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"Friendly” Assistance to Disraeli and McKinley

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Premier Macdonald and His tion for private advantage? Mr. MacMotor Car

donald's defenders of course insist that he

has not done this; that the two transacHE morality of public men is al- tions have no relation with each other, ways a deeply interesting subject, and not improbably that is the fact; yet

especially in Anglo-Saxon coun the record still stands and it is almost as tries. The United States has recently important that a Prime Minister should uncovered a scandal in the Federal Gov- avoid the appearance of evil as that he ernment that caused good citizens black should avoid evil itself. For the case despair. A Secretary of the Interior of Cæsar's wife, true at the beginning of awarded oil contracts on the public do the present era, still holds good. main to a well-known millionaire, who To what extent can a public official afterward gave him $100,000 in a black accept financial assistance from sources satchel. Both parties to the proceeding other than the Government itself? The are now under indictment and awaiting question has come up in many forms. trial. Simultaneously Mr. Macdonald, It was no secret that Daniel Webster, the Prime Minister of Great Britain, has while Senator from Massachusetts, was become involved in a transaction which, financially assisted by public-spirited at least on the surface, has most unpleas- citizens of his state. William McKinley's ant implications. He receives a gift of debts in bankruptcy were paid by a group $150,000 from a Scottish millionaire as an of friends who knew that these debts endowment of a motor car, and, a month would make impossible his nomination afterward, bestows a baronetcy upon his for the Presidency. Benjamin Disraeli, benefactor.

as Prime Minister of Great Britain, was Are there any similarities in these two almost as famous for his debts as for transactions? In certain ways they are his bons mots and was probably more not unlike. Both Mr. Macdonald and worried by the money lenders than by the Mr. Fall personally profit from money distracting domestic and foreign politics gifts bestowed by men to whom, by of his day. His latest biographers, virtue of their official positions, they Monypenny and Buckle, have described grant important favors. Curiously enough how a friend assisted him in these crises the defenses of the two men are the and how Disraeli’s gratitude led him to same. Mr. Macdonald explains that Sir offer a peerage in reward. This is almost Alexander Grant, his benefactor, is a a parallel case to Mr. Macdonald's, the life-long friend, whose purpose in making significant point being that Mr. Montagu, the gift is purely personal and that the Disraeli's benefactor, declined to accept subsequent governmental favor extended the proffered honor. to him has nothing to do with the en The history of these and of other dowed motor car. That is precisely what cases of gratitude indicates that the wise Mr. Fall says about Mr. Doheny and his public man is he who keeps himself $100,000. There is one great difference carefully aloof from all financial obligain the two transactions. The bestowal tions. The temptation is great, the of a baronetcy is quite an insignificant innocence of the whole proceeding in favor compared with the alienation of

many cases apparent-as in that of Mr. great oil reserves set apart for the use of Macdonald--but the public has an amazthe Navy. The existence of one more ing talent for malice and misinterpretaof these baubles does not prejudice the tion. There are few of McKinley's public interest, whereas the ravishment admirers who do not wish that his fiof great public properties is a serious nancial embarrassment did not constantly matter.

come to the fore, demanding explanaYet the fundamental principle is not tion, and Mr. Macdonald's motor car, different in the two cases. Should the harmless as it is, will plague him for holder of an official position use that posi- many years.

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An Invaluable Training for between the ages of twelve and eighteen
Citizenship

become enrolled, but also young women

who, as citizen scouts, learn to take active TWAS once the boast of Sparta that parts in the lives of their neighborhoods her womanhood stood as well pre and as wage-earners or service-givers

pared as her manhood to carry to vic become true assets to even larger comtorious conclusions the many wars of her munities. dominion, for, in accordance with the law Thus the Girl Scouts have become an of Lycurgus, not only the young men but influence of the utmost value and signifialso the girls of Lacedæmon were practiced cance in the lives of American girls and in the exercises of the stadium and the women. The austere womanhood of field. By a somewhat analogous process Sparta stressed but one phase of developthe womanhood of the United States is ment, the physical, and the courage that becoming daily a more capable and more so often goes with the well-muscled human highly developed factor of the nation's being.

being. But the womanhood of America citizenship. The organization of the profits by the experience of the centuries. Girl Scouts takes the place of the Tablets For there is the mental phase too, and the of Lycurgus. It has become the domi- spiritual. nant influence in the lives of thousands of girls who two decades ago would have Married Women and Maiden Names remained until old age claimed them, uninformed, undeveloped physically and IN REFUSING to pay a married to a certain extent mentally, and of less woman's salary unless she signs her than full value to the country. Now husband's name to the payroll, the these girls become at an early age, some Interior Department has forced to the of them as early as eight or nine, units in light one of the minor issues of the femina group system that trains them in three

ist movement. The Interior Department interests that will become most vital to has followed the example of the State them: home, health, and citizenship. Department, which for years has declined

The Girl Scouts organization was to issue passports to a married woman founded in 1912 by Mrs. Juliette Low, in except in her husband's name. The reSavannah, Georgia. The original enroll luctance of certain advanced women to ment was but a handful, but in the course adopt a married cognomen is apparently of a trifle more than a decade it has grown increasing. It is the way the apostles of to 130,000 members, with organizations in the new era assert their independence, every state and in Hawaii, Porto Rico, and prove to the world that a woman is and Alaska. The complete registration a woman for a' that. The idea evidently of the Girl Scouts Incorporated, as prevails that the assumption of a man's they are now called, with headquarters name is a relic of slavery, an outworn reat 189 Lexington Avenue, New York, minder of the days when woman was amounts to 203,762 members. The ex merely a chattel, a relic of barbarism. traordinary development of this move Is it a fact that the use of a common ment can be explained by one thing only: name by all members of the family, and the tremendous demand and appreciation that the name of the husband and father, of the work it accomplishes in taking is a survival of the pre-glacial age, and girls at a formative period in their lives therefore a badge of the inferior moral and instructing them in mental and physi- status of woman? It would be interestcal hygiene and in the use of their minds ing to have the views on this subject of and bodies to the benefit of their commun certain profound students of the family ities and, beyond these, of their country. relation, such as the late Professor

The proof of the maturity and sound- Sumner, of Yale. One would especially ness of the training that it supplies may like to hear him, with his amazing knowlbe found in the fact that not only do girls edge of human institutions and his fine

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Feminism in the Fiji Islands and in the United States

and ironic gift for lucid exposition, di- promiscuous that the father is unknown. late upon this topic. Not improbably There are many savage tribes to-day Professor Sumner would quickly show where the descent is traced through the these Washington feminists that the use mother. Such is the practice among of a husband's name, far from being a the Fiji Islanders, the Senegalese, and the mark of inferiority and subjection, was an lowest races of the Congo and Australia. eloquent sign of woman's improved status Mr. Donald B. MacMillan has recently in civilized society. The fundamental told us that the matriarchate prevails reason why a married woman takes her among the Esquimaux. All these savhusband's name is the preservation of ages make woman the head of the family, family unity. Certain social philosophers for the father is unknown. -possibly misguided men-regard the The fact therefore that, in Europe and evolution of the family as the greatest in those nations (such as the United fact in European civilization. Certainly States) that are merely Europe transthe nations in which the family organiza- planted, the family name is the father's tion is most sacredly preserved are the name, simply indicates the improved ones in which the position of woman is status of woman which is perhaps the most dignified and independent. The greatest social achievement of the ages. family, in the European or American sense, Of course the adoption of the husband's does not exist in Mohammedan or Orien- name by the wife is merely one essential tal countries, and certainly the status of phase of this custom. Even the most woman in Turkey, in Persia, or in China advanced feminists follow the practice, in is one that the average American or one form or another. It is Miss Paul's European woman would hardly care to theory that the use of a man's name by a have for her own. Even Miss Alice woman is a mark of subjection. But Miss Paul, the leader of the present agitation, Paul herself bears a man's name-her probably does not aspire to destroy the father's. Is it not just as degrading to family as the great social unit.

be the “chattel” of one's father as of one's The use of an identical cognomen by husband? Nor is the problem solved by all family members-husband, wife, and a woman taking her mother's name, for children-is not only a great social con- that, again, is her grandfather's—and so venience, practically indispensable for the the odium remains. Possibly one solupurpose of identification, but it is also. tion would be for husband and wife, on properly considered, a not unlovely sym- marriage, to discard their old appellations bol of this fine relationship. But why and assume a new and common one; but the husband's? Why not use the wife's that likewise destroys family unity, for name, as, in certain exceptional cases, is even the most advanced Americans like sometimes done? The reason is because to retain a certain association with their every family should have a head, not fathers and mothers. necessarily for purposes of social domi- There is apparently no way out of it, nance, but for the purpose of tracing des- except the continuance of the present cent. That descent is traced through the usage, with the distinct understanding father is one of the greatest triumphs of that it is merely a social convenience, incivilization. It is the basis of morality dulged in for preserving family unity, in all modern communities and it is the making clear that American social life has highest tribute which the world pays to risen above the stage of the matriarchate, the worth of woman. It has taken civil- and chiefly perhaps, savingembarrassment ization countless ages to reach this exalted on certain occasions, such as regisconception. In primitive societies des- tering at hotels and traveling on steamcent is traced not through the father, ships. Meanwhile there are other far more but the mother. This is known as the important matters demanding the best enmatriarchate. The reason is obvious: ergies of those who are seeking to improve in such communities sex relations are so the position of woman and the family.

Are You Interested in Your Own facts about your own heredity can now Heredity?

be forwarded to a scientific center, where

they are added to a mass of gradually OLONEL WILLIAM BOYCE growing information which, in time, will

THOMPSON, of New York, has be sufficiently varied and complete to

given $6,000,000 to endow an form a secure basis for scientific study of institution for scientific research in the the general laws of human heredity. growth and diseases of plants. Such Any one who will write to the Eugenics researches are already under way in many Record Office of the Carnegie Foundaplaces, but the distinction of the new tion, located at Cold Spring Harbor, New institution is its insistence upon coöpera- York, will receive printed blanks upon tive work by experts, who have heretofore which he can prepare organized data upon worked independently in the numerous the physical and mental traits of himself special lines of investigation. Colonel and his blood kin. Thousands of AmerThompson believes that if a plant chemist icans have already filed this information and a plant biologist and a plant ento with the Eugenics Record Office, and in mologist work together on an experiment another generation, if enough others do they will jointly find out things that all likewise, scientists will doubtless have three would not find working separately. enough data to make discoveries of imThis seems a reasonable hope, and, if it is mense value. Among these discoveries fulfilled in practice, the plan will doubt- should be the ability to predict the probless be adopted in many other fields of able characteristics of the children of any research.

union where the characteristics of the Nearly every man and woman of families of the couple are known. Cernormal good feeling has at some time tainly much that is now guesswork or envied men who, like Colonel Thompson superstition will be replaced by solid and John D. Rockefeller and other bene- knowledge. And every person who now factors, have the means to contribute files his own data can justly feel that he something of general and permanent value has contributed something indispensable to mankind by research foundations like and unique to the most important of all the present one. But it is entirely possi- the sciences, the science of man himself. ble, without spending any money, for every intelligent person in the United Fewer American Paupers States to lend invaluable aid to one of the most important scientific investiga

HERE is a certain sardonic touch tions ever undertaken. This investiga

in the fact that, at the time when tion is designed to find out the laws that

Presidential candidate is touring govern human heredity. The only way the country, picturing the increasing woes to discover these laws is to assemble a of the workingman, a government report vast mass of facts, which the scientists should disclose the extent to which paucan study and thus find the common perism is decreasing in the United States. thread of natural law that runs through And it is pauperism of a technical kindthem. Scientists in studying plant life the kind that finds refuge in almshouses. can try all kinds of experiments with In 1910 there were 84,198 inmates in the plants, controlling the conditions of soil poorhouses of the United States, comand light and air for generations, and thus pared with 78,090 in 1924—this out of a accumulating the material they need. population of 115,000,000. Reduced to But studies in human heredity cannot be comparative statistics, this means that so controlled, and the data have to be 71.5 men and women out of each 100,000 gathered by scientists with the help of are being supported by their communities other human beings.

now as compared with 91.5 in 1910. At this point helpfully minded people Certainly these are extremely low figures, can serve science most usefully. The and low as they are, the even more en

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12

Life Imprisonment or Death by Hanging?

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couraging fact is that they are so rapidly fort and even in luxury. The recent revgoing down. There are many towns in elation of the Census Bureau that there this country which have no poorhouses are now 71 paupers per 100,000, whereas at all, because there are no candidates in 1910 there were 91 per 100,000, is for admission, and others in which such merely another statistical confirmation of buildings are most sparsely populated. a well-known social improvement.

The public has not yet forgotten the curious "reaction" produced in the minds The Loeb-Leopold Sentence of “charity experts" some time ago, when a well-known millionaire announced

HERE is little doubt that a considhis intention of using his great fortune

erable majority of the newspaperfor the erection of a magnificent orphan

reading public was disappointed age. Such an institution, they declared, with the sentence imposed by Justice was unnecessary and unwise, partly be- Caverly in the case of Loeb and Leocause more intelligent methods were com pold. The public instinct on this point ing into use for the rearing of orphans, was correct, because what the public and partly because most existing orphan- wanted was not so much the vengeful ages had difficulty in finding unfortunates death of two horribly dangerous criminals enough to fill the buildings.

as the assurance that they would be put The problem of poverty is by no means beyond power to do further harm. solved, for poverty is not the same thing

The World's Work for July and as pauperism; the large cities are certainly August contained two articles on “The full of misery, and the time is still far dis Cause of Crime” and “The Cure for tant when the care of the destitute will Crime.” These articles expounded the cease to be an obligation of the state. theories of two distinguished men of great Yet it is just as true that the condition of practical experience with criminals-the those who toil is steadily improving and

theories, in brief, that calculated crimes that the share of the workingman in the are invariably the product of defective profits of industry is every day becoming tissue of the basal ganglia, and that such greater. Mr. La Follette's theory of our defects are inherited and incurable. Some present economic organization is that it space was devoted to the behavior of is an association of gigantic monopolies, cold-blooded murderers. Though the dealing in the necessaries of existence, material for these articles was assembled and exacting from the consumer con in February and the first article written stantly increasing prices for the essentials in March, no such perfect illustration of of daily life. As proof of this sweeping the Hickson-Olson theory was then availcharge he points to the steadily increasing able as the character and conduct of the prices of all products. That prices have

That prices have murderers of young Robert Franks, who vastly increased in twenty years, especi- committed their crime in May, too late ally in the last ten years, is a patent fact. for reference in the magazine. Every But this phenomenon is not peculiar to element of that theory is borne out in the United States. It has taken place in

their case.

Most strikingly, the murall countries—in most of them to a greater derers demonstrate that intellectual genextent than in this and is due to such ius may be housed in the same body with apparent facts that it would be insult- emotional imbecility. Intellectual briling human intelligence to recount them. liancy was the outstanding quality of Mr. La Follette ignores the other more both, and caused their families and friends apparent fact that wages have increased to overlook emotional defects of the most even more than prices, so that the reward dangerous kind. For example, their of the workingman is far greater than in serious assertions that they had no compre-war days. Any one who observes the punction about inflicting needless cruelliving conditions of the workingman ties upon birds and insects were doubtless knows how they have improved in com- passed off by their friends as a joke, be

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