Polliwogs
HY do men study polli- individual and, therefore, the improve-
advancements made in pituitary gland, the thyroid and other medical science by the study of marine glands in the body, and that, though ductanimals or by telling
less, they coöperate just why scientists at
like a well-organized present are dissecting
football team by the tadpole and the
maintaining liaison salamander.
through the blood. When that question
But the why, and the was put to Dr. Regi
how, and the wherenald G. Harris, Director
fore, of all this coof the Long Island
operation constitute Biological Station at
the mystery yet to be Cold Spring Harbor,
solved. he answered it in both
The Watson of this ways-by recounting
mystery is the pollithe achievements made
wog, and tadpoles have in the past by the co
rarely failed science. operation of polliwogs
The reason the maand inquisitive scien
rine animal is so usetists and by telling
ful in a study of the why the tadpole is so
glands or internal orpopular now with men
gans is that it maof science.
tures so rapidly, and An important and DR. REGINALD G. HARRIS
there is no thick skin virtually unexplored Director of the Long Island Biologi
or hair coat to be penefield of science to-day cal Station at Cold Spring Harbor. trated, as in the case is the study of the
of higher animals. endocrine glands, their relation to the Nor is the polliwog a stickler for functions and development of the human privacy and seclusion. With no display body, and the compilation of data to en- of temperament, the tadpole will mainable the medical profession to influence tain an existence just as normal in a these glands for the betterment of the small aquarium in a laboratory as in his
native swamp. It
the larva; inflamwill not always do
mation followed as what scientists ex
the mobile mesopect, but an inva
dermic cells rushed riable trait of the
to the attack, and polliwog is that it
he formed the theusually does some
ory that "inflamthing. Sometimes,
mation is thus a despite its lack of
creative reaction of temperament, it
the organism, and may do something
morbid symptoms startling.
are only the signs For instance,
of the struggle when a scientist re
between the mesomoves its pituitary
dermic cells and gland the tadpole
the microbes.” steadfastly refuses
Metchnikoff in to metamorphose
HOW GLANDS AFFECT GROWTH early years always into a frog, and its The tadpole on the left is normal, the same age as
centered his life normal dark color the silvery white tadpole on the right, from which around a marine changes to a silvery
the pituitary gland has been removed. Removal
biological station, white. Give it back to the silvery white, and retards growth so that such
and he refused to the pituitary gland a tadpole never metamorphoses into a frog. take any post that of a frog and it will
was not near the sea change its unnatural sil
and its smaller animals. ver color back to normal
That shows the impordark hue, and live up
tance of the marine bioto its glands by proceed
logical station, or, in ing to metamorphose
other words, the polliinto a noisy frog. By
wog, in the life of a experiments of this kind,
scientist interested in scientists at the marine
pathological or biological biological stations are
research. learning something about
Among creatures most the endocrine glands.
useful to mankind, the “Most persons laugh
polliwog must take his when they ask why men
place with the cow, the study tadpoles," says Dr.
horse, and the dog. More Harris, “but many great
books have been written discoveries have come
about the frog than about from research of this
Shakespeare, or Lincoln, kind."
or Napoleon, or, as Dr. The great Metchnikoff
Samuel J. Holmes put it conceived the basis of
in his book “The Biology his phagocyte theory ANOTHER GLAND EXPERIMENT of the Frog": while he was observing The tadpole on the left has changed
dark color for silvery white because some star-fish larvæ
Perhaps no animal, exthe pituitary gland was removed. under his microscope at The tadpole on the right also lost its
cept man, has been the subMessina. He wondered
pituitary gland, but after the color ject of so many scientific
had changed from dark to silvery investigations.... In whether the mobile cells
white the scientists gave it back the fact, most of what is known he observed would attack pituitary gland of a normal frog, and
in certain departments of the result was an acceleration of any intruding microbes. growth and a visible change toward
physiology is derived from He put some thorns into
the normal dark color.
study of this animal.
Startling but true, that this insignificant and there are very few in this country. creature should have contributed so much The station at Woods Hole, Massto medical science, when mention of the achusetts, is largest; that at Cold Spring frog usually raises the obvious queries on Harbor, under the auspices of the Long the edibility of its legs or why it makes Island Biological Association, members of so much noise when men crave sleep. which are prominent residents of the In literature,
vicinity, is the the frog is no
second largest; hero, and is
and there are always repre
smaller stations sented as being
at the Tortuunnecessarily
gos, Florida, raucous, except
Mt. Desert by Aristo
Island, Maine, phanes, who,
Friday Harbor, in "The Frogs,
Washington, makes Charon
and La Jolla remark to Bac
and Hopkins chus as they
Laboratories, start their
California. river journey:
To these sta“Thou'lt hear
tions hundreds sweet music
of graduate stupresently of
dents, teachers, frogs with
and research voices wender
men go every ful as swans”.”
summer to But see what
study the vacom p a n y
rious marine Charon had!
animals, which To the scien
by their abuntist, the voice of
dance and A PRECOCIOUS SALAMANDER the frog is just
variety deterNormally a year is required for the growth of this species of as sweet as it salamander from the larva to the land form, but this period
mined the lowas to Charon, may be cut several weeks by feeding the creature on a diet of cation of the even when Bac
beef thyroid. The type on the right represents the salamander
stations. If chus is not pres metamorphosis carried the creature to the development rep
Metchnikoff ent. Without resented in the center of the picture. A few weeks later it had lived in
was completely metamorphosed to the land type shown on the frog, the
this country the left. Beef thyroid causes a salamander to lead a fast life, polliwog, and but also a considerably shorter life.
he could have other marine
been found at animals, the study of the endocrine glands one of these stations, and there, possibly, would be much more difficult, and the the heirs of the Metchnikoff tradition are sudden and widespread extermination of poring over the problems of the endocrine the frog would retard the solution of many glands. of the problems confronting medical Dr. Harris himself, a graduate of Brown science. In the study of cancer and some University, is working on these problems; other diseases, the mouse is favorite; the so are many other scientists, including guinea pig also is a good servant of some of the staff of the Biological Laborascience. But the frog is leader.
tory and of the Carnegie Institution at For that reason the maintenance of Cold Spring Harbor. And not to forget marine biological stations, such as Dr. the help of the polliwog, which is working Harris directs, is important to science, on the problems in its own way.
Colonel A. B. Barber, Traffic Expert
ECRETARY HOOVER has been A. B. Barber, a former Army officer and
dubbed by some of the news traffic expert who is manager of the
Colonel Barber is Secretary of Commerce
not only a traffic exin four years has con
pert, but also one of ducted about five hun
Secretary Hoover's dred conferences on
“conference experts, important subjects re
and he knows not only lating to the public
how to organize prewelfare. The confer
liminary work on the ences range in subject
Hoover efficiency plan, from radio to railroads;
but he knows also from unemployment
how to conduct the conto street and highway
ference when the memsafety.
bers meet. Street and highway
A Hoover conference safety was the last big
is unlike most meetings conference, and, though
of its kind, because it was only one of
the Secretary and his several hundred, the
associates give the preliminary work was
conferees something begun nearly a year be
to confer about the fore the meeting. under
second minute after the the direction of Colonel COLONEL A. B. BARBER
A NEW TYPE OF EDUCATIONAL POSTER Experts now urge children to be cautious in traffic, believing that telling them of horrors might create
a "fear complex” in time of danger.
ERNEST GREENWOOD A new Hoover conference expert who was drafted for work as Secretary of the Department of Commerce Conference on Street and Highway Safety.