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that those who make and are to adminis are actual instances, and they could be ter the budget must have opportunity multiplied indefinitely. actually to present and defend it before A budget made in secret committee Congress, and not merely in a secret will never be free from log-rolling. And committee thereof. Committee consider-l a budget which a committee takes the ation and report will of course still be whole session to make, and only reports necessary, but the committee must not out in bare time to drive through in the be permitted to usurp the functions of final rush, will never be really debated Congress. If it does, either the executive by Congress or understood by the people. budget disappears into the committee's Let the executive both make and present hopper and what actually gets before a real budget, and there will be plenty • Congress for decision is the committee's of time to discuss it. The debates of budget and not the executive's, or else Congress will become the most interesting the executive is reduced to do by lobbying thing in America and those who shine in what it ought to do responsibly and them will be the best-known men in openly.

America. A career in Congress will be

worth while to its members, because it CLEANSING POWERS OF SUNLIGHT

will be worth while to the people. The F THE committee recommends cuts thing can be done! It is done already,

in every other popular national assembly the two should have it out, openly, before in the world. The alternative is either Congress. But much more insidious the failure of the budget system, or its are committee increases. These are for control by secret executive bossism and bidden in England, by the oldest rule of lobbying, to the further and final obliteraParliament, and they will some day have tion of Congress from public significance to be limited here; but meantime the

and respect. best cure for them is daylight. If a Since the first debate, in 1789, there department head reports that he needs have been arguments enough in favor of $750,000 increased salaries in a certain admitting Cabinet members on the floor. service, to retain indispensable men, Some of these, as well as some of the but that he will make the entire increase difficulties and absurdities of the present within less than the present appropriation system, will be presented in subsequent if they will allow him to rearrange men

articles. But arguments are not enough. and salaries, and the committee insists, Things are not done because a case can instead, on giving him the $750,000 ad- be proved for them, but because there is a ditional, he ought to be permitted to say practical emergency, which they are so, publicly, to Congress, and let Congress needed to meet. What is sought to be take the responsibility of deciding in the shown, by this all-too-brief account, is sight of the people. If the Senate com that the budget, the newest and greatest mittee insists on slipping in through a thing in American government, presents deficiency bill six reclamation projects, such an emergency. Until now, it would whose costs and probable returns nobody have been a good thing to do. Now, it has estimated and which the reclamation has to be done! service has not asked for and does not Future articles will attempt to show want, the Secretary of the Interior should wherein the present system fails to work, have opportunity to say so out loud, or works with unnecessary difficulty, and let Congress decide openly, knowing and to point out how the proposed in-and knowing that the people know, novation, slight and simple as it is, would exactly what it is doing. Both these smooth the ways.

The Little Read School Marm

BY ERNEST GREENWOOD

W

HENEVER a boy or a

ities in order that the children may be girl in the public school educated by teachers. Without teachers begins to lose interest equipped with adequate education, trainor, perhaps, fails en- ing, and experience the most modern

tirely, his or her parents school building which may be designed immediately ask the question: "What is by the greatest of school architects and the matter with our schools?”

containing furniture and equipment which The answer to this question was has the unanimous approval of the written nearly a century ago. Horace nation's best known educators is of no Mann, in his first report on the public known value to the community as an eduschools of the State of Massachusetts, cational institution. written in the early’thirties says: “Wher

GOING BACK A HUNDRED YEARS ever the discharge of my duties has led me through the state, with whatever in- HE matter with the public schools of telligent men I have conversed, the opinion has been expressed with entire back to a situation which existed a hununanimity that there is an extensive want dred years ago. There are in the United of competent teachers for the common States something less than 15,000,000 schools. This opinion casts no reproach children between the ages of seven and on that most worthy class of persons thirteen years inclusive enrolled in these employed in the sacred cause of education. schools. And, appalling as it may seem, The teachers are as good as public more than half of these children are reopinion has demanded. Their attain- ceiving their education at the hands of ments have corresponded with their teachers who do not possess the minimum opportunities; and the supply has an- qualifications necessary to entitle them to swered the demand as well in quality as in take charge of a class room. numbers. Without a change in prices, is The fault does not lie with comit reasonable to expect a change in com- missioners of education, superintendpetency, while talent is invited through so ents of schools, boards of education, many avenues to distinction?”

or with the system itself. The caliber of There is nothing the matter with the our teachers is just as high as the parents public schools of to-day. There is nothing of the children they are supposed to teach the matter with the buildings which are seem to require; no lower and certainly, now being built or with the remodeling of with the exception of the remaining old the older buildings in accordance with the guard, no higher. In communities and most advanced ideas of lighting, ventila- states where education is recognized as a tion, heating, or sanitary arrangements. fundamental of good government, there There is nothing the matter with the cur- you will find that no price is too great to riculum, with the method with which it is pay for teachers possessing the required presumably taught, or with the text books. qualifications. There you will find parThere is nothing the matter with school ad- ents and consequently municipal governministrations, school furniture, or school ments demanding the best for the children. equipment. But school buildings are It is the parents of the children who are built, school administrations are organ- to blame for conditions in the low standized, and text books, furniture, and equip- ard communities. The children get in the ment are bought solely for the purpose of way of education just what their fathers providing housing and educational facil- are willing to buy for them.

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Every year, all over the United caught in the door over an increase of a States, there is written the annual dollar or two in his school taxes for the chapter in the history of the struggle of purpose of employing trained nurses to the school authorities for more money take charge of that same child's mental from the pockets of the tax payers for development? It is the same mental more and better educational facilities. twist which causes a woman to pay unMoney for new buildings, money for the complainingly eighty dollars a month for remodeling of old buildings, money for a cook and grumble at forty dollars for a additions, for assembly halls, gymnasiums, child's nurse maid. tennis courts, swimming pools, athletic A recent survey of more than 600,000 fields, furniture, equipment, text books, the teaching positions in the United States elimination of the fire hazard, the improve- shows that more than half of them-54 per ment of sanitary arrangements, venti cent., to be exact-are filled by teachers lation, lighting, heating, and what not, who do not possess the minimum qualifiand last of all, money for more and better cations of normal school graduation or its equipped teachers. Why last of all? equivalent. But this is by no means the Because the school authorities out of whole of the dismal story. If we could say their long experience know that the tax with some assurance that approximately payers will not grumble over the expend one half of our teachers in the elementary iture of hundreds of thousands or even grades possess the minimum qualificamillions of dollars for things which they tions and that the other half have at can see and to which they can point with least a high school education we might pride when the annual convention of this say with some justification that while or that organization is in the city. But there is considerable room for improvethey will complain bitterly of every ment the situation could be infinitely suggestion to increase the salaries of the worse. And it is infinitely worse. By teachers. Teachers are “queer fish” no means all of the 46 per cent. of the any way and presumably are used to teachers who have not had the advantage getting along on little or nothing. Like of a normal school graduation or its equivministers of the Gospel they are supposed alent have had even a high school educato obtain most of their compensation tion. As a matter of fact approximately from satisfaction they get in their work, 100,000 of them left high school at the and their bonuses, if any, will be paid in end of the second year, while at least the next world.

30,000 never went to high school at all.

Furthermore, even a high school graduate CRYING ABOUT SCHOOL TAXES

without training, without experience, and HY does the average business man without additional study is not equipped

expect to get long hours of work for teaching in these days of scientific eduthe highest standard of quality output, cation. They are not well educated thempersonality, interest, training, and experi- selves, yet we accept them as educators of ence from teachers for a price he would be the next generation of American citizens. ashamed to offer a prospective private sec The questions of teaching experience retary or even a first class stenographer? and of age are closely allied with the Why is he willing to entrust his children's question of the education of the teachers future to cheap labor when he is so themselves. Taking this same group of particular about his daily mail? Why is approximately 600,000 teachers, the surit that he will not hesitate for an instant vey shows that approximately half of over paying forty-five or fifty dollars a them have had more than five years' week for an experienced trained nurse and experience. One eighth have had just in addition give her three meals a day, a five years, one eighth have had but three room to herself in his house, and pay

for years, while one fourth of the total have her laundry, if his child is physically ill, had less than two years' experience. The and then wail like a lost soul with its tail trend of age is about the same. One half

WHY

166

The Teacher's Financial Status

AN

"

are above twenty-five years of age, one facts illustrate in striking fashion the low fourth are between the ages of twenty-one standards forced upon more than half of and twenty-five, one twelfth are between our public schools. They also indicatethe ages of nineteen and twenty-one, while in fact prove—that there is a very heavy one sixth, or 100,000, are nineteen years turn-over. If one half of the teachers in of age or less. Summing these figures up the United States are under twenty-five we find that, while 54 per cent. of these years of age and have had less than five teachers do not possess the minimum qual- years of experience, it can only mean that ifications considered necessary for teach- every year the older and more experienced ing, at least 50 per cent. have not had a teachers are responding to the invitations great deal of expe

to "talent" through rience. Of course

some of the “many there must necesThey wanted to Teach!

avenues to emolusarily be a certain

ment and distinc“Identification test” held percentage of the

tion” and that each teachers in the pubrecently at a county normal

year there is a great lic schools whose exschool in Wisconsin displayed as

influx of young, unperience is limited, tonishing misinformation among

educated, inexperibut 50 per cent. is

Here are a prospective teachers.

enced "little read few of their answers: staggering. It

school marms" to means that large La Follette-A Frenchman who came

take their places. numbers of children to America during the War.

What are our not only come in Lloyd George-King of England.

cities doing to meet contact with possi- Obregon-A province in Germany.

the situation? In bly two or three in- De Valera-A bandit in Mexico.

1923-1924, out of experienced teach- Henry Cabot Lodge - Place where so- 495 cities reporting, ers during their cieties meet.

only 115 were grantschool careers, but Fiume-A mountain in Japan.

ing any increases in receive practically Steinmetz-A kind of piano.

teachers' salaries. Herrin-A title used in Germany. all of their educaYokohama-A noted Indian chief.

In 1924-1925, out of tion from teachers Paderewski-President of Mexico,

474 cities reporting, of this class. Tariff-A city in France.

only 57 are grantIt should not be

ing increases. But understood that all It is pointed out that most of the again, this is not the of the teachers in candidates who gave these answers whole of the story. the 54 per cent. who were the failures, and that they did It is not sufficient do not possess the

not constitute a very large pro- to think of salaries minimum qualifica- portion of the applicants.

in terms of dollars tions are not now

and make comparifitted to be teachers

sons with former or that many of them are not good teachers. years accordingly. If we ask the question None of them of course were fitted to be ‘What are we paying our teachers in teachers when they first undertook teach- clothes, food, rent, and in the other ing. But thousands of them by reading and necessities of life?" it will be seen that the experience have succeeded in fitting them- United States, instead of increasing their selves for their work. However, it should compensation, is actually reducing it. be remembered that they obtained their Take a concrete example which I shall experience at the expense of the children call City X. In 1913 the average salary placed in their care and that this same of teachers in this city was $1,143. In thing is going on at the present time in 1923 this average salary had increased by tens of thousands of cases. Teachers are a series of annual raises to $1,860. fitting themselves for teaching at the But the cost of living in this same city expense of the next generation. The had increased to such an extent that the

salary of $1,860 would purchase only 94 these high percentages of teachers lacking per cent. of the amount of clothes, food, in your standard qualifications are due to and rent which the 1913 salary of $1,143 teachers in the colored schools." purchased in that year. Although there has been an increase of more than 50 per

EDUCATIONAL PROGRESS cent. of the teacher's dollar salary, the act- HE old spirit of the South,” he conual salary has been reduced by 6 per cent. tinued, "was that only the better class This condition of course does not exist in of whites are entitled to adequate all cities. I have before me the figures of education. This spirit, however, I am another community where the 1923 glad to say, is passing. Thinking Souaverage salary translated into commodi- therners realize that the future of the ties is 127.2 per cent of the 1913 salary. nation depends on the education of its

. Unfortunately, this is not as creditable as children and that the further you go down it sounds, for in 1913 the average salaries the social scale the more care should be of the teachers in this community was given to educational facilities. If we only $505.

believe in the creed of Americanism, we An examination of the question of must first of all educate the children of the teachers' salaries geographically is inter- masses so that they may have the mental esting but proves very little. Take for development and understanding to uphold example New England. One thinks of that creed. The educational progress of New England as the home of super- the South is proceeding rapidly, and I education. Yet in Maine, New Hamp- think if the figures for 1924 were available shire, and Vermont less than half of the you would have positive proof of that public school teachers possess the mini- fact.” mum qualifications. On the other hand, I can say from my own experience in in Massachussetts, Connecticut, and the South during the past year that I Rhode Island between 87 and 90 per cent. believe this to be true. I am very sure do have the minimum qualifications that the time is almost here when the or better, and a very large proportion have schools of the South will compare favorconsiderably more than the minimum. ably with those of any other section of the Or compare Pennsylvania and New York. country. While in New York 82 per cent. of the There is also a popular superstition teachers possess the minimum qualifi- that as one travels westward the standcations, in Pennyslvania only 65 per cent. ards of the public schools become higher are in this class.

and higher. This is perhaps due to It seems to be the general opinion the splendid record of California. Only that public school educational standards 7 per cent. of the teachers fail to have in the South are lower than in any other the minimum qualifications and these section of the country. The 1920 figures are in the more remote rural districts. with regard to the qualification of We are getting exactly what we are teachers seem to bear this out and it was paying for. The little red school house probably true a few years ago. I asked may be passing and its place taken by a nationally known resident of the state of modern, well-constructed, consolidated Mississippi for his opinion. “Well,” he schools. But the "little read school said, "I will admit that the situation is marm” is not only with us but in conpretty bad, but I think it can be attributed stantly increasing numbers. The result to the lack of regard for the education of will be a nation of only partially educated the children of the colored population. persons, an easy prey for all sorts of Until recently it was always thought in half-baked socialistic, radical, and even the South that anything in the way of anarchistic ideas, and with the exception schools and teachers for these people was of a comparatively small group nobody good enough. I think if you could make seems to give a damn-not even the a detailed survey you would find that parents.

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