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lishing during the whole of this period, still never neglecting to amass every species of information that might be made available. On going over such an extent of ground much has been culled that would either never have been known to me, or, if known, would have been forgotten, had the book been more hastily got up; and all those subjects, a knowledge of which, at first, may appear irrelevant or useless, will in practice be found highly necessary, there having been no dictionary or book of reference kept in the printing offices to which the workmen could apply. Should the work prove less useful than I could wish it, the fault is in myself, and not in the subject; but if on its perusal the young be instructed, the knowledge of the more mature workman be refreshed and confirmed, and the general reader find its utility as a book of reference, then have I nothing to regret, but much to be grateful for. Lord Bacon says, "Every man is a debtor to his profession, from the which, as men do of course seek to receive countenance and profit, so ought they of duty to endeavour themselves by way of amends to be a help thereunto."
ART OF PRINTING.
"ABBREVIATIONS are characters, or else marks on letters, to signify either a word or syllable. & is the character for and, ye is the abbreviated, yt is that abbreviated; and several other such. Straight strokes over any of the vowels abbreviate m or n. They have been much used by printers in old times, to shorten or get in matter; but now are wholly left off as obsolete."-Moxon. In reprints of old books, where the original is closely followed, we occasionally meet with q as an abbreviation of que: this mark of contraction for ue was attached to the q, and was originally used solely for that purpose; for the convenience of using the q without it, the abbreviation was afterwards cast separate, and by degrees it was adopted as a point or stop to divide a sentence, becoming the semicolon, the next in order to the comma.
Some few authors yet retain the; after a q, for the termination ue, which appears to be the proper mark.
Abbreviations"occur very frequently, and are often the occasion of perplexity to readers less familiarly acquainted with them, in the earlyprinted books. These also originated from the idea which the first Printers entertained of making their books as much as possible resemble manuscripts. That they should perpetually occur in manuscripts is natural enough; for the librarii, or writers of manuscripts, necessarily had recourse to them to shorten their labours. These abbreviations, in the infancy of Printing, were perhaps to be excused; but it seems they multiplied to so preposterous an extent that it was found necessary to publish a book, both in the Gothic and Roman character, to explain their meaning." -Beloe's Anecdotes of Literature, &c. See DOMESDAY BOOK. RECORDS. SIGLA.
A. B. Artium Baccalaureus. Bachelor
A. C.-Ante Christum. Before the Birth
A. D.-Anno Domini.
A. D.-Ante Diem.
In the Year of
B.C.L.-Bachelor of Civil Law. B.D.-Baccalaureus Divinitatis. Bachelor of Divinity. B.M.-Baccalaureus Medicinæ. Bachelor of Medicine.
Bp. - Bishop.
B. V. Bene Vale. Farewell.
Calendis. The first Day of the
C. C. C..
Corpus Christi College. ca. sa.- Capias ad satisfaciendum.
C. J. C.-Caius Julius Cæsar.
Cl. Clarus. The celebrated.
Cl. Dom. Com. Clerk of the House of
Clk. - Clerk, a Clergyman.
Capitulum. Chapter. Companion of the Bath.
Coh. - Cohors.
C. O. S. S.- Consulibus. To the Consuls, or, From the Consuls, or, By the Consuls. Being Consuls, or, During the Consulate. C. P.- Common Pleas.
C. P. S.-Custos Privati Sigilli. of the Privy Seal.
D. B.; Domesd. B. Domesday Book.
D. C.L.- Doctor of Civil Law.
D. D.- Dono dedit. Gave as a Present. D. D. D.- Dat, Dicat, Dedicat. He gives,
he devotes, he makes sure, or, consecrates. D.F.- Dean of Faculty (Scotland). D. G.-Deo gratias. Thanks to God. D. G.-Dei gratiâ. By the Grace of God. Dict.- Dictator.
D. M. S.-Diis Manibus Sacrum. Sacred to the Gods of the dead. Dn. - Dominus.
Do. Ditto. The same.
D. O. M.-Deo Optimo Maximo. To God the best, the greatest.
Custos Sigilli. Keeper of the Seal.
Ex S. C.-Ex Senatûs consulto. Ex V.-Ex Voto.
Exempli gratiâ. As for ex
F. E. S.- Fellow of the Entomological
F.G.S.Fellow of the Geological Society. F. H.S.-Fellow of the Horticultural Society.
Fi. B. Fide bonâ.
fi, fa. Fieri facias.
Id. - Idem.
i. e. - Id est.
Ig. - Igitur.
I. H. S.-Jesus Hominum Salvator. Jesus
In the same Place.
the Jews. Ins. Instant. Of this Month.
K. S.-Knight of the Sword of Sweden. K.S.A.-Knight of St. Anne of Russia. K.S. E.-Knight of St. Esprit (or Holy Ghost) of France.
K.S.F.-Knight of St. Fernando of Spain.
K.S.F.M.-Knight of St. Ferdinand and Merit of Naples.
K. S. G.- Knight of St. George of Russia. K.S. H.-Knight of St. Hubert of Ba. varia.
K.S. J.-Knight of St. Januarius of
K. S. S.-Knight of the Southern Star of the Brazils.
K. S. W.-Knight of St. Wladimir of Russia.
K.T.-Knight of the Thistle. K.T.S.-Knight of the Tower and Sword of Portugal. K.W.-Knight of William of the Netherlands.
p. - Page.
Obiit. He or she died. Three Half-pence.
Old Testament. Ounce.
What may be taken up, in compounding Medicine, between the two Fingers and Thumb.
Pag. Pagina. A Page of a Book.
P. C.-Patres Conscripti. Conscript Fathers; Senators. Pent.-Pentecost. Per Cent.-Per Centum. By the Hundred.
Philomath.-Philomathematicus. A Lover
Pon. M.-Pontifex Maximus.
P. P.- Pater Patriæ.
P. P. C.-[French] Pour prendre congé. To take Leave.
P. R.Populus Romanus, The Roman People.
P. R. S.-President of the Royal Society.
q. d. Q. E.
- Quadrans. A Farthing. Quasi. As it were; almost. q. Quære. Inquire.
Q. C. Queen's College.
The Father of his
Q. C.-Queen's Counsel.
As if he should say. Which is.