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A Ban on Old-Style Farm Hands

highest wages, and gives them a bonus factory trade. The revolutionary effect based on improved performance.

of this attitude upon the morale of the Engine repair men get a bonus for men can readily be imagined. It helps reducing the number of hours the engines to explain the unprecedented “per-man are idle for repairs. Engine drivers get production” of wheat on the Campbell a bonus for increased mileage in plowing ranches. and reaping, and so on. For this reason,

Manufacturers know that production, the men on the Campbell ranch regard however, is only one half the story of the business as their own, and give their success. Marketing is the rest. Indeed, best skill and effort to the work. They marketing is the most grievous failure have the inspiring leadership of the of American farming. It is probably "boss” himself, who knows every detail Mr. Campbell's most brilliant success. of every task better than any of the men Here he has carried business methods into and can do it better.

farming with exceptional skill. OperatSmall wonder, then, that records are ing on such a large scale as he does, he constantly being broken on the

has had to obtain financial Campbell ranches. Two were

capital adequate to that scale. smashed this last season. One

But he has not made the miswas the threshing record. With

take that most farmers make, an all-steel threshing outfit in

namely, of obtaining capital one of his fields, his men threshed

solely for production purposes, and cleaned 4,321 bushels of

with no thought of marketing. wheat in one day. The other

Mr. Campbell's seasonal was the plowing record. With

financing includes the procurthe fifteen tractor and gang

ing of capital not only to get plow outfit they plowed 640

the crop in and to get it out, acres in one day without stop

but capital also to carry the ping of the engines once.

finished product in storage un

til the best market price can CLEAN BUNKHOUSES

be obtained. He never conFURTHER development

fronts therefore, the almost of esprit de corps among

universal dilemma of the his men is provided by Mr.

farmer who ends the harvest Campbell. The old-fashioned

with exhausted funds and must "bunk house” is unknown on

sell his crop at once for whathis lands. Instead, neat,

ever ready cash it will bring. modern buildings, with hot and cold Campbell wheat is sold when the market shower baths, bedrooms furnished with is at its best, not when it is saturated. white iron beds and honest-to-goodness He also adopts the selling methods of sheets on them, provide living quarters other manufacturers, dealing direct, undreamed of in the old West and rare wherever possible, with customers, the enough in the new.

millers. Using modern methods and gradMr. Campbell insists that all his men ing his wheat carefully, he can guarantee shall shave every day, and encourages a standard quality, and, therefore, get a them to take a shower when the day's

better price. work is done and change their clothes. Mr. Campbell has not only achieved a These are not merely sanitary measures; great personal success-he owns(with his they are also psychological devices, de farm managers and principal skilled worksigned to prevent the old fashioned "farm

men as partners) his million-dollar plant hand" attitude from creeping into the outright and has a heavy cash surplusCampbell organization. Instead, every but he has demonstrated a new method man feels himself to be what he really is, of farming. The use of power on the land a self-respecting member of a skilled is not unique, but the application of fac



tory methods is—factory methods of even state governments have asked him power assembly, cost accounting, and to operate on their lands. He prefers, marketing

however, to maintain complete indeThe result of his success is that the pendence and continue as a private manuRussian Government has offered him all facturer of basic foods.

This last year the land he wants on his own terms, and he applied his methods to flax growing, many private owners of large tracts and with conspicuous success.

Dr. Reginald G. Harris, Biologist,

Tells Why Scientists Study Polliwogs


HY do men study polli- individual and, therefore, the improve-
wogs?" is a question ment of the human race.
that may be answered Scientists know that an important part
by recounting the great in physical development is played by the

advancements made in pituitary gland, the thyroid and other medical science by the study of marine glands in the body, and that, though ductanimals or by telling

less, they coöperate just why scientists at

like a well-organized present are dissecting

football team by the tadpole and the

maintaining liaison salamander.

through the blood. When that question

But the why, and the was put to Dr. Regi

how, and the wherenald G. Harris, Director

fore, of all this coof the Long Island

operation constitute Biological Station at

the mystery yet to be Cold Spring Harbor,

solved. he answered it in both

The Watson of this ways-by recounting

mystery is the pollithe achievements made

wog, and tadpoles have in the past by the co

rarely failed science. operation of polliwogs

The reason the maand inquisitive scien

rine animal is so usetists and by telling

ful in a study of the why the tadpole is so

glands or internal orpopular now with men

gans is that it maof science.

tures so rapidly, and An important and DR. REGINALD G. HARRIS

there is no thick skin virtually unexplored Director of the Long Island Biologi

or hair coat to be penefield of science to-day cal Station at Cold Spring Harbor. trated, as in the case is the study of the

of higher animals. endocrine glands, their relation to the Nor is the polliwog a stickler for functions and development of the human privacy and seclusion. With no display body, and the compilation of data to en- of temperament, the tadpole will mainable the medical profession to influence tain an existence just as normal in a these glands for the betterment of the small aquarium in a laboratory as in his

[blocks in formation]

native swamp. It

the larva; inflamwill not always do

mation followed as what scientists ex

the mobile mesopect, but an inva

dermic cells rushed riable trait of the

to the attack, and polliwog is that it

he formed the theusually does some

ory that "inflamthing. Sometimes,

mation is thus a despite its lack of

creative reaction of temperament, it

the organism, and may do something

morbid symptoms startling.

are only the signs For instance,

of the struggle when a scientist re

between the mesomoves its pituitary

dermic cells and gland the tadpole

the microbes.” steadfastly refuses

Metchnikoff in to metamorphose

HOW GLANDS AFFECT GROWTH early years always into a frog, and its The tadpole on the left is normal, the same age as

centered his life normal dark color the silvery white tadpole on the right, from which around a marine changes to a silvery

the pituitary gland has been removed. Removal
of the gland causes the color to change from dark

biological station, white. Give it back to the silvery white, and retards growth so that such

and he refused to the pituitary gland a tadpole never metamorphoses into a frog. take any post that of a frog and it will

was not near the sea change its unnatural sil

and its smaller animals. ver color back to normal

That shows the impordark hue, and live up

tance of the marine bioto its glands by proceed

logical station, or, in ing to metamorphose

other words, the polliinto a noisy frog. By

wog, in the life of a experiments of this kind,

scientist interested in scientists at the marine

pathological or biological biological stations are

research. learning something about

Among creatures most the endocrine glands.

useful to mankind, the “Most persons laugh

polliwog must take his when they ask why men

place with the cow, the study tadpoles," says Dr.

horse, and the dog. More Harris, “but many great

books have been written discoveries have come

about the frog than about from research of this

Shakespeare, or Lincoln, kind."

or Napoleon, or, as Dr. The great Metchnikoff

Samuel J. Holmes put it conceived the basis of

in his book “The Biology his phagocyte theory ANOTHER GLAND EXPERIMENT of the Frog": while he was observing The tadpole on the left has changed

dark color for silvery white because some star-fish larvæ

Perhaps no animal, exthe pituitary gland was removed. under his microscope at The tadpole on the right also lost its

cept man, has been the subMessina. He wondered

pituitary gland, but after the color ject of so many scientific

had changed from dark to silvery investigations.... In whether the mobile cells

white the scientists gave it back the fact, most of what is known he observed would attack pituitary gland of a normal frog, and

in certain departments of the result was an acceleration of any intruding microbes. growth and a visible change toward

physiology is derived from He put some thorns into

the normal dark color.

study of this animal.


Startling but true, that this insignificant and there are very few in this country. creature should have contributed so much The station at Woods Hole, Massto medical science, when mention of the achusetts, is largest; that at Cold Spring frog usually raises the obvious queries on Harbor, under the auspices of the Long the edibility of its legs or why it makes Island Biological Association, members of so much noise when men crave sleep. which are prominent residents of the In literature,

vicinity, is the the frog is no

second largest; hero, and is

and there are always repre

smaller stations sented as being

at the Tortuunnecessarily

gos, Florida, raucous, except

Mt. Desert by Aristo

Island, Maine, phanes, who,

Friday Harbor, in "The Frogs,

Washington, makes Charon

and La Jolla remark to Bac

and Hopkins chus as they

Laboratories, start their

California. river journey:

To these sta“Thou'lt hear

tions hundreds sweet music

of graduate stupresently of

dents, teachers, frogs with

and research voices wender

men go every ful as swans”.”

summer to But see what

study the vacom p a n y

rious marine Charon had!

animals, which To the scien

by their abuntist, the voice of

dance and A PRECOCIOUS SALAMANDER the frog is just

variety deterNormally a year is required for the growth of this species of as sweet as it salamander from the larva to the land form, but this period

mined the lowas to Charon, may be cut several weeks by feeding the creature on a diet of cation of the even when Bac

beef thyroid. The type on the right represents the salamander
on the day his diet was started. In three weeks an accelerated

stations. If chus is not pres metamorphosis carried the creature to the development rep

Metchnikoff ent. Without resented in the center of the picture. A few weeks later it had lived in

was completely metamorphosed to the land type shown on the frog, the

this country the left. Beef thyroid causes a salamander to lead a fast life, polliwog, and but also a considerably shorter life.

he could have other marine

been found at animals, the study of the endocrine glands one of these stations, and there, possibly, would be much more difficult, and the the heirs of the Metchnikoff tradition are sudden and widespread extermination of poring over the problems of the endocrine the frog would retard the solution of many glands. of the problems confronting medical Dr. Harris himself, a graduate of Brown science. In the study of cancer and some University, is working on these problems; other diseases, the mouse is favorite; the so are many other scientists, including guinea pig also is a good servant of some of the staff of the Biological Laborascience. But the frog is leader.

tory and of the Carnegie Institution at For that reason the maintenance of Cold Spring Harbor. And not to forget marine biological stations, such as Dr. the help of the polliwog, which is working Harris directs, is important to science, on the problems in its own way.

Colonel A. B. Barber, Traffic Expert


ECRETARY HOOVER has been A. B. Barber, a former Army officer and

dubbed by some of the news traffic expert who is manager of the
papers as “the Conference Wiz- Transportation Department of the United
ard of the Administration." States Chamber of Commerce.
Altogether, the

Colonel Barber is Secretary of Commerce

not only a traffic exin four years has con

pert, but also one of ducted about five hun

Secretary Hoover's dred conferences on

“conference experts, important subjects re

and he knows not only lating to the public

how to organize prewelfare. The confer

liminary work on the ences range in subject

Hoover efficiency plan, from radio to railroads;

but he knows also from unemployment

how to conduct the conto street and highway

ference when the memsafety.

bers meet. Street and highway

A Hoover conference safety was the last big

is unlike most meetings conference, and, though

of its kind, because it was only one of

the Secretary and his several hundred, the

associates give the preliminary work was

conferees something begun nearly a year be

to confer about the fore the meeting. under

second minute after the the direction of Colonel COLONEL A. B. BARBER

conference opens.


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Careless Dog/



A NEW TYPE OF EDUCATIONAL POSTER Experts now urge children to be cautious in traffic, believing that telling them of horrors might create

a "fear complex” in time of danger.

ERNEST GREENWOOD A new Hoover conference expert who was drafted for work as Secretary of the Department of Commerce Conference on Street and Highway Safety.

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