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T. R. — Rex. King.

T. - Titus. R. A. - Royal Academician.

Tab. – Tabularius. R. A. - Royal Artillery.

Testa de N. — Testa de Nevill. R. E. - Royal Engineers.

T.L. — Testamento legavit. Bequeathed Reg. — Regi.

by Will. Resp. — Respublica. Republic.

Tr. Br. Mus. - Trustee of the British Rev. - Reverend.

Museum. R. M. - Royal Marines.

T. R. E. - Tempore Regis Edwardi. R. M. Resident Magistrate.

Time of King Edward. R. N. Royal Navy.

T. R. M. –Tribunus militum. A military R.N.O. - Riddare af Nordstjerne. Knight Tribune.

of the Order of the Polar Star. Ro. — Right-hand Page. R.P. - Respublica. Republic.

U. R.S. S. commonly F.R.S. - Regiæ So- U.E.I.C. - United East India Company.

cietatis Socius. Fellow of the Royal U.J.D. — Utriusque Juris Doctor. Doctor Society.

of both Laws. R. S. V. P.-[French] Réponse s'il vous

ult. - Ultimus. The last. plaît. Answer if you please.

U, S. United States of America.
Rt. Hon. — Right Honourable.
R. W.0.— Riddare af Wasa Orden.

V.
Knight of the Order of Wasa.

V. - Vide. See.

V. - Verse.
S.

V.

Versus. Against.
S. - Sacrum ; Sepulcrum ; Senatus. V. -(Sub) voce.
S.-South.

V. C. — Vir clarissimus. A celebrated Man. -Uncia. An Ounce.

v.g. - Verbi gratiâ. As for Example. Sax. Chron. - Saxon Chronicle.

Vic. - Victores; Victor ; Victoria. S.C. -Senatâus Consultum. The Decree viz, - Videlicet.

That is to say. of the Senate.

VI. - Videlicet.

That is to say.
Scil. - Scilicet. To wit.
Scip. - Scipio.

W.
S. D.-Salutem dicit. Sends Health.

W.- West. S. L. - South Latitude.

W.M.S. - Wesleyan Missionary Society. S.L. - Solicitor at Law (in Scotland). S. P. Salutem Precatur. He prays for

W.S. - Writer to His Majesty's Signet. his Prosperity. S. P. - Sine prole. Without issue.

X. S. P.D. - Salutem plurimam dicet. He

Christmas. wishes much Health.

X.

Christian. S.P.G. - Society for the Propagation of Xpofer. - Christopher. the Gospel.

Xps. - Christus. S. P. Q. R. - Senatus Populusque Ro- X. - Christ. manus. The Senate and People of Rome. Xtian. - Christian. See BOTANICAL AUTHORITIES. Law AUTHORITIES. ORGANIC REMAINS. SIGLA.

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ACCENTED LETTERS. “In English, the accentual marks are chiefly used in spelling-books and dictionaries, to mark the syllables which require a particular stress of the voice in pronunciation.

“ The stress is laid on long and short syllables indiscriminately. In order to distinguish the one from the other, some writers of dictionaries

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have placed the grave on the former, and the acute on the latter, in this manner : • Minor, mineral, lively, líved, rival, ríver.'

“ The proper mark to distinguish a long syllable is this : as, Rosy:' and a short one thus ° : as · Fălly. This

last mark is called a breve. “ A diæresis, thus marked ", consists of two points placed over one of the two vowels that would otherwise make a diphthong, and parts thein into two syllables : as, “Creator, coadjutor, aërial.'

A circumflex, thus marked ^, when placed over some vowel of a word, denotes a long syllable : as, ' Euphrates."Murray.

The c à la queue, or the c with a tail, is a French sort, and sounds like ss, when it stands before a o u, as in ça, garçon. To make a tail to a capital C, a small figure of 5 with the top dash cut away, thus 5, and justified close to the bottom of the letter, answers the purpose, when it is required; for the letter-founders do not cast this letter with a tail, neither in the capitals nor small capitals. c.

The ñ is used in the Spanish language, and is pronounced like a double n, or rather like ni ; but short and quick, as in España. It is a sort which is used in the middle of words, but rarely at the beginning.

In the Welsh language, û and ŷ, as well as the other circumflex letters, are used either to direct the pronunciation, as in yngŵydd, in presence; ynghyd, together; or else for distinction sake; as, mwg, a mug; mûg, smoke; hyd, to, until; hyd, length.

Accents. See Accented Letters.

ACTS OF PARLIAMENT. There are various Acts of Parliament which affect printers, and inflict penalties for the neglect or violation of their provisions. Many printers frequently subject themselves to penal. ties, which are in many instances very heavy, through ignorance of those laws. To enable them to avoid these penalties, and also to show the legal restrictions on the business, I have taken great pains to examine the whole of the Statutes at Large, and to extract from them all such clauses as are in force, that affect the trade. - See the respective subjects.

ADMIRATION, Note of. See PUNCTUATION.

ADVERTISEMENTS. By the Act 3 & 4 Will. 4. c. 23. s. 1., intituled “ An Act to reduce the Stamp Duties on Advertisements and on certain Sea Insurances ; to repeal the Stamp Duties on Pamphlets, and on Receipts for Sums under Five Pounds ; and to exempt Insurances on Farming Stock from Stamp Duties ;” the Act 55 Geo. 3. c. 184. ; the Act 55 Geo. 3. c. 185.; and the Act 56 Geo. 3. c. 56., for the Duties granted and payable in Ireland, are repealed; "save and except so much and such Part and Parts of the said Duties respectively as shall have accrued or been incurred before or upon the said Fifth Day of July One thousand eight hundred and thirty-three, and shall then or at any Time afterwards be or become due or payable and remain in arrear and unpaid; all which said Duties so remaining in arrear and unpaid as aforesaid shall be recoverable by the same Ways and Means, and with such and the same Penalties, as if this Act had not been made.

s. 2. “ And be it enacted, That from and after the Fifth Day of July One thousand eight hundred and thirty-three, in lieu and stead of the said several Duties upon Adver. tisements and Sea Insurances by this Act repealed, there shall be granted, raised, levied, collected, and paid, in Great Britain and Ireland respectively, unto and for the Use of His Majesty, His Heirs and Successors, for and in respect of the several Articles, Matters, and Things mentioned and described in the Schedule to this Act annexed, the several Duties or Sums of Money set down in Figures against the same respectively, or otherwise specified and set forth in the said Schedule; and that the said Schedule, and the several Provisions, Regulations, and Directions therein contained, with respect to the said Duties, and the Articles, Matters, and Things charged therewith, shall be deemed and taken to be part of this Act; and that the said Duties shall be denominated and deemed to be Stamp Duties, and shall be under the Care and Management of the Commissioners of Stamps for the Time being for the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

s. 3. “And in order to provide for the Collection of the Duty by this Act granted on

Advertisements contained in or published with any Pamphlet, Literary Work, or Periodical Paper, be it enacted, That one printed Copy of every Pamphlet or Literary Work or Periodical Paper (not being a Newspaper), containing or having published therewith any Advertisements or Advertisement liable to Stamp Duty, which shall be published within the Cities of London, Edinburgh, or Dublin respectively, or within Twenty Miles thereof respectively, shall, within the Space of Six Days next after the Publication thereof, be brought, together with all Advertisements printed therein, or published or intended to be published therewith, to the Head Office for Stamps in Westminster, Edinburgh, or Dublin nearest to which such Pamphlet, Literary Work, or Periodical Paper shall have been published, and the Title thereof, and the Christian Name and Surname of the Printer and Publisher thereof, with the Number of Advertisements contained therein or published therewith; and any Stamp Duty by Law payable in respect of such Advertisements shall be registered in a Book to be kept at such Office, and the Duty on such Advertisements shall be there paid to the Receiver General of Stamp Duties for the Time being, or his Deputy or Clerk, or the proper authorized Officer, who shall thereupon forthwith give a Receipt for the same; and one printed Copy of every such Pamphlet, Literary Work, or Paper as aforesaid, which shall be published in any Place in the United Kingdom, not being within the Cities of London, Edinburgh, or Dublin, or within Twenty Miles thereof respectively, shall, within the Space of Ten Days next after the Publication thereof, be brought, together with all such Advertisements as afore. said, to the Head Distributor of Stamps for the Time being within the District in which such Pamphlet, Literary Work, or Paper shall be published; and such Distributor is hereby required forth with to register the same in manner aforesaid in a Book to be by him kept for that Purpose ; and the Duty payable in respect of such Advertisements shall be thereupon paid to such Distributor, who shall give a Receipt for the same; and if the Duty which shall be by Law payable in respect of any such Advertisements as aforesaid shall not be duly paid within the respective Times and in the Manner herein-before limited and appointed for that Purpose, the Printer and Publisher of such Pamphlet, Literary Work, or Paper, and the Publisher of any such Advertisements, shall respectively forfeit and pay the Sum of Twenty Pounds for every such Offence; and in any Action, Information, or other Proceeding for the Recovery of such Penalty, or for the Recovery of the Duty on any such Advertisements, Proof of the Payment of the said Duty shall lie upon the Defendant.

s. 4. “ And be it enacted, That all the Powers, Provisions, Clauses, Regulations, and Directions, Fines, Forfeitures, Pains, and Penalties, contained in or imposed by the several Acts of Parliament relating to the Duties on Advertisements and Sea Insurances respectively, and the several Acts of Parliament relating to any prior Duties of the same Kind or Description, in Great Britain and Ireland respectively, shall be of full Force and Effect with respect to the Duties by this Act granted, and to the Vellum, Parchment, Paper, Articles, Matters, and Things charged or chargeable therewith, and to the Persons liable to the Payment of the said Duties, so far as the same are or shall be applicable in all Cases not hereby expressly provided for, and shall be observed, applied, enforced, and put in execution for the raising, levying, collecting, and securing of the said Duties hereby granted, and otherwise relating thereto, so far as the same shall not be superseded by and shall be consistent with the express Provisions of this Act, as fully and effectually to all Intents and Purposes as if the same had been herein repeated and especially enacted with reference to the said Duties by this Act granted."

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THE SCHEDULE.

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Advertisements:

Duty. For and in respect of every Advertisement contained in or published with £ .. d.

any Gazette or other Newspaper, or contained in or published with any other Periodical Paper, or in or with any Pamphlet or Literary Work,

Where the same shall be printed and published in Great Britain

And where the same shall be printed and published in Ireland 0 1 (So much of this Act repealed by 6 & 7 Will. 4. c. 76. s. 32. “ as provides the Mode of collecting the Duty on Advertisements contained in or published with any Pamphlet, Periodical Paper, or Literary Work."]

ALBION Press. See Cope's Press.

ALGEBRAIC CHARACTERS. + is the sign of addition ; as c + d denotes that d is to be added to c.

– is the sign of subtraction; thus, c-d implies that d is to be subtracted from c.

x is the sign of multiplication; as c x d means the product of c and d. + is the sign of division ; as c + d signifies the quotient of c and d.

= is the sign of equality; thus c + d= e means the sum of c and d equals e.

w is the sign of the square root; thus vx denotes the square root

of x.

a

34 is the sign of the cube root, and generally any root of a quantity may be denoted by this sign, with the index of the root placed over it; thus 3x signifies the cube root, yx the biquadrate root, &c.; but they may likewise be represented by the reciprocals of these indices; as x1, x}, implying the square and cube roots of x.

A vinculum is a line drawn over several quantities, and means that they are taken together, as v ax + b signifies the square root of a x and b. - Phillips's Compendium of Algebra. 12mo. 1824.

ALMANACK. See NAUTICAL ALMANACK.

ALPHABET. A perfect alphabet of the English language, and, indeed, of every other language, would contain a number of letters, precisely equal to the number of simple articulate sounds belonging to the language. Every simple sound would have its distinct character ; and that character be the represeutative of no other sound. But this is far from being the state of the English alphabet. It has more original sounds than distinct significant letters; and, consequently, some of these letters are made to represent, not one sound alone, but several sounds. This will appear by reflecting, that the sounds signified by the united letters th, sh, ng, are elementary, and have no single appropriate characters, in our alphabet ; and the letters a and u represent the different sounds heard in hat, hate, hall ; and but, bull, mute.

The letters of the English language, called the English Alphabet, are twenty-six in number.-Murray.

The following is a list of the Roman, Italic, and Old English Characters, being those used at the present day in England. The Roman and Italic are also used by most of the European nations.

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For the characters of the different languages, see their respective names, ARABIC, &c.

Tacquet, an able mathematician, in his Arithmeticiæ Theor., Amst. 1704, states, that the various combinations of the twenty-four letters (without any repetition) will amount to

620,448,401,733,239,439,360,000. Thus it is evident, that twenty-four letters will admit of an infinity of combinations and arrangements, sufficient to represent not only all the conceptions of the mind, but all words in all languages whatever.

Clavius the Jesuit, who also computes these combinations, makes them to be only 5,852,616,738,497,664,000.

As there are more sounds in some languages than in others, it follows of course that the number of elementary characters, or letters, must vary in the alphabets of different languages. The Hebrew, Samaritan, and

. Syriac alphabets, have twenty-two letters; the Arabic, twenty-eight; the Persic, and Egyptian or Coptic, thirty-two; the present Russian, fortyone; the Shanscrit, fifty; the Cashmirian and Malabaric are still more numerous. — Astle.

ALTERATION OF MARGIN. In works that are published in different sizes, this is the changing of the margin from the small paper to the large paper edition, when at press.

After the margin for the small paper copies is finally made, the additional width of the gutters, the backs, and the heads, is ascertained in the same manner, by folding a sheet of the large paper, that it was in the first instance. The additional pieces for the change should, if possible, be in one piece for each part. See MARGIN.

Folios, quartos, and octavos, are the sizes most usually printed with an alteration of margin ; duodecimos are sometimes, but rarely; of smaller sizes I never knew an instance.

The alteration of margin requires care, for it occasionally happens that the sheet is imposed with the wrong furniture; and where it happens to be in one form only, and that form is first laid on, it sometimes passes undiscovered till a revise of the second form is pulled, when the error is detected, but too late to rectify it; the consequence must be, to cancel a part of the sheet, or to print the reiteration with the margin also wrong; nay, sometimes both forms are worked off with the furniture wrong, without being perceived till the compositor comes to distribute, particularly when they are printed at different presses. Such errors destroy the uniformity of the book, and spoil its appearance.

These mistakes can only be avoided by care and attention on the part of the compositor, the reader, and the pressman; but I would recommend that the furniture for the alteration should be cut of different lengths from the furniture of the small paper: in octavos the gutters and backs should be the exact length of the page, and be always imposed within the sidestick; and the head should be the width of the two pages and the gutter, and be imposed within the footstick. This method of cut. ting the furniture of precise lengths for the alteration, and locking it up within the side and foot sticks, will not only distinguish it from the rest. of the furniture, and from the pieces that may be put in for the convenience of quoining the form, but will also preserve it from being injured by the mallet and shooting stick, in locking up, and by the indention of the quoins.

The same principle, of cutting the alteration to precise lengths, and locking it up within the side and foot sticks, will hold good in all other sizes, where it is required : in quartos, the pieces must be cut to the length and width of the page; and in folios to the length of the page only, as the margin of the head is regulated at the press.

ANCIENT CUSTOMS. The following Customs used in Printing Offices in former times are extracted from Moxon's Mechanick Exercises, published in 1683, the first practical work that appeared on the Art of Printing. I insert them because I think it interesting to trace the old Customs, that were established by printers to preserve Order among

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