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Ireland in Geneva and in Washington

panying riots, were annual diversion in of national organization to control broadNew York and other large American casting. This might be done either under cities. The differences that exist be- Federal control or under private entertween the loyal citizens of the Irish Free prise. Mr. Hoover favors the latter. State and the Irish Republicans similarly At the present time the Government refind their counterparts in this country. tains for itself supervision of the ether,

Mr. Smiddy comes as the representa- and-should the industry conduct radio tive of the Free State, the new Dominion activities by formulating and enforcing which the majority of the Irish people, rules designed for the best possible serand the best friends of Ireland in this vice—this need not be strengthened by country, have accepted as the solution further administrative or legislative conof the Irish problem. That he will have trol. Of course the danger in Governhis difficulties with the extremists who ment control of broadcasting is, that a still hold out for an Irish Republic, com- group of men might arbitrarily decide prising all Ireland and completely sep- what information was to be put on the air. arated from British sovereignty, can well In the past year experiments have be foreseen. Fortunately, however, the proved that broadcasting can be conducted malcontents are a small minority in this on a national scale. This inter-connection country as in

their own.
The new

between stations is accomplished over Minister will find a friendly hand ex- wires of the telegraph and the telephone tended to him from all parts of the companies and by radio itself. But as United States, and there is every likeli- yet there has been organized no definite hood that his arrival will not only help nation-wide system, and, lacking that, the cause of Irish progress, but accomplish interconnection cannot possibly continue. much in clearing up a situation that has There are now 530 broadcasting stalong disquieted American politics. He tions in this country. The Department will not only stimulate the feeling of of Commerce, in classifying them, disfriendship and good will which Americans, covered that “of the present stations, whatever their origin, have for Ireland, 196, or over one third, are owned and but he will also be an influence in pro- operated by manufacturers of or dealers moting that coöperation between Great in radio apparatus, whose interest is of Britain and the United States so essential course apparent. Department stores and to modern progress. Ireland is now a similar mercantile concerns add 39 to member of the League at Geneva and is this number, and publishers 41, making also represented by a Minister at Wash- a grand total of 276 known stations, ington. Who will deny that she is not

which may be said to have a diat last a nation?

rect interest in the publicity legitimately

resulting from their own broadcasting. “An Experiment in Industrial Self- On the other side we have 85 educational Government"

institutions, 35 churches, 12 city and state agencies, 12 clubs,

all of O ENABLE the listeners, the which may be said

which may be said to operate from more broadcasters, the manufacturers, altruistic motives.” More than half of the

and the marine and other services country's stations, without great financial to agree among themselves as to the man- support, cannot present good programs ner in which radio activities are to be every day in the year. In certain conducted”—this, according to Secretary sections of the country many listenersHoover, was the purpose of the third in (particularly farmers, who now National Radio Conference, which met own nearly 400,000 receiving sets) are recently in Washington.

limited to such programs as are broadThese activities have undergone great cast by these stations—which usually development in the past four years, and means the ever-present jazz and amuseit seems now time for arranging some sort ment, and no good music, or lectures and

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talks whose aim is a "widening vision of confines of the Stock Exchange. Many national problems and national events.' members were quietly persuaded to give It is this situation that would be met up their memberships; others were exby the suggestion that all local stations pelled. In addition to this, a system of be able regularly to deliver every nation- reports from members was instituted ally important event.

which discloses to the Exchange authorThis does not mean that radio would ities the business methods of the members. become a competitor of the newspaper; With these things accomplished, the for, although big contests-athletic and Stock Exchange began to take a more political-are now announced over the active part in the campaign against those air, thus making “extras" old before they who exploit the credulity and cupidity of are on sale, the announcer cannot hope the public. Mr. Seymour L. Cromwell

, instantaneously to describe and to in then President of the Exchange, became terpret as faithfully and as fully as does

a leading advocate in the education of the the newspaper writer who can devote an public. Due to his efforts many people hour or more to his “story.” But there became better able to distinguish between can be no doubt that this year thousands the good and the bad in the financial of American citizens were, thanks to the field. radio, better informed about the person Mr. E. H. H. Simmons, the new Presialities and issues of the Presidential cam dent of the Stock Exchange, is following paign than they were four years ago. this same course of fearless attack against

Mr. Hoover gives the solution: “The financial frauds. Speaking before the local station must be able to bring to its National Association of Securities Comlisteners the greatest music and enter missioners in Richmond, he said: “The tainment of the nation, but far beyond honest stockbrokers and honest dealers this it must be able to deliver important realize that their own prosperity, and inpronouncements of public men, it must deed their very existence, hinges upon the bring instantly to our people a hundred suppression of fraud in security dealings and one matters of national interest. generally.

The Stock Exchange To this it must add its matters of local will go to the very limit of its powers in interest. This can only be accomplished fighting the fraudulent security dealer.” by regularly organized interconnection His conclusion as to the best means of on a national basis, with nationally or suppressing this evil is the one that has ganized and directed programs for some been reached by many other students of part of the day in supplement to more the problem. “What America needs in local material."

handling our seemingly perennial problem

of security frauds," he said, "is more jail Jail Sentences for Stock Swindlers sentences, quicker jail sentences, and

longer jail sentences. Not until the seIVE years ago a man identified curity swindler begins to get hurt will he with the management of the New quit the fascinating pursuit of 'easy

York Stock Exchange was asked money.' When he knows that if he why the Exchange did not take an active engages in swindling, he will in the long part in the educational campaign then run be severely dealt with in the courts, going on to save millions of Liberty he will hasten to abandon a business so Bondholders from the loss of their bonds personally dangerous to him.” to promoters of oil stocks and other doubt This active part taken by Stock Exful securities. His reply was that if they change authorities in the campaign did the cry would go up throughout the against the frauds should lead to a better country that the “big crooks were trying understanding of the true economic functo put the little crooks out of business.” tion of the Exchange and lead to a better

Since that time there has been a good differentiation in people's minds between deal of housecleaning done within the the good and the bad in Wall Street.

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The Little Things That Make Ford's Railroad a Big

a Big Success

BY SAMUEL CROWTHER

T

WE

HE Detroit, Toledo & Tronton fight has to be made. That is not the
Railroadbetter known as the Ford idea.
Ford Railroad-is not doing “We try to settle every claim out of
any one thing to speak of court,” the man who handles most of the

which some other railroad is claims said to me. “We find that claimnot doing. The Ford Motor Company is ants are not often unreasonable if the comnot doing any one thing which some pany is reasonable. They are usually other company is not doing. The Ford willing to settle at once for a sum fair secret is not a secret at all; it lies in doing to both sides. Some of the best boosters all the things. A single operation in a for the railroad are men with whom we Ford property may be done no better have settled claims on the basis of putting than in some other property. But where all the cards on the table and paying on in another company only one half or the facts. three quarters of the operations may be

WITHOUT THE LAW first-class, in the Ford idea every operation must be first-class.

E go on the theory that when a More than that, the best practice of case reaches court everybody loses; the moment is taken as only a step to- if the plaintiff wins, he has to pay a good wards better practice. Doing things well share of the verdict to his lawyer, while is not enough; everything must not only he gets no money at all at the very time be done well but must also be coördinated he needs it most—that is, just after the with every other operation-which means accident. Win or lose, we have our own that every man must be coördinated expenses of the trial to pay.

If we can with every other man. No man can settle a case at once on a fair basis, then shut himself off in a little coop and per- probably we shall pay less than it would form, it makes no difference how well, cost us just to try the case, while the purely as an individual.

plaintiff often gets more money than he All of this is fundamental in the Ford would net if he won. And he gets the management and it cuts out the waste money when he needs it. I am speaking motion and expense of passing the buck now of the personal injury cases. which is the chief pastime of many or "The freight claims are just pure ganizations.

business and it is not good business to For instance, take the handling of let disputes go to law if it can be prefreight claims and the claims for personal vented-and it nearly always can be injury on this little railroad. Claims are prevented. Whenever only our road is usually the exclusive property of the concerned in a claim, we try to settle claim department and, on even the best within a week or less, and if, as often managed railroads, the idea that good will happens, other roads are concerned, then can be created by the handling of claims we try to hurry through all of them to a seldom penetrates to the legal department. settlement. We do not want claims hangThere a case is a battle to be won at all ing over us any more than we want bills. odds. If the claimant can be tired out, “It is a remarkable fact that we have so much the better, but in any event the never been held liable in a crossing ac

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cident and we have never had to pay as they do for the circus. The parade more than $5,500 for a death claim-in ends at the biggest hall in town and or out of court. We never let a case there we have a first-class entertainment go to court unless we believe from our with good music and plenty of speakers. knowledge of the facts that the claimant We wind up with a motion picture showwants more than justice. Then we fight. ing how and why accidents happen. Our freight claims average only three The old idea was that a railroad was tenths of i per cent. of the gross revenue something to graft money out of; now I as compared with more than i per cent. believe most of the people want to help on the old railroad, and while it had an us and our men to give service. average of 1,200 claims unpaid, we have

ACCIDENTS ARE RARE an average of only 240. “However, the important side is not

E HAVE accidents involving perso much the speed of settlement as the sonal injury to passengers, but they efforts of the men to prevent claims from

have been few and no one has been arising. Every one is heart and soul in killed-in fact, no one has been really sethe safety first campaign for employees. riously injured. Every accident, serious The road is divided into group sections or otherwise, is reported instantly, and we for safety work, with committees of have a man on the ground at once to employees for each section. These men settle claims and take releases. We meet regularly and every accident is do not wait for the claim-we reach the taken up from the standpoint of seeing people first. It is the duty of the man how a like accident can be prevented in who goes to the scene to question every the future. Of course the management

one on the train and settle the whole case is behind the safety program, as all for- on the spot. But there was one case ward looking managements are to-day, where we could not get the signature but the men are now really ahead of the of every passenger-one man escaped! management. A careless man is con- Here is how it happened. sidered a menace by his fellows and, if “Train Number Five, running at a he will not take ordinary precautions, fair rate of speed near Cornwall, Ohio, no crew will work with him.

went off the tracks—nobody knows just “We are trying to get the safety first why—and turned over.

why—and turned over. Forty passenidea over to the public; it is not an easy gers were on the train, but when the mess thing in these days to prevent crossing was untangled only one man was found accidents, for a certain number of motor to be at all seriously injured—the others car drivers seem to be just plain crazy. had only cuts and bruises. One of our Most of our crossings are at grade, and agents was on the ground within the it will be a long time before we can afford hour, ready to settle claims. The train

a to eliminate them, but I have never been crew had already taken the names of able to understand why an automobile every passenger who said he was injured driver will try to beat a train to a crossing or who looked as though he might be -but they do try it every day in the injured. Three passengers each assessed week. The men join in our propaganda their damages at ten dollars. None of and especially in the safety rallies we the others found themselves more than hold in the towns along the road. These five dollars the worse for wear. The rallies are affairs-town holidays.

seriously injured man was not in con"We start the show off with a parade dition to make a settlement at once. It the mayor, the chamber of commerce, would not have been fair to try. A few all the local organizations which will turn days later, when his case had been diagout, and the railroad employees march nosed, we took his figure of three hundred about town behind the best band we can dollars as just to both sides.

The business streets decorate and “One passenger escaped. He was the the farmers come in from the country just first man out of the wreck, and the last

find.

132

Two Claimants Not Yet Satisfied

the train crew saw of him he was racing and finally jumped out of the ambulance. across the fields as fast as a pair of long Later a policeman found him seated on a legs could carry him-jumping and street curb and persuaded him to go to zigzagging like a man dodging rifle the hospital for treatment. Here he so bullets. He may have been hurt and frightened the attendants that he got very again he may not—that is what we had

poor attention. to know. · We found out who he was “Our agent began to get suspicious. and where he lived and some days later He found the man had been registered an agent started off to see him. But in the same hospital a number of years he never did. He suddenly changed his before, suffering with identically the same mind about wanting to see him. For, injuries. Then we looked further and as he got up into the Kentucky hills where found he was a fraud who had collected the man was said to live, the reputation in settlement for his supposed injuries. of the ex-passenger was not so good. It was also found at this time that he As the agent got deeper into the hills, had a peculiar faculty for producing a not only did the roads become worse, but flow of blood which made the fake injury also the reputation of the gentleman he seem even more realistic. hoped to visit. He was an all-around “Brown, upon being released from the bad man, so it appeared, a killer and a hospital, refused to see the railroad surmoonshiner, whom both the county and geon, but demanded an examination by a the revenue officers had been after for chiropractor to prove the injury he had years.

suffered. The agent consented, but led “You'd better not try to find him, the injured man to the company doctor. explained a hill country storekeeper,

storekeeper, His skull fracture was of many years 'because, although your intentions seem standing and he could throw his shoulder all right, he won't know about them in out of place at will. We tried to arrest advance. Nobody has ever wanted to him, but he fought his way out. We have see him except to put him in jail. He'd since learned that he has been committed be sure to see you first and he's a good to an institution and is still suffering with shot. I don't know what he was doing a fractured skull! on your railroad. I guess it was the first time he was ever on one.

I guess he thinks they're dangerous.'

OONSHINE whiskey is not with"Our agent thoughtfully weighed the out its effect on railroading. Along value of his own skin with that of the the D., T. & l. it seems to engender the mountaineer's and came home. So we odd delusion that a railroad track is a have one potential claimant still at large! nice, comfortable place on which to take

a nap—the head on one rail, the feet on BROKEN

the other. In a period of eight months F COURSE we have a few fake

Take the man I shall call fashion, while in a number of other cases John Brown-a great brute of a fellow the engineers sighted the lodgers just in with overhanging brow, beady eyes, and time to stop their trains. The three men prominent jaw. We found him lying who were killed preferred to rest just unconscious beside a moving train appar

around the bend of a curve—where an ently suffering from a fractured skull and engineer could not see them in time to a dislocated shoulder. His face and head stop. were smeared with blood and he was “Freight claims are due to some one's evidently in a very serious condition. carelessness—some one in the employ of

“ "The trainman called an ambulance, the shipper or of the railroad. The but before it arrived the man had re- railroads of the country have cut their gained consciousness. He was very surly, freight damages in half during the last refused to give the attendant any details, three years and we have cut ours by

TAKING NAPS ON THE RAILS

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