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Not only is fame quick in taking flight obliged to be in the field of political life, after cessation of public activity, but also might make an interesting compilation the period of activity of men in public and comparison of the number of different life is surprisingly brief. The list from presidents the Pennsylvania Railroad has which the names above were taken, was a had since 1900; and the National City Bank list of all the men who have been Cabinet of New York, the Union Pacific Railroad, meinbers since January 1, 1900. For the University of Wisconsin, the United another purpose, I had this list made, States Steel Corporation, and any number together with the date each man took of similar institutions. Remember, also, office, and the date he left. The list, that the new president of a railroad, bank, which takes cognizance of the dates on or college usually comes to that office which the oaths of office were taken by

from the ranks of the institution. He the various Secretaries of McKinley's comes up through a long experience that first Cabinet who were in office on Janu- insures complete familiarity with the ary 1, 1900, and carries up to December details of the institution he is about to 1, 1924, shows the following facts:

administer. Into Cabinet positions, on the

other hand, men enter from experiences Since January 1, 1900, there have been 8 far distant, which give them no familiarSecretaries of State. Their average tenure ity with the duties of their new posts) of office has been 3 years, 7 months, and 23 days. Charles Emory Smith came to the Post There have been 8 Secretaries of the Treas

Office Department from an editorial ury. Their average tenure has been 3 years,

chair; Albert Sidney Burleson, from Con5 months, and 18 days. There have been 8 Secretaries of War.

gress; Josephus Daniels came to the Navy Their average tenure has been 3 years, I

from an editor's chair;Lindley M. Garmonth, and 27 days.

rison to the War Department from a There have been 10 Attorneys-General. lawyer's office. Their average tenure has been 2 years, 8 Fortunately (on the whole) for the months, and 6 days.

continuity of the public service, this There have been 10 Postmasters-General. brevity of tenure applies only to the heads Their average tenure has been 2 years, 7 l of Cabinet departments. Below the months, and 28 days.

heads, the tenure is long. Assistant There have been 10 Secretaries of the Navy. Secretaries, heads of bureaus, and lowerTheir average tenure has been 2 years, 9

ranking officials remain year in and year Sonths, and wuys.

out. A. A. Adee, who died this year, BREVITY OF TENURE

had been an Assistant Secretary of State

-and at all times a most useful oneHAVE been considering the Cabinet since 1882. It is of such officials as

from the point of view of the longevity assistant secretaries, heads of bureaus, of public Nfe, public life in the sense of and the like, that Thomas Jefferson-it fame and that sort of thing. If one were was Jefferson, was it not?--said "Few die looking at it from the point of view of the and none resign." effectiveness of the public service, one might reflect that an average tenure of

SENATORS WARREN AND LODGE less than three years for each head of a URNING from the Cabinet to a difdepartment is too brief for the best ferent group, the elective offices: of results. Banks, railroads, corporations, those who were upon the stage of pubcolleges, all sorts of institutions immune lic events, or otherwise in the limelight from the exigencies of politics, do differ- of popular interest at the beginning of ently. Harvard College has had but this quarter-century, in 1900, and still two presidents since 1869-fifty-five years continue there in one degree or another, -and one of the two is still in office. the number is very small. Among the

Some one who wants to be as pains- ninety-six members of the United States taking in another field as I have been Senate, recently there were but two

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who were there in 1900. One of these, America to follow adventure abroad. Warren of Wyoming, is not now and was Beveridge in 1900 was the Senate leader not then particularly conspicuous. Most of those who believed in keeping the of his power and prestige attaches to him Philippines, and, generally, in that policy because of the fact that his long service which its friends called "expansion" has brought him, by the seniority rule and its opponents called "imperialism." that chiefly determines promotion in the Beveridge was the Senatorial leader of the Senate, to the chairmanship of fairly expansionists, and as such was dramatized important committees. Probably the opposite the venerable Senator Hoar of largest popular knowledge of Warren that Massachusetts, leader of the antiarose at any time during the quarter- imperialists. century flowed from the off-hand phrase of a fellow-Senator, Dolliver of lowa,

BEVERIDGE THE AUTHOR who, in the course of a Senatorial debate S THIS quarter-century came toabout the tariff on raw wool, made an ward a close, Beveridge was still argumentative reference to Warren's in political life to the extent of running personal interest in sheep raising, and in 1922, for the Senate. But at this spoke of him as “the greatest shepherd closing part of the period, the greater since Abraham.”

popular knowledge of Beveridge, as well The other Senatorial veteran, the as the higher critical appreciation of him, late Henry Cabot Lodge, held his power

rested on the fact that during his years of and prominence, not only through hav retirement from the Senate, he had taken ing been unique in that capacity for to literature and had produced, in his political self-preservation which had en “Life of John Marshall," a biography abled him to get himself reëlected more which was also a history of one period of frequently and continuously than any American development; and which, both other, except Warren, of the scores who as biography and as history, won almost had been his associates during thirty- unqualified praise from critics, historians, one years; but also through certain and lawyers. This to have reached qualities of intelligence and of aggressive high achievement in two different fieldsness in his function as party spokesman is almost unparalleled, so far as the writer which had commended him to the other can recall. If there is any other case in Republican leaders in such a way as to America during the past twenty-five cause them to give him the position of years, of a man reaching distinction in floor-leader, and also the chairmanship two such wholly different careers, I should of one of the two most important Senate be indebted to any one who will call my committees, the one that has charge of attention to it. foreign relations.

Beveridge's case contains a lesson for

all public men. Their tenure of office is A UNIQUE DISTINCTION

apt to be brief. The figures show it. NE man who was on the stage in Any public man who goes along in the

1900 and still remains there, has the belief that he can last for a life-time is a distinction of having followed, within this case of hope triumphing over statistics. period, two different careers, and won Since this is so, that man in public life is fame in both. In 1900, Beveridge was fortunate who retains, throughout his United States Senator from Indiana, and public career, that hold on early habits of as such had a position in the public eye industry and concentration, that enables that rested partly on his youth-he was him, when public office jilts him, to reelected to the Senate at thirty-seven- tire to his closet and win deserved fame and partly on an attractive quality of by work well done in a wholly different oratory that went with his youth, and, field. I do not mean to imply that public in the particular year 1900, on the rather men are lacking in diligence. Far from it. fervid eloquence with which he called on Some Senators—Smoot for example

ONE

200

Two Popular Leaders of a Past Generation

work longer and harder hours than any were "out of things.” But maybe they business man I know. But a man in really have the best of it. Probably a public life is apt to lose two things. good deal depends on what within themOne is the capacity for continuous, selves, what of mental equipment and drudging industry. The nature of the temperament they took with them to their public business in legislative chambers, at Virginia farms. its best, is such that it leaps from subject Many public men carry with them to subject; and men who take part in it, always a kind of wistful dream of retireeven those who start out with good ment. There is a man who came near to training and sound mental habits, are apt being one of the nominees for the Presito fall away in thoroughness and continu- dency this year and who, I think, may be ity. Also, men in public life of this sort one of the nominees four years from now. are apt to come to a point where they I talked with him one day when he was need a certain stimulus, the stimulus part- just on the point of dropping the dice from ly of opposition in debate and partly of the cup, deciding whether he should run public applause, to bring them to the pitch or not. He was in a mellow and candid of their powers. Most men who spend mood. He said he didn't care much many years in the Senate or the House, whether he ran or not. He did not and then retire

or are retired-find they have much formal schooling in his have lost the capacity to work hard in youth; and he said that for years he had other surroundings. To retain, as Bever- been keeping a list of books he would like idge did, the youthful will to work in to read if ever he should have time, adding sufficient degree to do what Beveridge did, to the list from time to time as a tempting namely, lock himself up with trunkfuls of title met his eye in the book advertisedocuments and write a book that should ments. It struck me as wistful, and a command the respect of scholars—that is little sad, this sense of intellectual poverty decidedly unusual.

in youth, followed by long years of

putting away the titles of books, as a IDLE LIFE AFTER ACTIVE POLITICS

miser stores up dollars; and hoping for OME men retire from public life the day when he could relax himself in

deliberately for rest; or, having been the luxury of reading them. retired in elections, take to rest and A little outside the classification of ease, refusing to hang on to their hold men who have actually held office, on the fringes of politics in the hope of how many readers recall William H. coming back. I am inclined to respect Harvey? And of those who can recall them. They are at least unusual; and the name, how many can tell where he one feels they may have a slightly deeper is now, and what he is doing? About philosophy about man, his years upon this thirty years ago, Harvey wrote a book earth, and the best disposition of those called "Coin's Financial School." That years. Less than ten years ago, two book was the largest contribution made rather conspicuous Senators were Moses by any one man, save only Bryan's own, Clapp of Minnesota and Joseph L. to the Free Silver movement of 1896. My Bristow of Kansas. To-day, their former information is accurate and well-tested fellows in the Senate occasionally hear of when I say that that little volume had a them as spending their days in ease, each larger circulation than any other book with a farm across the river in Virginia. printed during the last decade of the last Both were, in their Senate days, active, century; and that it had more to do with and of an energetically insurgent trend. stirring men's minds to political action I should like to talk with them, and hear than any other book published during their own comparison of their present any political campaign I can recall. ways of ease with their former hectic days But the other day, when I needed a copy of active politics. Some would speak of

Some would speak of for a purpose of historical writing, I them a little commiseratingly, as if they couldn't find one in any of the second

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hand book stores; and when I wrote of Congress it is once every two years.) Mr. Harvey for one, he couldn't supply A public whim, a mistake in some of the it. Harvey is running a hotel at a little minor arts of politicial self-preservation, place called Monte Ne, in Arkansas; any one of countless movements of the and building, on one of the heights of the wheel could have destroyed Senator Ozarks, a cement shaft which is to be 130 Lodge. Mr. Ford was less at the mercy feet high, and I forget how many feet of mere circumstance, had a firmer thick. Within it, and securely sealed mastery of the conditions for success behind many feet of concrete, is to be a within his line. Mr. Ford, at fuil tide in manuscript, from which, according to his career, has his fortune and his position Harvey's plan, some future Carters and secure. Senator Lodge, at more than Carnarvons of ten thousand years from seventy, was still subject to those six-year now, searching for relics of our con vicissitudes. temporary King Tuts, are to find, for A member of Congress is even more their convenience, a clear statement of subject to disaster. He gets $7,500 and just why American civilization failed. must maintain two homes, one in Wash

A fame contemporary with Harvey's ington and one in his district. If he was that of Jacob S. Coxey, who led saves $1,000 a year he is doing well. And who remembers it?--Coxey's Army from at any one of those crises that must the West to Washington in 1894 with the come to him every two years, he may idea of taking the government from "the need to spend all his savings in his effort interests” and restoring it to the people, to reëlect himself-and, even then, freas represented by General Coxey's some- quently fail. what tatterdemalion volunteers. It was In art, as well as in business, in nearly a most picturesque chapter of American all lines, the gamble is rather better history. If there are any whom this than in public life. About twenty-five allusion may pique to further curiosity, years ago, Mr. Booth Tarkington of there is an excellent account of it in the Indianapolis was engaged in two activopening chapters of Mr. Garet Garrett's ities: He was serving a term in the excellent novel, “The Driver.” To-day, Indiana legislature and writing stories. General Coxey is running a most peaceful If he had stuck to the political career he sand quarry at Massilon, Ohio.

would have been subject to scores of

mischances beyond his own control, FORD'S LIFE AND LODGE's

mischances that he does not need to suffer BOUT thirty years ago, when Henry in a career that consists of mining fame,

Cabot Lodge, one of only two assured position, and abundant remunerSenators who have been in public life ation out of his art. In politics a man continuously since then-when Senator may have adequate equipment for the Lodge was making his start in Boston, top, may even reach the top, and from Henry Ford in Detroit was getting under there may fall.

there may fall. In art and business that way with the beginnings of a mechanism rarely happens, and hardly needs to that was destined to work a revolution, happen at all. to enrich enormously the average man's

PLAYWRITING INSTEAD OF POLITICS capacity to move about on the surface of the earth, and, incidentally, to enrich OME fifty years ago, Augustus Thomas Mr. Ford himself. Of course a good was a neophyte in political life-in the many persons who started in the auto rôle of a page, first in the Missouri mobile business thirty years ago have legislature and then in the Senate at failed to win big prizes. Nevertheless, Washington. That early apprenticeship one feels obliged to say that Mr. Ford had must have given him some inclination a better gamble than Mr. Lodge. Once toward a political career. In fact, he every six years Lodge had to fight for his had a good equipment and aptitude for life. (With members of the lower house politics, and in his mature years has

202

Fame-in Business and in Politics

dipped into it occasionally in an important the authors of “The Long, Long Trail” way. But, fortunately for him, a and “Over There," by their contribution stronger zest for the stage carried him of human sentiment to the morale of the into another field, where each accomplish- soldiers, may possibly be entitled to rank ment is a secure stepping-stone toward with some names more formally associated another—as it is not, always, in politics; with the winning of the War; that C. and to-day Mr. Thomas has a position Latham Sholes, who invented the typethat no public whim can take from him, writer, and thereby was largely responsas a kind of accepted head of the pro ible for introducing women into business fessions that center about the stage, and offices, for the passing of the dependent the author of some sixty-four plays. “old maid aunt," and for the coming of

Maybe this is right, the more certain the independent"bachelor girl”—that this reward that goes with art, business, and inventor may have been of more fundathe professions. Maybe the ephemeral mental consequence to a larger number of fame we lavish on the public man of the human beings, than is Senator Brookhart; hour, is out of proportion. The careers of that more people can name the five Henry Ford and Robert M.La Follette are leading actors or singers of the day, than more or less parallel in time. Which has can name the five American signers of the deserved most of the public? Which has Versailles Treaty; that the discovery of most enriched the average man? Suppose the cure for diabetes may have done more every proposal La Follette has ever made for the sum of human happiness than, for had gone into effect, would the aggregate example, the entire thirty-one years of of all of them have meant as much, in Henry Cabot Lodge in the Senate; that tangible realities, to the average man, as the making of bath-tubs, modern plumbhas the Ford car?

ing, running water, steam heat, and the

like, accessible to the average man, may SOUND POLITICS OR TWENTIETH CENTURY

have meant more to that average man PROGRESS?

than, let us say, all the proceedings of the ET us pose several more such ques national convention that nominated

tions in these fields of comparative Alton B. Parker for the Presidency; that fame and relative deserts, surveying these the raising of the maximum yield of milk years of American history since 1900. given by one cow from 23,189 pounds per Let us query whether there were not more year in 1897, to 37,381 pounds per year in Americans who knew about Babe Ruth 1920, regardless, for the moment, of how tlan could give the name of the American we ought equitably to distribute the Ambassador to France; more who could credit as between the cow that made these name the four leading motion-picture records and, on the other hand, certain actors of the time, than could name the men of patient art who devoted themfour men who filled the office of Speaker selves to the practical science of breeding of the House of Representatives from --that these achievements may have been 1900 to 1925 (what reader of this article of greater consequence to average human can name the four Speakers?); more who beings, than the invention of the direct pritook their political guidance from the mary; that the acquisition of the Philippine philosophy of Mr. Dooley and the Islands may have been of less real consecartoons of Homer Davenport, for ex quence to the average American, than the ample, or John McCutcheon, or Jay increase in the effectiveness and abundance Darling, than from the didactic political of fly-paper and window screens; that the teachings of, let us say, Charles E. Hughes; perfecting of the vacuum cleaner and the more who could name the tennis cham- electric flat-iron may have meant more pion of the day, than could name the man to the average woman than the bringwho ran for Vice-President with Taft in ing of woman suffrage. 1912 (what reader can name him?). I don't answer these questions, I

Similarly, it may be maintained that merely ask them.

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