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board the ship Sainte Marie at Cap Rouge, August 31, 1637, and addressed to the provincial of the Jesuits, for the province of France; following this (pp. 314-336), is a letter of 23 pp., from Le Jeune to the provincial, dated Sept. 11, evidently sent in the same ship with the Relation, as a postscript; the third section, of 256 pp., separate pagination, is the annual Huron Relation, rendered to Le Jeune,- this time, signed by François Joseph le Mercier, and dated at Ihonattiria, June 21, 1637. Owing to the fact that Le Jeune's two contributions are continuously paged, they are classed by bibliographers as together constituting Part I. of the Relation of 1637; and the separately-paged Huron report as Part II. thereof.
For the text of this document, we have had recourse to the original printed Relation (first issue), in Lenox Library, which is usually designated as “H. 67," because described in Harrisse's Notes, no. 67.
Collation (H. 67): Title, with verso blank, i leaf; “Extraict du Priuilege du Roy” (dated Paris, Feb. 5, 1638), p. (1); "Approbation ” by the provincial (dated Paris, Jan. 22, 1638), p. (1); “ Table des Chapitres,” pp. (2); introductory letter, Le Jeune to the provincial, pp. (4); text by Le Jeune (15 chaps.), pp. 1-313; “Dernière lettre dv P. Paul le Ieune," pp. 314-336; text by Le Mercier (Huron Relation, 7 chaps.), pp. 1–256 (separate pagination).A folding wood-engraving, representing fireworks, appears between pp. 18 and 19 of Part I.
Peculiarities: The pagination is, in places, erratic: In Part I., p. 14 is mispaged 13; p. 182, mispaged 128; there are no pp. 193 – 196 in this part, signature “M” ending with p. 192, and signature “N” beginning with p. 197. The copy in Harvard College has p.
167 mispaged as 168, though in both issues in the Lenox Library the pagination, in this respect, is correct. In Part II. (the Huron Relation), p. 170 is mispaged 172.
There are several errors in page references, in the Table des Chapitres, which will be found corrected within brackets, in the present issue. Signature “A” begins with p. I of the text — the preliminary matter is made up of the title, plus sig.“a'' in four. Although Parts I. and II. are separately paged, the signatures of the volume form a continuous series, Part II. beginning with “Aa."
Harrisse's Notes (no. 68), and the Lenox Catalogue (p. 5) describe what is called a second issue. The title-page of the example in the Lenox Library is an entire reset; it reads line-for-line like H. 67, down to the ornament; in the place of the one reproduced in our facsimile, H. 68 presents “the monogram of Christ, surrounded by rays of light." The remainder of the title of the second issue is as follows:
A ROVEN, | Chez IEAN LE BOVLENGER. | Et se vendent à Paris, Chez PIERRE DE BRESCHE, ruë S. Estienne | des Grecs à l'Image Sainct Iofeph. | M. DC. XXXVIII. | AVEC PRIVILEGE DV ROY. |
Harrisse declares that the differences in title-page, between H. 67 and H. 68, are the only ones discoverable. The errors in pagination, both in Table and text, are identical; but we have discovered
, two typographical differences, in Part I., which are slight, but interesting: On p. 300, line 21, the word tra cts, in H. 67, appears with the “i” dropped out, while in H. 68 the defect is remedied to read traicts; on p. 304, last line, the longt-emps of H. 67 becomes long-temps in H. 68. Possibly other changes might be found, upon a line-for-line comparison. Harrisse (no. 67) has omitted to indicate the parallel linedivisions between the seventh and eighth lines, after the word “ Provincial." In no. 68 he has made a similar omission in the imprint, between the second and third lines, after “ Bovlenger.”
Apparently, the Rouen printer and dealer worked off a special edition for sale in Paris, with a fresh title-page giving the name of the dealer in the latter city -- the home edition being H. 67, and the Paris edition H. 68. That the Rouen edition was the first, is evident from the typographical corrections above noted. Further, in the Rouen example in Lenox, there are numerous “ bites" of the frisket, in printing; in the Paris example, in the same library, the impressions are all clear, showing that the frisket had by that time been adjusted.
A note in Lenox Catalogue, after the description of H. 68, says: “In the Bib. du Roi at Paris there was a copy having folio i of first part double. The title to Chap. i. was mil six cens trente sept - in the other trente six the latter no doubt a mistake and intended to be cancelled."
Copies of this Relation are to be found in the Brown (H. 67), Lenox (both issues), Laval University at Quebec (both issues), and Harvard College (H. 67) libraries, and (H. 67) in the British Museum. Copies of the first issue (Rouen) have been sold or priced as follows: O’Callaghan (1882), no. 1216, brought $20, and had cost him $33.75 in gold; Harrassowitz (1882), no. 24, priced at 150 marks; Barlow (1889), no. 1277, sold for $22.50; Dufossé (1892), priced at 300 francs. Copies of the second issue (Rouen et Paris) have been priced as follows: Leclerc (1878), no. 779, 200 francs; Dufossé (1891 and 1893), 225 and 300 francs.
NOTES TO VOL. XI
(Figures in parentheses, following number of note, refer to pages
of English text.)
i (p. 7).— The grain that some call Turkish: Indian corn, or maize (Zea mays, Linn.),- also known at that time as “Turkey wheat” or “Turkey corn (from a vague notion that originated in Turkey), and "Indian wheat" (blé d'Inde). The word "maize" is a form of the original Haytian name, mahis or mahiz. The early explorers found this grain under cultivation by the American aborigines, from Canada to Chile; and the Spaniards, soon after the discovery of America, introduced maize into Europe, whence it rapidly spread over the civilized world. There was long a controversy among scientific men over the question whether maize was of American or of Oriental origin: the former theory was advocated notably by Humboldt and De Candolle, and appears most probable.
Cartier describes the culture and use of this corn by the natives of Hochelaga, in his Brief Récit (Tross ed., 1863), fol. 23, " 24. Champlain saw it everywhere along the North Atlantic coast;" he is “the first who has left a record of its cultivation in New England, and of its preservation through the winter.” He also noticed that the Indians made successive plantings thereof.— See his Voyages (Prince Soc.), vol. ii., pp. 64–66, 82, 121, 122. Cf. Smith's Generall Historie of Virginia (London, 1629; reprint, Richmond, Va., 1891), vol. i., p. 126.
On the preparation and use of maize as food, see vol. v. of this series, note 28; Champlain (ut supra), vol. ii., p. 123, and vol. iii.. pp. 162–164; Smith's Virginia (ut supra), vol. i., p. 127; and Charlevoix's Journ. Hist., pp. 331 - 333. It is estimated that'a larger part of the human race is nourished by this grain than by any other except rice.
Columbus and Oviedo mention that the aborigines of the New World made from maize an intoxicating liquor, called chicha, which was also observed by Pickering in use in Peru (Chron. Hist. of Plants, pp. 610, 859). For further information regarding maize, see Salisbury's History and Chemical Investigation of Maize (Albany, 1849); Lundy's “Zea Maize,” in Phila. Numis. and Antig, Soc. Proc., 25th anniv. (Phila., 1883), pp. 15-22; Carr's Food of Amer. Inds., and Mounds of Miss. Valley.
2 (p. 17).-Attignenong hac: see vol. viii., note 23.
3 (p. 49).— The Knights Hospitallers of St. John (also called Knights of Rhodes, and Knights of Malta), a religious and military order, had its origin in the hospitals founded at Jerusalem (1048), by certain Italians, for the benefit of pilgrims thither; these hospitals were served by a confraternity, under one Gerard. After the capture of Jerusalem by the Crusaders, the Hospital brothers were joined by several Knights, one of whom, Raymond du Puy, became the head of the order upon Gerard's death (1118.) To their former duties of hospitality and the care of the sick was now added that of knighthood, in opposition to infidels - which latter soon predominated in the work of the order. Its constitutions, based on the Augustinian rule, were approved by Pope Calixtus II. (1120). During four centuries, this order won great renown and power from its brilliant achievements in the long and bloody struggle between the Christians and Saracens. The island of Rhodes was the headquarters of the Hospitallers, from 1310 until 1522, when they were defeated, after a long siege, and driven from the island.
The emperor Charles V. having given them the island of Malta, they established themselves here, rendering Malta one of the strongest fortified places in the world. They held this island until 1798, when it was captured by Bonaparte; since then, the order has had but a nominal existence, its seat having been at Rome since 1834.— See McClintock and Strong's Cyclop. of Bibl. Lit., vol. ix., pp. 246, 247.
4 (p. 49). — This seminary for Indian girls was founded by Madame de la Peltrie. Born at Alençon (1603), of a noble Norman family, Marie Madeleine de Chauvigny married a gentleman named De la Peltrie, but was left a childless widow at the age of twentytwo. Deeply religious and enthusiastic in temperament, she had, in early girlhood, desired to enter a convent; but the opposition of her family prevented such action. After the death of her husband, she engaged in works of piety and benevolence. Upon reading, in Le Jeune's Relation of 1635, his appeal for help in educating Indian girls, she determined to devote herself and her fortune to this cause,- making, during a severe illness, a vow to that effect. Commanded by her father to marry again, under pain of disinheritance, she contracted a nominal marriage with M. de Bernières-Louvigny, royal treasurer at Caen - a gentleman of wealth and great piety. Her father dying soon afterwards, she fulfilled her vow by sailing to Canada (May, 1639) with three Ursuline nuns, with whom she founded a convent of that order in Quebec. There they maintained a school for girls, in which they received both French and Indian children. Mother Marie of the Incarnation was superior of the convent, from its foundation until her death in 1672. Lands were as